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Full text of "International law documents, neutrality, breaking of diplomatic relations, war, with notes 1917"

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NAVAL WAR COLLEGE 



INTERNATIONAL LAW 
DOCUMENTS 



NEUTRALITY 
BREAKING OF DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS 

WAR 

WITH NOTES 



1917 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1918 



PREFACE. 



As in 1915 and in 1916 so in 1917 it is not possible to 
offer final opinions in matters relating to the conduct of 
the war which has been going on since July, 1914. 

On April 6, 1917, the United States declared war 
against Germany and on December 7, 1917, declared war 
against Austria-Hungary. 

The discussions upon international law at the Naval 
War College during 1917, conducted by George Grafton 
Wilson, LL. D., professor of international law in Har- 
vard University, have given special attention to the 
breaking of diplomatic relations and to the outbreak 
of war. Prof. Wilson desires to acknowledge valued 
cooperation of others in gathering and translating some 
of the documents. 

Official and other documents relating' particularly to 
the events leading up to hostilities and to declarations of 
war have been under consideration. The documents in 
this volume are among those discussed. Many of these 
documents are translated from foreign languages. In 
such cases the language of issue of the documents is 
usually the only official text. While some of these docu- 
ments are easily accessible, they are usually scattered; 
others have been published locally and have not yet ap- 
peared in any collection. The arrangement is, in gen- 
eral, chronological under the name of the State issuing 
the document. Since some of the documents relate to 
several subjects, the index has been made unusually com- 
plete in order that the volume may be easily serviceable. 

As in previous years, the Naval War College desires to 
receive such questions as officers may deem worthy of con- 
sideration, and for such questions the documents herewith 
published may furnish many suggestions. 

J. P. Parker, 
Acting President, Naval War College. 

December 26, 1917. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Declarations of war, July 28, 1914, to December 31, 19.17 15 

Breaking of diplomatic relations, July 26, 1914, to December 31, 

1917 16 

Arabia: 

Proclamation of independence of Hedjaz, June 27, 1916 17 

Proclamation of Bagdad, March 19, 1917 '20' 

Argentine Republic: 

General order, sojourn, August 6, 1914 22 

General order, sojourn, August 17, 1914 23 

Circular, telegraphy and radiotelegraphy, August 18, 1914. . 24 

General order, radiotelegraphy, August 19, 1914 25 

General order, radiotelegraphy, October 2, 1914 25 

General order, coaling of merchant vessels, October 14, 1914. 25 

Circular, radiotelegraphy, November 5, 1914 26 

General order, radiotelegraphy, November 18 , 1914 . . 27 

General order, radiotelegraphy, December 8, 1914 27 

Circular, radiotelegraphy, December 9, 1914 29 

General order, sojourn, December 26, 1914 29 

General order, transfer of flag, December 26, 1914 30 

General order, internment, January 18, 1915 - - 30 

General order, internment, January 22, 1915. 31 

General order, internment, February 26, 1915 31 

General order, neutrality declaration, August 27, 1915 32 

General order, radiotelegraphy, September 9, 1915 33 

Decree, radiotelegraphy, September 9, 1915 34 

General order, radiotelegraphy, November 8, 1915 36 

General order, coaling of merchant vessels, March 28, 1917.. 36 

Note stating attitude toward war, April 11, 1917 37 

Note dismissing German minister, September 12, 1917 37 

Passport to German minister, September 12, 1917 37 

Note to German Government, September 13, 1917 38 

Austria-H ungar y : 

Ultimatum to Serbia, July 22, 1914 38 

Note, commenting on Serbian reply, July 27, 1914 42 

Notification of breaking diplomatic relations with Serbia, 

July 25, 1914 49 

Declaration of war against Serbia, July 28, 1914 49 

Notification of declaration of war against Serbia, July 28, 

1914 49 

Declaration of war against Russia, August 6, 1914 50 

5 



6 

Austria-Hungary — Continued. Page. 

Declaration of war against Belgium, August 22, 1914. 51 

Instructions in regard to Japan, August 24, 1914 51 

Note breaking diplomatic relations with United States, 

April 8, 1917 52 

Notification, blockade of Montenegro, August 10, 1914 53 

Belgium: 

Protest against proposed German violation of neutrality, 

August 3, 1914 53 

Note breaking diplomatic relations with Germany, August 

4, 1914. : 54 

Notification to guaranteeing powers of, violation of neutral- 
ity, August 4, 1914 - - : 54 

General notification of violation of neutrality, August 5, 1914 55 

Notes relating to neutrality of Congo, August 7, 1914 56 

Notification of departure of Belgium minister from Luxem- 
burg, August 10, 1914 57 

Note replying to Austrian declaration of war, August 29, 1914 58 
Note breaking diplomatic relations with Turkey, November 

6, 1914 59 

Bolivia: 

Presidential message relating to neutrality, 1915 59 

Report of minister .of foreign affairs, 1916 60 

Note breaking diplomatic relations with Germany, April 14, 

1917 . ,< 60 

Brazil: 

Decree of neutrality, August 4, 1914 61 

Decree, discharge of merchandise, August 24, 1914 62 

Decree, amending neutrality regulations, October 14, 1914. . 62 

Decree, taking over of national vessels, December 9, 1915. . 63 
Notification of breaking diplomatic relations with Germany, 

April 11, 1917 64 

Note, revocation of neutrality, June 4, 1917 64 

Declaration of war against Germany, October 26, 1917 65 

Bulgaria: 

Declaration of neutrality, July 29, 1914 66 

Notification of hostilities with Serbia, October 12, 1915. . . 66 

Notification of war with Serbia, October 14, 1915 66 

Declaration of war against Roumania, September 1, 1916. . 67 

Proclamation of war against Roumania, September 1, 1916 . . 68 

Announcement of mining of coast, October 15, 1915 69 

Chile: 

Decree, sojourn, September 30, 1915 69 

China: 

Presidential mandate breaking diplomatic relations with 

Germany, March 14, 1917 70 



China — Continued. Page, 

Note breaking diplomatic relations with Germany, March 14, 
1917..... 71 

Presidential mandate declaring war on Germany and 

Austria-Hungary, August 14, 1917 71 

Declaration of war against Germany, August 14, 1917 73 

Declaration of war against Austria-Hungary, August 14, 

1917 74 

Notification of declaration of war against Germany and 

Austria-Hungary, August 14, 1917 75 

Notification to the United States of declaration of war 
against Germany and Austria-Hungary, August 14, 1917. 76 
Congo. (See Belgium, Great Britain.) 
Costa Rico: 

Note stating attitude toward war, April 12, 1917 77 

Cuba: 

Declaration of war against Germany, April 7, 1917 77 

Denmark (see also Norway): 

Proclamation, neutrality, August 1, 1914 78 

Law, protection of neutral territory, August 2, 1914 79 

Law, protection of neutral territory, August 2, 1914 80 

Law, supervision of foreigners, August 2, 1914 80 

Law, compulsory pilotage, August 2, 1914 80 

Notification, service on belligerent vessels, August 11, 1914. 82 
Law, penalties for violations of neutrality, September 9, 1914 . 82 
Law, penalties for false declaration of destination, October 

29, 1914 82 

Notification, use of foreign flag, April 10, 1915 83 

Law, registration of vessels, May 7, 1915 ' 83 

Law, penalties for unneutral utterances, June 17, 1915 84 

Notification, sale of vessels, October 6, 1915 84 

Law, penalties for false declaration of destination, April 5, 

1916 , 85 

Dominican Republic: 

Decree, clearance of merchant vessels, November 25, 1914.. 85 

Decree, clearance of merchant vessels, January 5, 1915 86 

France : 

War declarations — 

Notification of war with Germany, August 4, 1914 86 

Note relating to breaking of diplomatic relations with 

Austria-Hungary, August 10, 1914 87 

Notification of declaration of war against Austria-Hun- 
gary, August 13, 1914 88 

Notice of declaration by Triple Entente, September 4, 

1914 89 

Declaration, war with Turkey, November 5, 1914 90 

Declaration of war against Bulgaria, October 16, 1915. . 91 



8 

France — Continued. Page. 
Blockades and commercial restrictions. 

Notification, blockade of Cameroons, April 23, 1915... 91 
Notification, restriction of Cameroons blockade, Janu- 
ary 10, 1916 91 

Notification, raising of Cameroons blockade, March 1, 

1916 92 

Notification, blockade of Asia Minor, June 2, 1915 92 

Notification, blockade of Asia Minor and Syria, Au- 
gust 25, 1915 92 

Notification, blockade of Bulgaria, October 16", 1915... 92 

Notification, blockade of Cavalla, September 16, 1916. 93 

Notification, blockade of Greece, December 8, 1916. . . 93 
Decree, retaliatory measures against German trade, 

March 13, 1915 94 

Miscellaneous war measures — 

Notification of mined area, October 6, 1914 97 

Memorandum, sojourn of belligerent submarines in 

neutral waters, August 21, 1916 98 

Germany: 

War ultimata and declarations — 

Ultimatum to Russia, July 31, 1914 100 

Declaration of war against Russia, August 1, 1914 100 

Note, military measures in Luxemburg, August 2, 1914. 101 

Ultimatum to Belgium, August 2, 1914 101 

Declaration, use of force in Belgium, August 4, 1914. . 102 

Ultimatum to France, July 31, 1914 103 

Declaration of war against France, August 3, 1914 103 

Note breaking diplomatic relations with Japan, August 

23, 1914 104 

Declaration of war against Portugal, March 9, 1916 104 

Notice of declaration of war against Roumania, August 

28, 1916 106 

Mined areas — 

Statement in reference to mine-laying, August 7, 1914. 106 

Note relating to mined areas, November 14, 1914 106 

Notification of mined areas, April 8, 1917 , 107 

War zones — 

Proclamation of war zone, February 4, 1915 107 

Memorial relating to war zone, February 4, 1915 ...... 108 

Notice, traveling through war zone, April 22, 1915. . . . 110 

Declaration of war zone, January 31, 1917 110 

Memorandum relating to war zone, January 31, 1917 . . . Ill 

Note relating to war zone declaration, January 31, 1917. 112 

Notification of extension of war zone, March 23, 1917. . 115 

Proclamation of war zone, November 22, 1917 115 

Great Britain : 

War ultimata and declarations — 

Ultimatum to Germany, August 4, 1914 116 

Proclamation of war against Germany, August 4, 1914. . 117 



9 

Great Britain — Continued. 

War ultimata and declarations — Continued. Page. 

Declaration of war against Austria-Hungary, August 12, 

1914 117 

Note relating to neutrality of Congo, August 17, 1914. . . 118 

Notification of war with Turkey, November 4, 1914 118 

Proclamation of war with Turkey, November 5, 1914... 119 
Proclamation of breaking diplomatic relations with 

Bulgaria, October 13, 1915 119 

Proclamation of war with Bulgaria, October 16, 1915. . 119 
Mined areas — 

Memorandum reserving right to lay mine fields, August 

11,1914 120 

Memorandum, navigation through enemy mine fields, 

August 14, 1914 120 

Memorandum, enemy mine fields, August 30, 1914 120 

Memorandum, enemy mine fields, August 23, 1914 121 

Notification of mined area, October 2, 1914 122 

Announcement of mine-laying, November 3, 1914 126 

Directions for navigation in mined. areas, November 30, 

1914 127 

Directions for navigation in mined areas, May 15, 1915. 130 

Notification of mined areas, January 25, 1,917 133 

Notification of mined areas, February 13, 1917 133 

Notification of mined areas, March 21, 1917. . 134 

Notification of extension of mined area, April 27, 1917. 134 
Blockades and commercial restrictions — 

Notification, blockade of German East Africa, February 

23, 1915 135 

Notification, blockade of Cameroons, April 24, 1915 135 

Notification, restriction of Cameroons blockade, Janu- 
ary 11, 1916 135 

Notification, raising of Cameroons blockade, February 

29, 1916 136 

Notification, blockade of Asia Minor, June 1, 1915 136 

Notification, blockade of Bulgaria, October 16, 1915.. 136 
Notification, extension of blockade of Aegean, Septem- 
ber 20, 1916 136 

Declaration of retaliatory measures against German 

trade, March 1, 1915 137 

Order in council, retaliatory measures against German 

. trade, March 11, 1915 138 

Order in council, retaliatory measures against German 

trade, January 10, 1917 141 

Order in council, retaliatory measures against German 

trade, February 16, 1917 142 

Miscellaneous war measures — 

Convention with France relating to prizes, November 9, 

1914 143 



10 

Great Britain — Continued. 

Miscellaneous war measures — Continued. p a ge. 

Instructions for the conduct of armed merchantmen, 

October 20, 1915 153 

Order in council, requisition of prizes, March 23, 1915.. 155 
Act of Parliament permitting blacklisting, December 

23, 1915 158 

Greece: 

Declaration of war against Germany and Bulgaria by Greek 

provisional government, November 24, 1916 159 

Note breaking diplomatic relations with Germany and Aus- 
tria-Hungary, June 30, 1917 161 

Guatemala: 

Notification of breaking diplomatic relations with Germany, 

April 28, 1917 162 

Haiti : 

Regulations, neutrality, October 3, 1914 162 

Italy: 

War declarations — 

Declaration of war against Austria-Hungary, May 23, 

1915 ' 163 

Notification of war with Austria-Hungary, May 23, 1915. 164 
Notification of war with Turkey, August 21, 1915. . ... . . 169 

Notification, war with Bulgaria, October 19, 1915 171 

Notification of war with Germany, August 28, 1916. . . . 171 
Blockades and navigation restrictions- 
Notification, blockade of Austria-Hungary and Alba- 
nia, May 26, 1915 172 

Notification, blockade of Albania, May 30, 1915...... 173 

Notification, navigation of Straits of Messina, May 30, 

1915 174 

Notification, blockade of the Adriatic, July 6, 1915. . . .174 
Japan: 

Ultimatum to Germany, August 15, 1914. 175 

Proclamation of war with Germany, August 23, 1914 176 

Notification, blockade of Kiao-Chou, August 27, 1914 177 

Notification, raising of blockade of Tsing-Tao, November 

10, 1914. 177 

Liberia: 

Proclamation, neutrality, August 10, 1914 177 

Proclamation, trade regulation, June 20, 1916 179 

Note breaking diplomatic relations with Germany, May 5, 

1917 180 

Luxemburg: 

Notification of violation of neutrality by Germany, August 

2,1914 182 

Mexico: 

Declaration, neutrality, March 17, 1917 182 



11 

Montenegro: Page. 
Notice of declaration of war against Austria-Hungary, Au- 
gust 7, 1914 182 

Notice of breaking diplomatic relations with Germany, 

August 9, 1914.. 183 

Netherlands: 

Declaration, neutrality, April 17, 1917 183 

Norway: 

Joint declaration with Sweden and Denmark, neutrality, 

December 21, 1912 183 

Regulations, neutrality, December 18, 1912 184 

Regulations, admission of foreign war vessels, January 20, 

1913 187 

Proclamation, neutrality, August 1, 1914 189 

Proclamation, neutrality, August 4, 19-14 189 

Joint communique with Sweden concerning maintenance of 

neutrality, August 8, 1914 , 189 

Law, defense secrets, August 18, 1914 189 

Resolution, telegraphic communication, September 18, 1914. 191 

Resolution, defense secrets, November 6, 1914 192 

Law, control of postal and telegraphic communication, 

June 24, 1915 , 193 

Notification, surveillance of vessels, October 1, 1915 193 

Resolution, interned war vessels, June 30, 1916. 194 

Resolution, belligerent submarines, October 13, 1916 194 

Ordinance, belligerent submarines, January 30, 1917 195 

Panama: 

Instructions, neutrality, October 24, 1914.' 195 

Proclamation, cooperation with United States in war with 

Germany, April 7, 1917 196 

Declaration of war against Austria-Hungary, December 10, 

1917 196 

Peru : 

Proclamation of attitude toward war, July 28, 1917 197 

Notification of breaking diplomatic relations with Ger- 
many, October 12, 1917 198 

Portugal : 

Law authorizing military intervention, November 24, 1914. 199 
Decree, requisition of cargoes of enemy vessels, "April 20, 

1916 200 

Decree, contraband, August 14, 1916 202 

Roumania : 

Declaration of war against Austria-Hungary, August 27, 1916 . 203 
Russia: 

Note relating to declaration of war by Germany, August 2, 

1914 206 

Note breaking diplomatic relations with Turkey, October 

29, 1914 1 207 



12 

Russia — Continued. - Page. 

Notification of breaking diplomatic relations with Turkey, 

November 2, 1914 207 

Note, war with Turkey, November 3, 1914 208 

Ultimatum to Bulgaria, October 3, 1915 208 

Notification of breaking diplomatic relations with Bulgaria, 

October 7, 1915 209 

Proclamation of war against Bulgaria, October 19, 1915. . . . 209 

Notification of mined areas, November 5, 1914 210 

Salvador : 

Attitude toward war, October 6, 1917 210 

Serbia. (See also Austria-Hungary.) 

Notification of Austro-Hungarian breaking of diplomatic 

relations, July 25, 1914 210 

Note, breaking diplomatic relations with Germany, August 

6, 1914. 211 

Notice of breaking diplomatic relations with Bulgaria, 

October 8, 1916 211 

Notification, war with Bulgaria, October 16, 1916. 212 

Siam: 

Declaration of war against Germany and Austria-Hungary, 

July 22, 1917. 212 

Spain : 

Exposition of decree, submarines, June 29, 1917 212 

Decree, submarines, June 29, 1917 214 

Sweden. (See also Norway.) 

Decree, mined areas, July 14, 1916 215 

Decree, submarines, July 19, 1916 215 

Switzerland : 

Declaration of neutrality, December 12, 1917 216 

Turkey : 

Notification, neutrality, August 18, 1914 217 

Regulations, neutrality, September 28, 1914 217 

Proclamation of war against entente powers, November 14, 

1914 219 

Proclamation of a holy war, November 15, 1914 220 

Circular, hostilities in Egypt and the Suez Canal, May, 

1915 221 

Notification, war against Roumania, August 31, 1916 222. 

United States: 

Breaking diplomatic relations and war declarations — 

Note breaking diplomatic relations with Germany, Feb- 
ruary 3, 1917 222 

Notification of breaking diplomatic relations with Ger- 
many, February 4, 1917 224 

Notification of arming merchant vessels, March 12, 1917 . 225 

Declaration of war against Germany, April 6, 1917 225 

Proclamation of war with Germany, April 6, 1917 226 



13 

United States — Continued. 

Breaking diplomatic relations and war declarations — Con. page. 
Notification of breaking diplomatic relations with 

Turkey, April 24, 1917 229 

Declaration of war against Austria-Hungary, December 

7, 1917 230 

Proclamation of war with Austria-Hungary, December 

11, 1917 230 

Memorandum in reference to the neutrality of Switzer- 
land, December 3, 1917 233 

Defensive sea areas — 

Executive order, defensive sea areas, April 5, 1917 233 

Regulations, defensive sea areas, April 5, 1917 237 

Executive order, defensive sea areas, April 14, 1917 240 

Executive order, defensive sea area in Panama Canal 

August 27, 1917 241 

Protection of Panama Canal — 

Regulations for protection of Panama Canal, May 23, 

1917 . 243 

Requisition of enemy vessels — 

Executive order, May 22, 1917 246 

Executive order, May 22, 1917 246 

' Executive order, June 30, 1917 246 

Executive order, July 3, 1917 ' 248 

Uruguay: 

Decree, modification of neutrality regulations in case of war 

by American country, June 18, 1917 249 

Decree, breaking diplomatic relations with Germany, Octo- 
ber 7, 1917 250 

Venezuela : 

Official statement of neutrality, May 27, ] 917 250 



INTERNATIONAL LAW DOCUMENTS. 



DECLARATIONS OF WAR. 1 

LOfflcial Bulletin No. 196, p. 7.] 

Austria against Belgium, August 28, 1914 (p. 51). 

Austria against Japan, August 27, 1914. (Hostilities authorized 
Aug. 24, 1914, see p. 51.) 

Austria against Montenegro, August 9, 1914. (Hostilities com- 
menced Aug. 8, 1914, see p. 183. ) 

Austria against Russia, August 6, 1914 (p. 50). 

Austria against Serbia, July 28, 1914 (p. 49). 

Brazil against Germany, October 26, 1917 (p. 65). 

Bulgaria against Serbia, October 14, 1915. (Hostilities began 
Oct. 11, 1915, see p. 66.) 

China against Austria, August 14, 1917 (p. 74). 

China against Germany, August 14, 1917 (p. 73). 

Cuba against Germany, April 7, 1917 (p. 77). 

France against Austria, August 13, 1914. (Midnight, Aug. 12- 
13, 1914, see p. 88.) 

France against Bulgaria, October 16, 1915 (p. 91). 

France against Germany, August 3, 1914 (p. 86). 

France against Turkey, November 5, 1914. (Hostilities began 
Oct. 29, 1914, see p. 90.) 

Germany against Belgium, August 4, 1914 (p. 102). 

Germany against France, August 3, 1914 (p. 103). 

Germany against Portugal, March 9, 1916 (p. 104). 

Germany against Roumania, September 14, 1916. (The decla- 
ration is dated Aug. 28, 1916, see p. 106.) 

Germany against Russia, August 1, 1914 (p. 100). 

Great Britain against Austria, August 13, 1914. (Midnight, 
Aug. 12-13, 1914, see p. 117.) 

Great Britain against Bulgaria, October 15, 1915 (p. 119). 

Great Britain against Germany, August 4, 1914 (p. 115). 

Great Britain against Turkey, November 5, 1914 (p. 119), 

Greece against Bulgaria, November 28, 1916 (provisional gov- 
ernment). (The declaration is dated Nov. 24, 1916, see p. 159.) 

Greece against Bulgaria, July 2, 1917 (Government of Alex- 
ander). (It was announced that the Government considered that 
it had assumed the declaration of the provisional government, 
see p. 161.) 



1 This list appears to have omitted a declaration by Bulgaria against 
Roumania, Sept. 1, 1916 (p. 67). Since its publication war has been de- 
clared upon Germany by Costa Rica, May 24, 1918 (p. 77) ; Guatemala, 
Apr. 22, 1918 (p. 162) ; and Nicaragua, May 7, 1918 (p. 77). 

15 



10 Declarations of War. 

Greece against Germany, November 28, 1916 (provisional gov- 
ernment). (See Greece against Bulgaria, supra.) 

Greece against Germany, July 2, 1917 (Government of Alex- 
ander). (See Greece against Bulgaria, supra.) 

Italy against Austria, May 24, 1915 (p. 163). 

Italy against Bulgaria, October.19, 1915 (p. 171). 

Italy against Germany, August 28, 1916 (p. 171). 

Italy against Turkey, August 21, 1915 (p. 169). 

Japan against Germany, August 23, 1914 (p. 176). 

Liberia against Germany, August 4, 1917 (p. 180). 

Montenegro against Austria, August 8, 1914. (The declaration 
appears to have been made on August 7, 1914, see p. 182. ) 

Montenegro against Germany, August 9, 1914 (p. 183). 

Panama against Austria, December 10, 1917 (p. 196). 

Panama against Germany, April 7, 1917 (p. 196). 

Portugal against Germany, November 23, 1914 (resolution passed 
authorizing military intervention as ally of England). (The law 
is dated November 24, 1914, see p. 199.) 

Portugal against Germany, May 19, 1915 (military aid granted). 

Roumania against Austria, August 27, 1916 (allies of Austria 
also consider it a declaration) (p. 203). 

Russia against Bulgaria, October 19, 1915 (p. 209). 

Russia against Turkey, November 3, 1914 (p. 208). 
. San Marino against Austria, May 24, 1915. (Elsewhere reported 
as June 3, 1915, see p. 163.) 

Serbia against Bulgaria, October 16, 1915. (The declaration 
dates from October 14, 1915, see p. 212.) 

Serbia against Germany, August 6, 1914 (p. 211). 

Serbia against Turkey, December 2, 1914. (Treaties declared 
terminated from Dec. 1, 1914, see p. 220.) 

Siam against Austria, July 22, 1917 (p. 212.) 

Siam against Germany, July 22, 1917 (p. 212). 

Turkey against allies, November 23, 1914. (The declaration is 
dated November 14, 1916, see p. 219.) 

Turkey against Roumania, August 29, 1916. (The declaration 
was delivered August 31, 1916, see p. 222.) 

United States against Austria, December 7, 1917 (p. 230). 

United States against Germany, April 6, 1917 (p. 225). 

BREAKING OF DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS. 

[Official Bulletin No. 196, p. 7.] 

• Austria against Japan, August 26, 1914. (The note is dated 
August 24, 1914, see p. 51.) 

Austria against Portugal, March 16, 1916. 

Austria against Serbia, July 26, 1914. (The note is dated July 
25, 1914, see p. 49.) 

Austria against United States, April 8, 1917 (p. 52). 



Breaking Diplomatic Relations. 17 

Bolivia against Germany, April 14, 1917 (p. 60). 

Brazil against Germany, April 11, 1917 (p. 64). 

China against Germany, March 14, 1917 (p. 71). 

Costa Rica against Germany, September 21, 1917. 

Ecuador against Germany, December 17, 1917. 

Egypt against Germany, August 13, 1914. 

France against Austria, August 10, 1914 (p. 87). 

Greece against Turkey, July 2, 1917 (Government of Alexander). 

Greece against Austria, July 2, 1917 (Government of Alexan- 
der). (The note is dated June 30, 1917, see p. 161.) 

Guatemala against Germany, April 27, 1917. (The notification 
is dated Apr. 28, 1917, see p. 162. ) 

Haiti against Germany, June 17, 1917. 

Honduras against Germany, May 17, 1917. 

Nicaragua against Germany, May 18, 1917. 

Peru against Germany, October 6, 1917 (p. 198). 

Turkey against United States, April 20, 1917. 

United States against Germany, February 3, 1917 (p. 222). 

Uruguay against Germany, October 7, 1917 (p. 250). 



ARABIA. 

Proclamation of the Sherif of Mecca, June 27, 1916. 

In the name of God, the merciful, the compassionate. 
-This is our general circular to all our brother Moslems. 

("O Lord, do thou judge between us and our nation with truth; 
for Thou art the best Judge.") 

It is well known that of all the Moslem rulers and emirs, the 
emirs of Mecca, the favored city, were the first to recognize the 
Turkish Government. This they did in order to unite Moslem 
opinion and firmly establish their community, knowing that the 
great Ottoman Sultans ( may the dust of their tombs be blessed and 
may paradise be their abode) were acting in accordance with the 
Book of God and the Sunna of his Prophet (prayers be unto him) 
and were zealous to enforce the ordinances of both these authori- 
ties. With this noble end in view, the emirs before mentioned 
observe those ordinances unceasingly. I myself, protecting the 
honor of the State, caused Arabs to rise against their fellow Arabs 
in the year 1327 in order to raise the siege of Abha, and in the 
following year a similar movement was carried out under the 
leadership of one of my sons, as is well known. The emirs con- 
tinued to support the Ottoman State until the Society of Union 
and Progress appeared in the State and proceeded to take over the 
43760—18 2 



18 Proclamation of She? r if of Mecca. 

administration thereof and all its affairs, with the result that the 
State suffered a loss of territory which quite destroyed its prestige, 
as the whole world knows, was plunged into the horrors of war 
and brought to its present perilous position, as is patent to all. 
This was all done for certain well-known ends, which our feelings 
forbid to dilate upon. They caused Moslem hearts to ache with 
grief for the Empire of Islam, for the destruction of the remaining 
inhabitants of her Provinces — Moslem as well as non-Moslem — 
some of them hanged or otherwise done to death, others driven 
into exile. Add to this the losses they have sustained through the 
war in their persons and property, the latter especially in the 
Holy Land, as is briefly demonstrated by the fact that in that 
quarter the general stress compelled even the middle classes to 
sell the doors of their houses, their cupboards, and the wood from 
their ceilings, after selling all their belongings to keep life in their 
bodies. All this evidently did not fulfill the designs of the Society 
of Union and Progress. They proceeded next to sever the essen- 
tial bond between the Ottoman sultanate and the whole Moslem 
community, to wit, adherence to the Koran and the Sunna. One 
of the Constantinople newspapers, called Al-Ijtihad, actually pub- 
lished an article maligning (God forgive us) the life of the prophet 
(on whom be the prayer and peace of God), and this under the 
eye of the grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire and its Sheikh of 
Islam, and all the Ulema, ministers, and nobles. It adds to 
this impiety by denying the word of God, " The male shall receive 
two portions," and decides that they shall share equally under the 
law of inheritance. Then it proceeds to the crowning atrocity of 
destroying one of the five vital precepts of Islam, the fast of 
Ramadan, ordering that the troops stationed at Medina, Mecca, 
or Damascus may break the fast in the same way as troops fight- 
ing on the Russian frontier, thereby falsifying the clear Koranic 
injunction, " Those of you who are sick or on a journey." It 
has put forth other innovations touching the fundamental laws 
of Islam (of which the penalties for infringement are well known) 
after destroying the Sultan's power, robbing him even of the right 
to choose, the chief of his imperial cabinet or the private minister 
of his august person, and breaking the constitution of the Caliphate 
of which Moslems demand the observance. 

In spite of all we have accepted these innovations in order to 
give no cause for dissension and schism. But at last the veil was 
removed and it became apparent that the Empire was in the hands 
of Enver Pasha, Temal Pasha, and Talaat Bey, who were adminis- 
tering it just as they liked and treating it according to their own 
sweet will. The most striking proof of this is the notice lately 
sent to the Kadi of the tribunal at Mecca, to the effect that he 
must deliver judgment solely on evidence written down in his 
presence in court and must not consider any evidence written down 
bv Moslems among themselves, thus ignoring the verse in the 



Proclamation of Sherif of Mecca. 19 

Surat-al-Baqara. Another proof is that they caused to be hanged 
at one time 21 eminent and cultured Moslems and Arabs of dis- 
tinction, in addition to those they had previously put to death — 
the Emir Omar el-Jazairi, the Emir Arif esh-Shihabi, Shefik Bey 
el-Moayyad, Shukri Bey el-Asali, Abd el-Wahab, Taufik Bey el- 
Baset, Abd el-Hamid el-Zahrawi, Abd el-Ghani el-Arisi, and their 
companions, who are well-known men. Cruel-hearted men could 
not easily bring themselves to destroy so many lives at one blow, 
even if they were % as beasts of the field. We might hear their 
excuse and grant them pardon for killing those worthy men, but 
how can we excuse them for banishing under such pitiful and 
heart-breaking circumstances the innocent families of their vic- 
tims — infants, delicate women and aged men — and inflicting on 
them other forms of suffering in addition to the agonies they had 
already endured in the death of those who were the support of their 
homes ? . 

God says, " No burdened soul shall bear the burden of another." 
Even if we could let all this pass, how is it possible we can for- 
give them confiscating the property and money of those people 
after bereaving them of their dear ones ? Try to suppose we closed 
our eyes to this, also feeling that they might have some excuse on 
their side; could we ever forgive them desecrating the grave of 
that pious, zealous, and godly man the Sherif Abd el-Kadir el- 
Jazari el-Hasani? The above is a brief account of their doings, 
and we leave humanity at large and Moslems in particular to give 
their verdict. We have sufficient proof of how they regard the 
religion and the Arab people in the fact that they shelled the 
Ancient House, the Temple of the Divine Unity, of which it is 
said in the word of God, " Purify my House for those that pass 
round it," the Kibla of Mohammedans, the Kaaba of believers in 
the Unity, firing two shells at it from their big guns when the 
country rose to demand its independence. One fell about a yard 
and a half above the Black Stone and the other three yards from 
it. The covering of the Kaaba was set in a blaze. Thousands 
of Moslems rushed up with shouts of alarm and despair to extin- 
guish the flames. To reach the fire they were compelled to open 
the door of the building and climb on to the roof. The enemy fired 
a third shell at the Makam Ibrahim in addition to the projectiles 
and bullets aimed at the rest of the building. Every day three or 
four people in the building itself were killed, and at last it be- 
came difficult for the Moslems to approach the Kaaba at all. We 
leave the whole Mohammedan world from east to west to pass judg- 
ment on this contempt and profanation of the Sacred House. But 
we are determined not to leave our religious and national rights 
as a plaything in the hands of the Union and Progress Party. God 
(blessed and exalted be He) has vouchsafed the land an oppor- 
tunity to rise in revolt, has enabled her by His power and might to 



20 Proclamation of Bagdad. 

seize her independence and crown her efforts with prosperity and 
victory, even after she was crushed by the maladministration of 
the Turkish civil and military officials. She stands quite apart 
and distinct from countries that still groan under the yoke of the 
Union and Progress Government. She is independent in the fullest 
sense of the word, freed from the rule of strangers and purged of 
every foreign influence. Her principles are to defend the faith of 
Islam, to elevate the Moslem people, to found their conduct on 
holy law, to build up the code of justice on the same foundation in 
harmony with the principles of religion, to practice its ceremonies 
in accordance with modern progress, and make a genuine revolu- 
tion by sparing no pains in spreading education among all classes 
according to their station and their needs. 

This is the policy we have undertaken in order to fulfill our 
religious duty, trusting that all our brother Moslems in the east 
and west will pursue the same in fulfillment of their duty to us, and 
so strengthen the bands of the Islamic brotherhood. 

We raise our hands humbly to the Lord of Lords for the sake 
of the Prophet of the All-Bountiful King that we may be granted 
success and guidance in whatsoever is for the good of Islam and 
the Moslems. We rely upon Almighty God, who is our Sufficiency 
and the best Defender. 

The sherif and emir of Mecca, 

El Hussein ibn All 

25 Sha'ban 1334 (27th June, 1916). 

The Proclamation of Bagdad. 

Since the proclamation of the independence of Hedjaz, the great British 
advance in Mesopotamia has taken place, involving the recapture of Kut- 
el-Amara and the capture of Bagdad. After the occupation of this city, 
the capital of Mesopotamia, by British and Indian troops, Lieut. Gen. Sir 
Stanley Maude issued a proclamation to the inhabitants, the text whereof, 
which makes reference to the King of Hedjaz and other Arab rulers, is 
printed below : 

To the People of Bagdad Vilayet : 

1. In the name of my King, and in the name of the peoples over 
whom he rules, I address you as follows : 

2. Our military operations have as their object the defeat of the 
enemy, and the driving of him from these territories. In order to 
complete this task, I am charged, with absolute and supreme con- 
trol of all regions in which British troops operate ; but our armies 
do not come into your cities and lands as conquerors or enemies, 
but as liberators. 

3. Since the days of Halaka your city and your lands have been 
subject to the tyranny of strangers, your palaces have fallen into 
ruins, your gardens have sunk in desolation, and your, forefathers 
and yourselves have groaned in bondage. Your sons have been car- 
ried off- to wars not of your seeking, your wealth has been stripped 
from you by unjust men and squandered in distant places. 



Proclamation of Bagdad. 21 

4. Since the days of Midhat, the Turks have talked of reforms, 
yet do not the ruins and wastes of to-day testify the vanity of 
those promises? 

5. It is the wish not only of my King and his peoples, but it is 
also the wish of the great nations with whom he is in alliance, that 
you should prosper even as in the past, when your lands were fer- 
tile, when your ancestors gave to the world literature, science, and 
art, and when Bagdad city was one of the wonders of the world. 

6. Between your people and the dominions of my King there has 
been a close bond of interest. For 200 years have the merchants of 
Bagdad and Great Britain traded together in mutual profit and 
friendship. On the other hand, the Germans and Turks, who have 
despoiled you and yours, have for 20 years made Bagdad a center 
of power from which to assail the power of the British and the 
allies of the British in Persia and Arabia. Therefore the British 
Government can not remain indifferent as to what takes place in 
your country now or in the future, for in duty to the interests of 
the British people and their allies, the British Government can not 
risk that being done in Bagdad again which has been done by the 
Turks and Germans during the war. 

7. But you people of Bagdad, whose commercial prosperity and 
whose safety from oppression and invasion must ever be a mat- 
ter of the closest concern to the British Government, are not to 
understand that it is the wish of the British Government to impose 
upon you alien institutions. It is the hope of the British Govern- 
ment that the aspirations of your philosophers and writers shall 
be realised and that once again the People of Bagdad shall flourish, 
enjoying their wealth and substance under institutions which are 
in consonance with their sacred laws and their racial ideals. In 
Hedjaz the Arabs have expelled the Turks and Germans who op- 
pressed them and proclaimed the Sherif Hussein as their king, and 
his lordship rules in independence and freedom, and is the ally of 
the nations who are fighting against the power of Turkey and 
Germany ; so, indeed, are the noble Arabs, the Lords of Koweyt, 
Nejd, and Asir. 

8. Many noble Arabs have perished in the cause of Arab free- 
dom, at the hands of those alien rulers, the Turks, who oppressed 
them. It is the determination of the Government of Great Britain 
and the great powers allied to Great Britain that these noble Arabs 
shall not have suffered in vain. It is the hope and desire of the 
British people and the nations in alliance with them that the Arab 
race may rise once more to greatness and renown among the peoples 
of the earth, and that it shall bind itself together to this end in 
unity and concord. 

9. O people of Bagdad remember that for 26 generations you have 
suffered under strange tyrants who have ever endeavoured to set 
one Arab house against another in order that they might profit by 
your dissensions. This policy is abhorrent to Great Britain and 



22 Belligerent Vessels Order, Argentine. 

her allies, for there can be neither peace nor prosperity where there 
is enmity and misgovernment. Therefore I am commanded to in- 
vite you, through your nobles and elders and representatives, to 
participate in the management of your civil affairs in collaboration 
with the political representatives of Great Britain who accompany 
the British Army, so that you may be united with your kinsmen in 
north, east, south, and w r est in realising the aspirations of your 
race." 

March 19, 1917. 

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

General Orders No. 126, in reference to the sojourn and departure 
of belligerent vessels, August 6, 1914- 

Buenos Aiees, August 6, 191%. 
Navy Department : 

By virtue of the declaration of neutrality by the Argentine 
Republic, it being the duty of the Government to prevent the exe- 
cution of hostile acts in the waters under the jurisdiction of the 
nation, and in general to take all measures tending to a uniform 
application of the rules of neutrality and 

In consideration of the fact 

That article 8 of the Hague Convention, October 18, 1907, in 
regard to maritime neutrality declares that a neutral government 
is obliged to make use of every means at its disposal to prevent 
the equipping and arming of any boat which it may have reason- 
able motives for believing to be destined to become a cruiser or to 
take part in hostile operations against a power with which it 
finds itself at peace; 

In compliance with the dispositions of the aforesaid decree, the 
minister of the navy orders that: 

Article 1. In the ports of the Republic and the waters under its 
control no foreign merchantmen shall be allowed to arm or to 
equip for the purpose of becoming auxiliary cruisers in the ileets 
of any of the belligerent countries. 

Art. 2. Captains of foreign merchantmen which are already a 
part of the fleet of a belligerent country — such as auxiliary 
cruisers — must make declaration of this fact within 24 hours at 
the general prefecture of ports in compliance with the laws of 
neutrality, they being considered as ships of war. 

Art. 3. The roadsteads of Buenos Aires and of La Plata shall 
be assigned as anchoring places in the Rio de La Plata and a 
guard of national warships shall be established to, prevent any 
aggression against boats flying belligerent colors, and to insure 
compliance with all requirements relating to the transformation of 
merchantmen into auxiliary cruisers. 

Art. 4. Port commanders shall exercise great care in regard to 
the turn and order of departure of vessels flying the colors of 



Armed Merchant Vessels. 23 

belligerent countries which may have been converted into auxili- 
ary cruisers. Likewise, if it be considered necessary, they are to 
establish patrols in said zone of navigation, or escort by national 
warships the aforesaid vessels to free water with the object of 
assuring compliance with these dispositions. 
To be published, etc. 

J. P. Saenz Valiente. 

General Orders No. 183, in reference to the sojourn of armed mer- 
chantmen and auxiliary cruisers, August 17, lOUi. 

Buenos Aires, August 17, 191Jf. 
Navy Department : 

It being necessary to amplify the regulations of procedure to 
be observed in fulfillment of the decree of neutrality in the present 
European war, declared by this department under date of August 
6, 1914, in General Orders 126, 

The minister of the navy orders that: 

Article 1. In addition to the provisions of orders previously 
cited, the maritime authorities upon whom it may be incumbent 
shall be guided by the following instructions: 

(a) Foreign merchantmen officially classified as auxiliary 
cruisers of their respective fleets shall be treated in the matter 
of neutrality as if they were ships of war. ' For them to be con- 
sidered as auxiliary cruisers it is indispensable that there be ap- 
plied to them the sense of articles 1, 2, 3, and 4 of the "Agreement 
relative to the conversion of -merchantmen into ships of war" of 
October 18, 1907. 

(b) To safeguard the rights of the Nation in waters under its 
jurisdictional control, no hostile acts shall be permitted by boats 
flying belligerent colors, and necessary precautions shall be taken 
to prevent them. 

(c) Foreign merchantmen which without being officially de- 
clared as auxiliary cruisers nevertheless carry cannon for their 
defense shall not make use of them in w T aters under State control, 
and the Government reserves to itself in case of their having 
served as auxiliary cruisers the right to treat them as such when 
they return to waters under its jurisdiction. 

As the legal status of ships of war is not conceded these vessels, 
any hostile act of theirs in waters under the jurisdiction of the 
State shall be considered as an act in open violation of the law 
of the country. 

(d) The general prefecture of ports shall take note of all 
foreign merchantmen which may have cannon for defense, either 
mounted or unmounted, or emplacements for cannon, to the end 
that they be especially watched. 

(e) Among the foreign merchantmen armed with cannon there 
are some that carry their cannon on the stern only, and with a 



24 Telegraphic and Radio Communication, Argentine. 

• 

very restricted firing sector ; in other words, they are guns which 
may fire only directly astern. It may well be conceded that the 
sole object of these guns is the defense of the boat. Other vessels 
carry them in the bow and on both sides — that is to say, in offen- 
sive sectors. Even though the technical requisites for consider- 
ing these boats as auxiliary cruisers do not appear, it is never- 
theless evident that their armament suggests their purpose. 
Hence supervision in such cases shall be especially rigorous. 

(f) It is to be borne in mind that by virtue of the provisions 
of article 31 in the regulations of the port of the capital and of 
La Plata no boat is to enter them with explosives aboard. Con- 
sequently if any merchantmen armed with cannon carry powder 
on board they are not to be permitted to enter the harbor before 
disembarking ammunitions. 

(g) The, general prefecture of ports will take necessary meas- 
ures to prevent the departure of war vessels, auxiliary cruisers, 
or even armed merchantmen until 24 hours after the departure 
from the same harbor of any other armed or unarmed merchant- 
man flying the flag of a hostile country. 

(h) War vessels and auxiliary cruisers flying belligerent colors 
whose stop in territorial waters is limited to 24 hours shall not 
cast anchor in them except for reasons of exceptional urgency 
(caso de fuerza mayor). 

Armed merchantmen which it is suspected may be converted 
into auxiliary cruisers shall be watched with particular care, so 
that they may not be able to thwart the precautions established 
for the protection of steamers departing each in the order of its 
turn by casting anchor with hostile intent within the territorial 
waters. 

J. P. Saenz Valiente. 

Circular No. 52, relating to telegraphic and radio communication, 

August 18, 191 1^. 

Buenos Aiees, August 18, 191^. 
Navy Department : 

Announcement is hereby made to the fleet that the Argentine 
Government, in conformity with the provisions of article 8 of the 
Telegraphic Agreement and of article 17 of the Agreement in 
regard to Radio-Telegraphy, has determined to suspend the use 
of secret codes in international service, excepting only telegrams 
and radiotelegrams drawn up in simple Spanish, German, French, 
English, Italian, or Portuguese, and upon condition of their bear- 
ing the full signature of. the sender at whose risk they will be 
transmitted. 

Exception is made in behalf of governmental service dispatches. 

M. Domecq Garcia, 
Director General of Material. 



Radio and Coaling Orders. 25 

General Orders 135, relating to the use of radio apparatus, on bellig- 
erent vessels in jurisdictional waters, August 19, 1914. 

Buenos Aires, August 19, 1914. 
Navy Department : 

With the purpose of further guaranteeing the most absolute 
neutrality during the present state of war between the belligerent 
nations of Europe, 

The minister of the navy decrees that: 

Article 1. So long as they remain in jurisdictional waters, the 
vessels of belligerent powers be forbidden the use of their radio- 
telegraphic apparatus except in cases where it be necessary to 
call for aid or to reply to calls for assistance. 

Art. 2. The general direction of prefectures will take all neces- 
sary measures to enforce this order. 

J. P. Saenz Valiente. 

General Orders 167, relating to radio apparatus on belligerent 
vessels in jurisdictional waters, October 2, 1914. 

Buenos Aires, October 2, 1914. 
Navy Department : 

In amplification of the provisions of General Orders 135 under 
date of August 19 last, 

The minister of the navy ordefs that: 

Article 1. In addition to the dispositions in force for all ves- 
sels from the time they enter the jurisdictional waters of the 
Republic until they leave them, vessels of the belligerent powers 
shall keep their radiotelegraphic poles lowered and their stations 
closed. 

Art. 2. General direction of the general prefecture of ports will 
take measures for the fulfillment of this order. 

J. P. Saenz Valiente. . 

General Orders 169, relating to the coaling of belligerent merchant 
vessels, October 14, 1911i. 

Buenos Aires, October 14, 1914. 
Navy Department : 

To prevent as far as possible Argentine ports from being utilized 
by the belligerents as bases of supplies for war work, and 

In consideration of the fact 

That The Hague Convention has decided relative to the rights 
and duties of neutral powers in case of maritime warfare that 
ports and neutral waters can not be utilized as bases of naval 
operations by belligerents; 



2G Radio C ommunication, Argentine. 

That the same convention does not forbid merchantmen from 
taking on stores of fuel and provisions ; 

That to reconcile both principles in such a way that there shall 
appear no inpediment to the maintenance of neutrality, it is 
indispensable to fix prudential limits in order that merchantmen 
may take on the amount of fuel requisite for their own consump- 
tion in the course of their usual itineraries, but not such excessive 
quantities as shall enable them to transship their supplies to 
other boats at sea ; 

That to this end the usual arrangement of a ship's storeroom 
makes possible the establishment of a general rule to determine 
the load permitted each boat according to its tonnage and capacity, 
so that without prejudice to the interests of navigation and com- 
merce provision may be made against all abuse of neutrality 
declared by the Argentine Government ; 

The President of the Argentine Nation decrees that: 

Article 1. In all Argentine ports merchantmen flying belligerent 
colors shall not be permitted to take on a quantity of coal in 
excess of that which may be contained in their bunkers, not 
including their reserve bunkers, the holds for general cargo, nor 
the space between decks where no combustible shall be carried. 

Art. 2. The customhouse officials shall, inform the general 
prefecture of ports of such permits as N it may grant to vessels 
flying belligerent colors for loads of coal, so that it may make 
sure of the fulfillment of the provisions of article 1, and if need 
be, prevent any vessel from leaving port. 

Art. 3. Order to be communicated, etc. 

J. P. Saenz Valiente. 

Circular No. 80, relating to radio communication, November 5, 

19-U. 

Buenos Aires, November 5, 191Jf. 
Navy Department : 

The minister of the navy orders that: 

Article 1. Exchange of radiotelegrams be authorized between 
the stations of the Navy Department and those of the Malvinas 
Islands. 

Art. 2. Radiotelegrams shall be phrased in Spanish, English, 
or French. 

Art. 3. Radiotelegrams in code or secret language shall not 
be accepted. 

Art. 4. The usual prices asked at international stations shall be 
in force. 

J. P. Saenz Valiente. 



Supplementary Orders. 2? 

General Orders No. 201, supplementary to General Orders No. 167. 

Buenos. Aires, November IS, 191 '/. 
Navy Depaktment : 

The Minister of the Navy orders that: 

Article 1. Application of the sense of General Orders No. 167 
of the current year be made to all merchantmen without excep- 
tion from the moment they are admitted to the ports of the Re- 
public and during the duration of their stop therein. 
Art. 2. To be communicated and filed, etc. 

J. P. Saenz Valiente. 

General Orders No. 21k, relating to radiotelegraphy, December 

8, 191J h 
i 

Buenos Aires, December 8, 191k. 
Navy Department : 

In view of the aforementioned reports proceeding from the 
General Prefecture of Ports stating that that office had ascer- 
tained that the steamer President Quintana, of national registra- 
tion, at present at sea off the Costa Sur, has on board two radio 
operators of German nationality who figured neither among pas- 
sengers nor crew, but were nevertheless embarked with the full 
knowledge of the ship's authorities, since they gave them com- 
plete and permanent control of the radio station on board, for 
which the radio operator who figured as such on the ship's list 
and who is of Argentine nationality was unable to take charge 
of the station, thanks to the disposition made by the Compania 
Alemana Telefunken, which is the company having charge of 
the radio installations of the Compania de Navegacion, to which 
company this boat belongs ; 

That on the steamer Cabo Corrientes, of the same company 
as the aforesaid, Government agents have ascertained that ap- 
paratus had been removed from the radio room, which apparatus 
could well serve in part for the installation of a plant either on 
shipboard or at some point as yet unknown, although the per- 
sonnel of the boat claims that said pieces were sent to Germany 
for adjustment or repair; 

That the aforesaid steamers, even though of national registra- 
tion, belong to a company whose capital was subscribed abroad ; 
that its directing board resides in one of the belligerent nations ; 
and that certain of its boats are commanded by captains who have 
taken out papers of Argentine citizenship, but who are neverthe- 
less citizens of the other nation ; 

That there are other navigation companies and individual boats 
operating under conditions similar to those obtaining in this com- 
pany, although the irregularities and transgressions committed 



30 Transfer of Flags, Argentine. 

according to circumstances as an auxiliary to the war fleet, and 
if it shall again enter Argentine ports shall be submitted to treat- 
ment befitting its case. 

Aet. 3. When it is proven that a merchantman has transferred, 
by its own act, to war vessels the fuel which it has aboard, either 
as cargo or for its own necessary consumption, it shall be consid- 
ered as an auxiliary to the war fleet, and the maritime authorities 
shall refuse — being governed by considerations of the case — to 
provide coal for the other boats in the same company. 

Aet. 4. Merchantmen which may have to remain in Argentine 
ports during the course of the war or those which may have been 
interned for violations of neutrality shall be moored at points 
indicated by the maritime authorities, and no port dues shall be 
collected from them. 

J. P. Saenz Valiente. 

General Orders relating to the transfer of flags, December 26, 1914- 

Buenos Aiees, December 26, 1914- 
Navy Depaetment : 

In view of the preceding note from the general prefecture of 
ports anent the demand for the transfer of colors of belligerent 
merchantmen, and in accord with the opinions of the Minister of 
Foreign Affairs, 

Considering that 

It is fitting to establish uniform procedure in this matter re- 
specting the neutrality declared by the Argentine Government in 
the European war, and, with due regard for national interests 
and mindful of the principles admitted in this respect by inter- 
national law, 

It is resolved that: 

The transfer of colors shall be consented to under reserve of 
its being done upon a basis of absolute good faith, and in the 
knowledge that the Argentine Government will decline all inter- 
vention in behalf of those interested if it should afterwards result 
that they have not fulfilled this condition. 

J. P. Saenz Valiente. 

Buenos Aiees, December 28, 1914- 

Juan A. Martin, 
Director General of Personnel. 

General Orders No. 16, in reference to the internment of the Ger- 
man steamer Patagonia, January 18, 1915. 

Buenos Aiees, January 18, 1915. 
Navy Depaetment : 

It having been proved by investigations conducted by the direc- 
tion of prefectures that the German steamer Patagonia has com- 



Internment of Vessels. •>] 

milted acts in violation of the dispositions and decrees dictated 
by the P. E. 1 upon neutrality, 
The r resident of the Argentine Nation decrees that: 
The minister of the navy shall cause the German boat Pata- 
gonia to be interned in a port of the Republic until the termina- 
tion of the European war. 

Art. 2. This order to be communicated, etc. 

J. P. Saenz Valiente. 
Buenos Aires, January 19, 1915. 

Juan A. Martin, 
Director General of Personnel. 

General Order No. 2^ y relating to the internment of the German 
steamer Seydlitz, January 22, 1915. 

Buenos Aires, January 22, 1015. 
Navy Department : 

From conclusions based upon the adjoined documents signed 
by the captain of the German steamer Seydlitz upon putting in 
at the port of San Antonio Oeste, and by the captain of the 
English bark Drummuir upon his disembarkation at the harbor 
of this city that the first-named steamer made part of the Ger- 
man South Atlantic and Pacific division from the 3d to the 8th 
of September last, to which it was ordered to go by the chief 
of that naval force, having on board the crew of the bark sunk 
by the cruiser Leipzig, for which circumstance it should be con- 
sidered as an auxiliary boat of the German division, and for 
this reason unable to remain in an Argentine port more than 
twenty-four hours without infringing the neutrality laws. 

The President of the Argentine Nation decrees that: 

Article 1. The minister of the navy shall take action to have 
the German steamer Seydlitz, which has taken refuge in the 
port of San Antonio Oeste since the 18th of last December, con- 
voyed by an Argentine vessel to Puerto Militar, where it shall 
be interned until the end of the present war. 

J. P. Saenz Valiente. 

Buenos Aires, January 26, 1915. 

Juan A. Martin, 
Director General of Personnel. 

General Orders No. 51, relating to the internment of the German 
steamer Holger, February 26, 1915. 

Buenos Aires, February 26, 1915. 
Navy Department : 

As a result of investigations made upon the arrival of the Ger- 
men steamer Holger at the port of this city, it having been learned 

1 His Excellency the President. 



32 Neutrality Declaration, Argentine. 

that tliis boat during 36 clays was in the service of the German 
auxiliary cruiser Kronprinz Wilhelm, having sailed secretly from 
a neutral port at which it had touched, and not having been able 
to show navigation papers or documents of any sort, all of which 
being sufficient cause to consider it an auxiliary boat of the Ger- 
man squadron, and 

Having been duly informed in compliance with neutrality re- 
quirements that it should leave again before the expiration of 24 
hours, which was not done, 

Considering that the 73 sailors from the Kronprinz Wilhelm 
which the Holger had aboard were a part of the merchant crew 
of the Kronprinz Wilhelm before being armed for war, having 
remained on board as passengers according to their statement 
until the time of being sent ashore, because they were not con- 
sidered combatants, due to the fact that they were older than the 
classes of reserves called to service by the German Government ; 

The President of the Argentine Nation decrees that: 

Article 1. The minister of the navy shall take' measures to 
have the German steamer Holger interned during the remainder 
of the war in the waters of El Arsenal del Rio de La Plata. 

Art. 2. The 73 noncombatant sailors which it brought in be- 
longing to the merchant crew of the auxiliary cruiser Kronprinz 
Wilhelm before this latter was armed for war shall be immedi- 
ately set at liberty. 

Art. 3. The minister of the navy shall make all arrangements 
for the transferal of the interned vessel to its new anchorage. 

Art. 4. This decree to be communicated to the proper authori- 
ties, etc. 

J. P. Saenz \ aliente. 

Plaza, Buenos Aires, March 2, 1915. 

Vicente E. Montes, 
Director General of Personnel. 

General Order 191, Neutrality Declaration, 1 August 27, 1915. 

Buenos Aires, August 27, 1915. 
Department of Foreign Affairs and Religious Worship : 

In view of the note of the 23d of the current month received by 
this department from the Italian Legation here accredited in 
which, by virtue of instructions from its Government, it informs 
the Government of this Republic that Italy has declared war on 

1 Similar declarations have been issued as follows : War between Great 
Britain and Bulgaria, General Order No. 228, Oct. 25, 1915 ; war be- 
tween Italy and Bulgaria, General Order No. 236, Oct. 30, 1915 ; war 
between France and Bulgaria, General Orders No. 2, Dec. 17, 1915 ; 
war between Germany and Portugal, General Orders No. 68, Mar. 14, 
1915; war between Italy and Germany, General Orders No. 195, Aug. 
31, 1916. 



Radio Communication. 33 

Turkey ; and observant of the principles of international law laid 
down by the decree of the Argentine Government on the 5th of 
August, 1914, 1 declaring its neutrality while a state of war exists 
between the nations of Europe ; 

The President of the Argentine Nation decrees that : 

Article 1. The ruling of the Argentine Government of August 
5, 1914, declaring its strictest neutrality during the said war shall 
be made to apply to the present war between Italy and Turkey. 

Art. 2. This order to be communicated to ministries affected 
by its provisions, published in the Boletin Ofieial, and filed with 
the Registro Nacional. 

Jose Luis Murature. 

Plaza, Buenos Aires, September 1, 1915. 

To be included in general orders and filed in the archives. 

J. P. Saenz Valiente. 

General Order 202, relating to radio communication, September 9, 

1915. 

Buenos Aires, September 9, 1915. 
Navy Department: 

It having become necessary to establish with greater exact- 
ness the fashion in which the radiotelegraph service is to be 
performed in its relation to the national telegraph, 

The President of the Argentine Nation decrees that: 

Article 1. Articles 23 and 24 of the regulations for radio- 
telegraphic service approved by the decree of October 24, 1914, be 
revoked. 

Art. 2. The following articles be substituted. 

Art. 3. Radiotelegrams must be left by the public at the tele- 
graph offices, but may be presented directly in any coast radio- 
telegraph station open to public service when in the locality 
there is no telegraph office, or when such office may be out of 
communication with the rest of the circuit. 

Exception to this rule is made in favor of private radiograms 
from officers of the fleet directed to stations controlled by the 
minister of the navy which whether or not there be telegraph 
offices in the place from which they are sent shall be transmit- 
ted, costs paid, from any coast radiotelegraph station dependent 
upon the aforesaid department. 

The route to be followed by radiotelegrams mentioned in the 
first paragraph shall be as follows: 

(a) Those that start from a telegraph office shall continue by 
the telegraphic system to the place where they meet the coast 
radio station which is to transmit them to a vessel or until 
they come to the coast station nearest to that coast station for 
which they are intended. 

1 International Law Topics, 1916, p. 9. 
43760—18 3 



34 Radio Communication, Argentine. 

(b) Those which are presented by the public at coast stations 
will follow along the radiotelegraph circuit to the nearest tele- 
graph office whose operating apparatus shall be in working order 
and from there by the telegraph lines to its destination or to 
wherever be the next coast station which can transmit it to a 
station on shipboard. 

(c) When it is a question of radiotelegrams directed to sta- 
tions on shipboard which are within the radius of the original 
coast station the interexchange shall be made direct. 

As to radiotelegrams deposited by the public at coast stations 
destined to a locality either within or without the country, and 
those which on account of interruption in the lines with the point 
for which they are intended may be left at a telegraph office to 
be transmitted by radiogram, they shall be accepted conditionally. 

Aet. 24. For the liquidation and surrender of accounts relative 
to the radiotelegrams presented by the public at coast stations, the 
following arrangements shall be followed : 

(a) When there is no postoffice or telegraph office in a locality 
the revenue accruing to the Treasury from the Department of 
Posts and Telegraph shall be handled by the General Adminis- 
trative Direction of the Navy Department. 

(b) When there is a postoffice, then the revenue shall be 
banked every 24 hours against receipt from the coast station; and 

(c) If there is a telegraph office and if on account of its lack 
of communication with the rest of the system the coast station 
should receive dispatches for the public, the money received for 
these shall be turned over by the latter to the former in the man- 
ner and fashion established by the preceding paragraph. 

Plaza. 

J. P. Saenz Valiente. 

Decree relating to radiotelegraphy, September 9, 1915. 

Buenos Aiees, September 9, 1915. 

It being fitting under present conditions to modify the restric- 
tions of the decree dated December 9, 1914, in regard to boats of 
neutral registration plying in the waters of the South Atlantic 
and Rio de La Plata, 

The President of the Argentine Nation decrees that: 

Article 1. The minister of the navy shall direct that all mer- 
chantmen flying the Argentine flag shall keep their radio stations 
closed from the moment they are admitted to port and during 
their stay in any port of the Republic. 

Aet. 2. The radiotelegraph stations designated in the preceding 
article shall be closed by the marine authorities in the port of 
arrival, and these stations shall not be reopened for service ex- 
cept by the act of said authorities. 

Aet. 3. The radio operators on these boats shall be of Argentine 
nationality and shall be inscribed as such in a register opened for 
this purpose by the general prefecture of ports, they to be con- 
sidered, the same as pilots, as native agents of the marine 
authorities. 



Radio Communication. 35 

Art. 4. In ports along the South Atlantic coast where merchant- 
men flying the national colors may stop, if there is no national 
telegraph station, captains are authorized to keep the radiotele- 
graph stations of their boats in operation. 

Art. 5. While navigating the open seas or in cases covered by 
article 4, the use of the radiotelegraph stations on shipboard is 
authorized with the exclusive object of transmitting or receiving 
dispatches of public service in the Spanish language only, and 
whose import has no relation to the present European struggle, 
their phraseology being simple and understandable. 

Any dispatch not fulfilling these requirements shall be refused. 

Art. 6. Coast stations shall receive no public-service dispatch 
from or for a national merchantman at sea whose text is not in 
accord with the provisions of article 5. 

Art. 7. All official dispatches are excepted from the mandate 
of the previous articles provided they are signed and sealed by 
competent authority. 

Art. 8. Radio operators, upon the arrival of their boats at port, 
shall present themselves before the marine authorities, to whom 
they shall make declaration of all occurrences during the trip 
touching upon the matter of communication, whether with coast 
stations or with other boats, and shall file a sworn copy of tele- 
grams sent or received, while their station was open, which copy 
shall be forwarded by the subprefects or jefes cle ayudantias to 
the general prefecture as soon as possible. They shall also com- 
municate to the marine authorities any infraction, irregularity, 
or other unlawful act which may have been committed aboard 
their vessel, so that the aforesaid authority may take needful 
action. 

Art. 9. Any infraction of these orders shall be punished, for a 
first offense, by a fine of $1,000 national currency and the can- 
celing of the license of both captain and radio operator, and, in 
case of repetition, by the withdrawal of the use of the national 
colors ; but if as a result of this transgression there should result 
a violation of a convention or international treaty to which this 
nation was party, then the aforesaid individuals shall be prose- 
cuted by the attorney general in accordance with the terms of 
article 8, law No. 49. 

Art. 10. In case the minister of the navy may judge opportune, 
he shall cause to embark on any national merchantman carrying 
radio installation, before it puts out to sea, a naval officer as in- 
spector, who shall remain on board during the voyage and shall 
be lodged and fed at the expense of the company to which the 
boat belongs. 

Art. 11. Merchantmen flying the national colors which make the 
trip to Montevideo and interior rivers whose stops in port shall 
not exceed 24 hours may keep their poles raised. 



86 Radio and Coaling, Argentine. 

Art. 12. These presents to be duly communicated to all con- 
eerned. 

J'i.aza. J. P. Saenz Valiente. 

General Orders No. 237, relating to radiotelegraphy, November 

8, 1915. 

General Direction of Mateeial, 
Buenos Aires, November 8, 1915. 
Navy Department : 

It seeming proper to make more explicit the interpretation of 
article 5 of the decree dated September 9, 1915, General Orders 
No. 202 (540), 

The Minister of the Navy declares that: 

Article 1. Radiograms directed to merchantmen of national 
registration shall be accepted at the risk of the sender. These 
radiotelegrams shall be phrased in plain Spanish and shall Jiave 
no relation to the present European struggle. 

Art. 2. There shall be accepted, also at the risk of the sender, 
radiotelegrams in simple Spanish destined to boats of neutral 
countries. For such dispatches the restrictions imposed by the 
country to which said boat belongs are always to be considered. 

Art. 3. Dispatches directed to vessels of the national fleet shall 
be received without restriction. 

Art. 4. Radiotelegrams for boats belonging to belligerent coun- 
tries shall be refused as heretofore, 

J. P. Saenz Valiente. 
Mariano F. Beascoechea, 
Director General of Material (pro tern.). 
Buenos Aires, November 8, 1915. 

General Orders No. 71, relating to the coaling of merchant vessels, 

March 28, 1917. 

General Direction of Personnel, 

Buenos Aires, March 28, 1917. 
Navy Department : 

In view of the new difficulties for maritime commerce created 
by recent events related to the European war which have in- 
creased still more the scarcity of freight by making it almost im- 
possible to transport fuel from the points of production to our 
ports, and 

In consideration of the fact that the balance of coal left in this 
country during the last month — discount made of the small 
amounts received as against amounts which steamers departing 
from our ports may have carried away in their bunkers — is very 
much below what is needed by the administration and national 
industries, and 



Attitude Toward War. 37 

Mindful, finally, that the decrees of October 14, 1914, and June 
12, 1916, dictated by the departments of navy and treasury, re- 
spectively, are contrary to Law No. 9482 of the 12th of August, 
whose provisions have remained in force until the present, 
The executive potver of the nation decrees that: 
Aeticle 1. Law No. 9482, which provides that merchantmen 
sailing from national ports across seas be provided only with the 
coal absolutely necessary for them to make their first stopping 
place, be maintained in full force. 

Irigoyen. 

F. Alvarez de Toledo. 

Note stating attitude toivard the war, April 11, 1917. 

Dr. Romulo S. Naon, Ambassador from Argentine Republic, to Mr. Lansing, 

Secretary of State. 

The Government of the Argentine Republic, in view of the 
causes that have prompted the United States of America to 
declare war against the Government of the German Empire, 
recognizes the justice of the decision, founded as it is upon the 
violation of the principles of * neutrality established by the rules 
of international law, which have been considered definite accom- 
plishments of civilization. 

Dismissal of German Minister, September 12, 1917. 

Minister for Foreign Affairs Pueyrredon to Count von Luxburg, Minister of 

the German Empire. 

Mr. Minister : You having ceased to be persona grata to the 
Argentine Government, that Government has decided to deliver 
to you your passports which I transmit herewith by order of 
His Excellency, the President of the nation. 

The introducer of embassies has instructions to assist you in 
your departure from the territory of the Republic. 

God keep you. 

Passport to German Minister, September 12, 1917. 

Considering that his excellency, Count Karl von Luxburg, 
envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of the German 
Empire, is leaving the Argentine Republic, the authorities of the 
Republic are hereby requested to protect him in his passage to 
the frontier. 

Given at Buenos. Aires, September 12, 1917. Valid to the 
frontier. 



38 Austria- Hungary Ultimatum to Serbia. ' 

Dismissal of German Minister, September 13, 1911. 

The Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Argentine Republic to the Argentine 

Minister. 

Argentine Minister : Please deliver to the German Government 
the following : 

The Argentine Government has recognized and valued highly 
the exalted manner in which the Government of Germany has 
solved in ample terms all the Argentine claims, but. must inform 
the German Government that, because of the texts of Minister 
von Luxburg's telegrams which have been published, he has 
ceased to be persona grata, and in consequence this Government 
has delivered to him his passports. 

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 

Ultimatum to Serbia, July 22, 1914- 1 

[Austro-Hungarian Red Book.] 

VII. Count Berchtold to Baron von GiesI, Belgrade. 

Vienna, July 22, 191J h 
You are directed to hand the following note to the Royal Govern- 
ment, in the course of the afternoon of Thursday, July 23 : 

On the 31st of March, 1909, the Servian minister in Vienna, on 
instructions from the Servian Government, made the following 
declaration to. the Imperial and Royal Government : 

Servia recognizes that the fait accompli regarding Bosnia has not af- 
fected her rights, and consequently she will conform to such decisions as 
the powers may take with regard to Article XXV of the treaty of Berlin. 
In deference to the advice of the great powers, Servia undertakes to re- 
nounce henceforth the attitude of protest and opposition which she has 
adopted with regard to the annexation since last autumn. She undertakes, 
moreover, to modify the direction of her present policy toward Austria- 
Hungary and to live in future on good neighborly terms with the latter. 

The history of recent years, and in particular the painful events 
of the 28th of June last, have disclosed the existence of a subversive 
movement with the object of detaching a part of the territories of 
Austria-Hungary from the Monarchy. The movement, wmich had 
its birth under the eye of the Servian Government, has gone so 
far as to make itself manifest beyond the Servian frontier in the 
shape of acts of terrorism and a series of outrages and murders. 

Far from carrying out the formal undertakings contained in the 
declaration of the 31st of March, 1909, the Royal Servian Govern- 
ment has done nothing to repress this movement. It has tolerated 
the criminal activity of various societies and associations directed 
against the Monarchy, the licentious language of the press, the 
glorification of the authors of outrages, and the participation of 

1 Delivered personally at 6 p. m., July 23, 1914. (Serbian Blue Book, 
No. 32.) 



Ultimatum to Serbia. 39 

officers and functionaries in subversive agitation. It has per- 
mitted an unwholesome propaganda in public instruction. In short, 
it has permitted all manifestations of a nature to incite the 
Servian population to hatred of the Monarchy and contempt for 
its institutions. 

This culpable tolerance of the Royal Servian Government had not 
ceased at the moment when the events of the 28th of June last 
demonstrated its ominous consequences to the world. 

It is evident from the depositions and confessions of the criminal 
perpetrators of the outrage of the 28th of June, that the Serajevo 
assassination had been planned in Belgrade, that the arms and 
explosives with which the murderers were provided, had been 
given to them by Servian officers and functionaries belonging to 
the Narodna Odbrana, and finally that the passage into Bosnia 
of the criminals and their arms was organized and carried out by 
the chiefs of the Servian frontier service. 

The above-mentioned results of the preliminary investigation 
do not permit the Austro-Hungarian Government to pursue any 
longer the attitude of expectant forbearance which it has main- 
tained for years in the face of machinations hatched in Belgrade, 
and thence propagated in the territories of the v Monarchy. The 
results, on the contrary, impose upon it the duty of putting an 
end to the intrigues which form a perpetual menace to the tran- 
quillity of the Monarchy. 

To achieve this end, the Imperial and Royal Government finds 
itself compelled to demand from the Royal Servian Government a 
formal assurance that it condemns this dangerous propaganda 
against the Monarchy — in other words, the whole series of ten- 
dencies, the ultimate aim of which is to detach from the Monarchy 
territories belonging to it — and that it undertakes to suppress by 
every means at its disposal this criminal and terrorist propa- 
ganda. 

In order to give a solemn character to this undertaking the Royal 
Servian Government shall publish on the front page of its " jour- 
nal official," of the 26th of July (July 13) the following declaration : 

The Royal Government of Servia condemns the propaganda directed 
against Austria-Hungary, of which. the final aim is to detach from the 
Austro-Hungarian Monarchy territories belonging to it, and it sincerely 
deplores the fatal consequences of these criminal proceedings. 

The Royal Government regrets that Servian officers and functionaries 
have participated in the above-mentioned propaganda and thus compro- 
mised the good neighborly relations to which the Royal Government was 
solemnly pledged by its declaration of the 31st of March, 1909. 

The Royal Government, which disapproves and repudiates all idea of 
interfering or attempting to interfere with the destinies of the inhabitants 
of any part whatsoever of Austria-Hungary, considers it its duty formally 
to warn officers and functionaries, and the whole population of the King- 
dom, that henceforward it will proceed with the utmost rigor against per- 
sons who may be guilty of such machinations, which it will use all its 
efforts to prevent and suppress. 



-±0 Austria- Hungary Ultimatum, Serbia. 

This declaration shall simultaneously be communicated to the 
royal army as an order of the day by His Majesty the King, and 
published in the official bulletin of the army. 

The Royal Servian Government further undertakes : 

1. To suppress any publication which incites to hatred and con- 
tempt of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and the general tend- 
ency of which is directed against its territorial integrity ; 

2. To dissolve immediately the society called Narodna Odbrana, 
to confiscate all its means of propaganda, and to proceed in the 
same manner against all other societies and their branches in Ser- 
via which engage in propaganda against the Austro-Hungarian 
Monarchy. The Royal Government shall take the necessary meas- 
ures to prevent the societies dissolved from continuing their activity 
under another name and form ; 

3. To eliminate without delay from public instruction in Servia, 
both as regards the teaching body and the methods of instruction, 
everything that serves, or might serve, to foment the propaganda 
against Austria-Hungary ; 

4. To remove from the military service, and from the adminis- 
tration in general, all officers and functionaries guilty of propa- 
ganda against the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy whose names and 
deeds the Austro-Hungarian Government reserves the right of 
communicating to the Royal Government ; 

5. To accept the cooperation in Servia of representatives of the 
Austro-Hungarian Government in the suppression of the subversive 
movement directed against the territorial integrity of the Mon- 
archy ; 

6. To take judicial proceedings against accomplices in the plot 
of the 28th of June who are on Servian territory. Delegates of the 
Austro-Hungarian Government will take part in the investigation 
relating thereto ; 

7. To proceed without delay to the arrest of Maj. Voija Tanko- 
sitch and of the individual named Milan Ciganovitch, a Servian 
State employee, who have been compromised by the results of the 
preliminary investigation at SerajeVO ; 

8. To prevent by effective measures the participation of the 
Servian authorities in the illicit traffic of arms and explosives 
across the frontier ; to dismiss and punish severely the officials 
of the frontier service at Schabatz and Loznica who have been 
guilty of having assisted the perpetrators of the Serajevo crime by 
facilitating their passage across the frontiers ; 

9. To furnish the Imperial and Royal Government with expla- 
nations regarding the unjustifiable utterances of high Servian 
officials, both in Servia and abroad, who, notwithstanding their 
official positions, did not hesitate after the crime of the 28th of 
June to give utterance, in published interviews, to expressions 
of hostility to the Austro-Hungarian GovernmeDt ; and fi lally, 



Report Preliminary Investigation. 41 

HO. To notify the Imperial and Royal Government without delay 
of the execution of the measures comprised under the preceding 
heads. 

The Austro-Hungarian Government awaits the reply of the Royal 
Government at the latest by 6 o'clock on Saturday evening, the 
25th of July. 

A memorandum dealing with the results of the preliminary inves- 
tigation at Serajevo with regard to the officials mentioned under 
heads 7 and 8 attached to this note. 

[Inclosure.] 

The investigation by the court of Serajevo against Gabrilo 
Princip and accomplices in the assassination committed on June 
28 of this year has up to now established the following facts : 

1. The plot to n^urder Archduke Francis Ferdinand during his 
stay in Serajevo was planned by Gabrilo Princip, Nedeljko Gabrino- 
vitch, a certain Milan Ciganovitch, and Trifko Grabez, with the 
assistance of Maj. Voija Tankositch. 

2. The six bombs and four Browning pistols, with their ammuni- 
tion, which were used by the criminals, were obtained for them and 
handed to Princip, Gabrinovitch, and Grabez in Belgrade by a 
certain Milan Ciganovitch, and Maj. Voija Tankositch. 

3. The bombs are hand grenades which come from the arsenal 
of the Servian Army at Kragujevac. 

4. In order to make sure of the success of the attempt, Milan 
Ciganovitch instructed Princip, Gabrinovitch, and Grabez in the 
art of hurling bombs and taught Princip and Grabez how to shoot 
with Browning pistols in a forest adjoining the shooting range of 
Topschider, in Belgrade. 

5. In order to make possible the crossing of the Bosnia- 
Herzegovinan frontier by the conspirators and the smuggling in of 
their weapons, a secret transportation system was organized by 
Ciganovitch. The entrance of the criminals with their weapons 
into Bosnia and Herzegovina was carried out with the assistance 
of the frontier captains at Schabatz (Rade Popovitch) and at 
Loznica, and the cooperation of the customs officer, Rudivoj 
Grbitch, of Loznica, and several other persons. 

In presenting the above note you will add verbally that you are 
instructed to leave Belgrade with the staff of the legation at the 
expiration of the time limit mentioned in the note (48 hours after 
the hour and day of its presentation ) in the event that within that 
period you have not received an unconditional and favorable re- 
sponse from the Royal Servian Government. 



42 



A ustrian Comments on Serbian Reply. 



Comments on Serbian reply to ultimatum, July 27, 1914. 
[Austro-Hungarian Red Book. See also Serbian Blue Book, No. 39.] 

XXXIV. Count Berchtold to the Imperial and Royal Ambassadors in Berlin, 
Rome, London, Paris, and St. Petersburg. 

Vienna, July 27, 1911 h 
You will receive herewith the text of the note which was handed 
to the Imperial and Royal Minister in Servia on July the 25th by 
the Royal Servian Government, and our comments thereon. 

[In closure.] 
Note of the Royal Servian Government to the Imperial and Royal Austro- 
Hungarian Government, dated 12-25th July, 19U, and comments thereon. 



f. Servian Reply to Austrian 
Government.] 

The Royal Servian Government 
has received the communication of 
the Imperial and Royal Govern- 
ment of the 10th instant, and is 
convinced that its reply will re- 
move any misunderstanding which 
may threaten to impair the good 
neighborly relations between the 
Austro - Hungarian Monarchy and 
thp Kingdom of Servia. 

Conscious of the fact that the 
protests which were made both 
from the tribune of the national 
Skuptchina and in the declarations 
and actions of the responsible repre- 
sentatives of the State — protests 
which were discontinued as a re- 
sult of the declarations made by 
the Servian Government on the 
18th March, 1909 — have not been 
renewed on any occasion . as re- 
gards the great neighboring Mon- 
archy, and that no attempt has 
been made since that time, either 
by the successive Royal Govern- 
ments or by their organs, to change 
the political and legal status created 
in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the 
Royal Government calls attention 
to the fact that in this connection 
the Imperial and Royal Govern- 
ment has made no representation, 
except one concerning a school book, 
when the Imperial and Royal Gov- 
ernment received an entirely sat- 
isfactory explanation. Servia in 
numerous instances has given proofs 
of her pacific and moderate policy 
during the Balkan crisis, and it is 
due to Servia and to the sacrifice 
that she has made in the exclusive 



[Comments Of the Austro-Hun- 
garian Government.] 



The Royal Servian Government 
confines itself to the statement that 
no endeavor has been made by 
either the Servian Government or 
its officers to modify the status of 
Bosnia and Herzegovina since the 
declaration of the 18 y h of March, 
1909. 

Thereby it deliberately evades 
the basic point in our representa- 
tions, as we have not asserted that 
the Servian Government or its 
officers have officially undertaken 
anything to that end. 

Our grievance, however, is that 
the Servian Government has omit- 
ted to suppress the agitation di- 
rected against the territorial integ- 
rity of the Dual Monarchy, not- 
withstanding the . obligations it 
entered into under the terms of the 
above-mentioned note. 

The Servian Government, there- 
fore, was in duty bound to a radi- 
cal change in the trend of its policy 
and to establish good neighborly 
relations with Austria - Hungary ; 
and not merely to refrain from 
official attempts to dispute the 
status of Bosnia as an integral part 
of the Dual Monarchy. 



Austrian Comments on Serbian Reply. 



43 



interest of European peace that the 
same has been preserved. 

The Royal Government cannot 
be held responsible for manifesta- 
tions of a private character, such 
as articles in the press and the peace- 
able work of societies — manifesta- 
tions which take place in nearly all 
countries in the ordinary course of 
events, and which as a general rule 
are beyond official control. The 
Royal Government is all the less 
responsible, in view of the fact that 
at the time of the solution of a series 
of questions which arose between 
Servia and Austria - Hungary it 
showed much consideration and 
thus succeeded in settling most of 
these questions to the mutual ad- 
vantage of the two neighboring 
countries. 



The contention of the Royal Ser- 
vian Government that utterances 
of the press and the activities of 
associations have a private charac- 
ter and are beyond the control of 
the State, is plainly at variance 
with the institutions of modern 
States, even of those which have 
the most liberal regulations in this 
respect ; these regulations, designed 
to safeguard public polity and right, 
impose State supervision upon both 
press and associations. Moreover, 
the Servian institutions themselves 
provide for such supervision. The 
charge against the Servian Govern- 
ment is that it completely failed to 
supervise the Servian press and as- 
sociations, although it well knew 
that both were engaged in a cam- 
paign against the Monarchy. 



For these reasons the Royal Gov- 
ernment has been painfully sur- 
prised at the allegations that citi- 
zens of the Kingdom of Servia have 
participated in the preparations for 
the crime committed at Serajevo ; 
the Royal Government had expected 
to be invited to collaborate in an 
investigation of all that concerns 
this crime, and it stood ready, in 
order to prove the entire correct- 
ness of its attitude, to take meas- 
ures against any persons concern- 
ing whom representations might be 
made to it. 

Complying with the desire of the 
Imperial and Royal Government, 
it is prepared to commit for trial 
any Servian subject, regardless of 
his station or rank, of whose com- 
plicity in the crime of Serajevo 
proofs shall be produced, and more 
especially it undertakes to publish 
on the first page of the " Journal 
offlciel," on the date of the 13th/ 
26th July, the following declara- 
tion : 

" The Royal Government of Sal- 
via condemns every propaganda 
directed against Austria - Hungary, 
and in general all the tendencies 
which aim at the ultimate detach- 
ment from the Austro - Hungarian 
Monarchy of territories belonging 
to it, and it sincerely deplores the 



This assertion is incorrect. The 
Servian Government had been fully 
informed of the suspicion raised 
against certain designated persons, 
and therefore was not only in a 
position spontaneously to institute 
an investigation, but was even 
bound to do so by its own laws. It 
has done nothing at all in this 
respect. 



Our demand read as follows : 
" The Royal Government of 
Servia condemns the propaganda 
directed against Austria - Hungary 



The alteration made by the Royal 
Servian Government in the decla- 



44 



Austrian Comments on Serbian Reply. 



fatal consequences of these crimi- 
nal activities. 

" The Royal Government regrets 
that Servian officers and function- 
aries have participated, according 
to the communication of the Im- 
perial and Royal Government, in 
the above - mentioned propaganda 
and thus compromised the good 
neighborly relations to which the 
Royal Government was solemnly 
pledged by its declaration of the 
31st of March, 1909. 

" The Royal Government, which 
disapproves and repudiates all idea 
of interfering or attempting to in- 
terfere with the destinies of the 
inhabitants of any part whatsoever 
of Austria-Hungary, considers it its 
duty formally to warn officers and 
functionaries, and the whole popu- 
lation of the Kingdom, that hence- 
forth it will proceed with the utmost 
vigor against persons who may be 
guilty of such machinations, which 
it will use all its efforts to prevent 
and suppress." 

This declaration will be brought 
to the knowledge of the Royal Army 
in an order of the day, in the name 
of his Majesty the King, by his 
Royal Highness the Crown Prince 
Alexander, and will be published in 
the next official army bulletin. 



ration demanded by us- implies 
either that such a propaganda 
against Austria-Hungary does not 
exist, or that its existence is not 
within the knowledge of the Royal 
Government. This formula is in- 
sincere and equivocal ; it is intended 
to furnish the Servian Government 
with a loophole for future emer- 
gencies. The Servian Government 
might, in future, interpret this dec- 
laration as neither a disavowal of 
the existing propaganda, nor an ad- 
mission of its hostility to the Mon- 
archy ; it might, furthermore, base 
thereon the claim that it is not 
bound to suppress any future prop- 
aganda similar to the present one. 

The wording of our demand was : 
" The Royal Government regrets 
that Servian officers and function- 
aries have participated in * * *." 
By the additional phrase, " accord- 
ing to the communication from the 
Imperial and Royal Government," 
the Royal Servian Government 
seeks, as indicated above, to keep 
a free hand for the future. 



We had demanded 



The Royal Government further 
undertakes : 

1. To insert, at the first ordinary 
convocation of the Skuptchina, a 
provision into the press law for the 
most severe punishment of incite- 
ment to hatred and contempt of 
the Austro - Hungarian Monarchy, 
and for taking action against any 
publication the general tendency of 
which is directed against the terri- 
torial integrity of Austria-Hungary. 

The Government engages, at the 
impending revision of the consti- 
tution, to add to article 22 of the 
constitution an amendment per- 
mitting that such publications be 
confiscated, a proceeding at present 
impossible according to the clear 
provisions of article 22 of the con- 
stitution. 



1. The suppression of " any pub- 
lication which incites to hatred and 
contempt of the Austro-Hungarian 
Monarchy, and the^ general ten- 
dency of which is directed against 
its territorial integrity." 

We thus wished to establish 
Servia's obligation to provide for 
the prevention of such press at- 
tacks in the future ; we wished, 
therefore, to secure definite re- 
sults in the present instance. 

Servia, instead, offers to decree 
certain laws intended to serve as 
means to that purpose, to wit : 

(a) A law providing individual 
punishment of above - mentioned 
press utterances hostile to the 
Dual Monarchy. This is all the 
more immaterial to us, as it is a 
notorious fact that individual prose- 



Austrian Comments on Serbian Reply. 



45 



cution of press offences is vry 
rarely possible, and as, further- 
more, the lax application of such 
a law would leave unpunished eyen 
the few cases that might be prose 
cuted. This proposal, therefore, 
in no way meets our demand, as it 
gives no guarantee whatever fox the 
results desired by us. 



2. The Government possesses no 
proof, nor does the note of the 
Imperial and Royal Government 
furnish it with any, that the " Na- 
rodna Odbrana " and other similar 
societies have committed up to 
the . present any criminal act of 
this nature through the proceed- 
ings of any of their members. 
Nevertheless, the Royal Govern- 
ment will accept the demands of 
the Imperial and Royal Govern- 
ment and will dissolve the " Na- 
rodna Odbrana " Society and every 
other association which may be di- 
recting its efforts against Austria- 
Hungary. 



(b) An addition to article 22 of 
the constitution, permitting con- 
fiscation, as referred to in the Ser- 
vian note. This proposal likewise 
must fail to satisfy us. The exist- 
ence of such a law in Servia is 
of no avail to us, whereas only 
a pledge by the Government to 
apply it would be useful. This, 
however, has not been promised 
to us. 

These proposals are, therefore, 
quite unsatisfactory, all the more 
so because they are also evasive, 
as they do not state the time within 
which these laws shall be de- 
creed. Besides, • no provision is 
made for th£ event of a rejection 
of the bills by the Skuptchina — 
not to mention a possible resign 
nation of the cabinet — in which 
case matters would remain un- 
changed. 

The propaganda against the 
Monarchy conducted by the " Na- 
rodna Odbrana '• and its affiliated 
associations permeates the entire 
public life of Servia ; the Servian 
Government's declaration that it 
knows nothing about - this propa- 
ganda, is, therefore, an absolutely 
inadmissible act of evasion. Set- 
ting this contention aside, our de- 
mand is not wholly met, as we 
have also demanded : 

The confiscation of the means 
of propaganda of these societies. 

The prevention of the reorgani- 
zation of the dissolved societies 
under other names and in other 
guise. 

These two points the Belgrade 
Government ignores, thus elimi- 
nating even the guarantee which 
■'he preceding half - promise would 
imply that the proposed dissolu- 
tion would put an end, once for 
all, to the activities of the socie- 



46 



Austrian Comments on Serbian Reply. 



3. The Royal Servian Govern- 
ment undertakes to remove with- 
out delay from the system of pub- 
lic instruction in Servia all that 
serves or could serve to foment 
propaganda against Austria - Hun- 
gary, whenever the Imperial and 
Royal Government shall furnish it 
with facts and proofs of such a 
propaganda. 



4. The Royal Government also 
agrees to remove from the mili- 
tary and the civil service all such 
persons as the judicial inquiry may 
have proved to be guilty of acts 
directed against the territorial in- 
tegrity of the Austro - Hungarian 
Monarchy, and it expects the Im- 
perial and Royal Government to 
communicate to it at a later day 
the names and the acts of these 
officers and officials for the pur- 
poses of the proceedings which are 
to be taken against them. 



5. The Royal Government must 
confess that it does not clearly 
understand the meaning or the 
scope of the demand made by the 
Imperial and Royal Government 
that Servia shall undertake to ac- 
cept the collaboration of officials 
of the Imperial and Royal Gov- 
ernment upon Servian territory, but 
it declares that it will admit such 



ties hostile to the Dual Monarchy, 
and especially of the " Narodna 
Odbrana." 

In this case, be it noted, more- 
over, the Servian Government first 
demands proofs that a propaganda 
against the Monarchy is being car- 
ried on in Servia's public instruc- 
tion ; this, too, when the Servian 
Government must know that the 
books in use in Servian schools con- 
tain much objectionable matter, 
and that a large number of the 
Servian teachers are connected with 
the Narodna Odbrana and its affili- 
ated association. 

The Servian Government has 
again in this instance failed to com- 
ply with our demand in the way 
indicated by us, inasmuch as the 
phrase, " with regard to both the 
teaching-staff and the means of in- 
struction," has been omitted in the 
Servian note. In this eliminated 
phrase are clearly pointed out the 
mediums whereby the propaganda 
against the Dual Monarchy is being 
conducted in the Servian schools. 

If the dismissal of the military 
officers and civil officials referred 
to from the Government service 
should be conditional upon their 
guilt being first confirmed by means 
of a trial, the Servian Government 
restricts its acceptance of our de- 
mand to cases where persons are 
charged with having committed a 
crime punishable under the pro- 
visions of the penal code. Since 
we, however, demanded the re- 
moval of officers and officials who 
carry on a propaganda hostile to 
the Monarchy, our demand is pal- 
pably not complied with in this 
respect, for the reason that in 
Servia the propaganda of which we 
complain does not constitute an 
offense punishable by law. 

International law and the penal 
code governing criminal proceed- 
ings have nothing whatever to do 
with this question ; this is purely 
a problem of national polity to be 
settled by a special mutual ar- 
rangement. Servia's reservation 
is, therefore, unintelligible and, on 
account of its vague and undefined 
form, is likely to give rise to insur- 



Austrian Comments on Serbian Reply, 



47 



collaboration as agrees with the 
principle of international law, with 
criminal procedure, and with good 
neighborly relations. 

6. It goes without saying that 
the Royal Government considers 
it a duty to begin an inquiry 
against all such persons as are, 
or possibly may be, implicated in 
the plot of the 15/28 June, and 
who may happen to be within the 
territory of the kingdom. As re- 
gards the participation in this in- 
quiry of Austro - Hungarian agents 
or authorities appointed for this 
purpose by the Imperial and Royal 
Government, the Royal Govern- 
ment cannot accept such an ar- 
rangement, as it would constitute 
a violation of the Constitution and 
of the law of criminal procedure ; 
nevertheless, in concrete cases com- 
munications as to the results of 
the investigation in question might 
be given to the Austro-Hungarian 
agents. 



7. The Royal Government pro- 
ceeded on the very evening of the 
delivery of the note, to arrest Com- 
mandant Voija Tankositch. 

As regards Milan Ciganovitch, 
who is a subject of the Austro- 
Hungarian Monarchy and who up 
to the 15th June was employed 
(on probation) by the directorate 
of railways, it has not yet been 
possible to find out his whereabouts. 
Notices for his apprehension have 
been published in the press. 



mountable difficulties in the at- 
tainment of a final settlement. 

Our demand was perfectly clear 
and could not be misunderstood. 
We demanded : 

1. The institution of a legal in- 
vestigation against those who par- 
ticipated in the plot. 

2. The cooperation of Austro- 
Hungarian officials in the inquiry 
(rechcr dues, in contradistinction to 
enquete judiciavre) . 

We did not contemplate the 
participation of Austro - Hungarian 
officials in the Servian legal pro- 
ceedings ; these officials were only 
to cooperate in the preliminary 
police investigation, which was to 
seek out and collect the data for 
the judicial inquiry. 

If the Servian Government has 
misunderstood us, it has done so 
intentionally, since it must be 
familiar with the difference be- 
tween an enquete judiciaire (a ju- 
dicial inquiry) and simple recher- 
clies (a preliminary police investi- 
gation). 

Since the Servian Government 
wishes to evade every form of 
control in connection with the pro- 
posed investigation which, if cor- 
rectly conducted, would adduce re- 
sults highly undesirable for that 
Government ; and since it is un- 
able to decline on plausible grounds 
the cooperation of our officials in 
the police preliminaries — a police 
intervention for which there are a 
great number of precedents — it has 
adopted a contention designed to 
furnish an apparent justification of 
its refusal to comply with our de- 
mand and to make our demand 
appear impossible of acceptance. 

This reply is equivocal. 

Our investigations have shown 
that Ciganovitch took ,a leave of 
absence three days after the assas- 
sination, when it became known 
that he had participated in the 
plot ; and that under orders from 
the Belgrade Police Department he 
proceeded to Ribari. It is, there- 
fore, untrue that Ciganovitch had 
retired from the Government's serv- 
ice as early as the 15/28th of 
June. In addition, it should be 
stated that the Chief of the Bel- 



48 



Austrian Comments on Serbian Reply. 



The Austro - Hungarian Govern- 
ment is requested to be so good as 
to supply as soon as possible, in 
the customary form, the presump- 
tive evidence of guilt as well as 
the possible proofs of guilt which 
have been collected up to the pres- 
ent time, at the inquiry at Sera- 
jevo, for the purposes of the Ser- 
vian inquiry. 

8. The Servian Government will 
reinforce and extend the meas- 
ures which have been taken for 
suppressing the illicit traffic in 
arms and explosives across the 
frontier. 

It goes without saying that the 
Servian Government will immedi- 
ately order an inquiry and will 
severely punish the frontier officials 
on the Schabatz-Loznitza line who 
have failed in their duty and al- 
lowed the authors of the crime of 
Serajevo to pass. 

9. The Royal Government will 
gladly furnish explanations of the 
remarks made by its officials, 
whether in Servia or abroad, in 
interviews after the crime, and 
which, according to the statement 
of the Imperial and Royal Gov- 
ernment, were hostile to the Mon- 
archy, as soon as the Imperial and 
Royal Government shall have com- 
municated to it the passages in 
question in these remarks, and as 
soon as it shall have shown* that 
the remarks were actually made 
by the said officials, in connection 
with which the Royal Government 
itself will take steps to collect 
evidence. 

10. The Royal Government will 
inform the Imperial and Royal 
Government of the execution of 
the measures comprised under the 
above heads, in so far as this has 
not already been done by the pres- 
ent note, as soon as each measure 
shall have been ordered and car- 
ried out. 

If the Imperial and Royal Gov- 
ernment is not satisfied with this 
reply the Servian Government, 
considering that it is not to the 
common interest to take precipi- 
tate action in the solution of this 
question, is ready, as always, . to 
accept a pacific understanding, 



grade Police, who himself had 
caused Ciganovitch's departure and 
knew his whereabouts, stated in an 
interview that no person of the 
name of Milan Ciganovitch existed 
in Belgrade. 



The interviews here referred to 
must be well known . to the Ser- 
vian Government. The request 
that the Austro - Hungarian Gov- 
ernment furnish details concern- 
ing these interviews, and the fact 
that the Servian Government re- 
serves the exclusive right to con- 
duct the formal investigation in 
this matter, prove that on this 
point, as on others, Servia has no 
serious intention to accede to our 
demands. 



Breaking Diplomatic Relation*. 40 

either by referring this question 
to the decision of the International 
Tribunal at The Hague, or to the 
Great Powers which took part in 
the drawing up of the declaration 
made by the Servian Government 
on the 18/31 March, 1909. 
Belgrade, July 12/25, 1914. 

Notice of breaking diplomatic relations with Serbia, July 25, 1914- 
[Austro-Hungarian Red Book.] 

XXIV. Baron von Giesl to Count Berchtold. 

[Telegram.] 

Semlin, July 25, 1914- 
The reply of the Royal Serbian Government to our demands of 
the 23d instant being inadequate, I have broken off diplomatic 
relations with Serbia and have left Belgrade with the staff of 
the legation. 

The reply was handed to me at 5.58 p. m. 

Declaration of war against Serbia, noon, July 28, 1914- 1 
[Austro-Hungarian Red Book. See also Serbian Blue Book, No. 45.] 
XXXVII. Count Berchtold to the Royal Serbian Foreign Office, Belgrade. 

[Telegram.] 

Vienna, July 28, 19V h 
The Royal Serbian Government having failed to give a satis- 
factory reply to the note which was handed to it by the Austro- 
Hungarian minister in Belgrade on July 23, 1914, the Imperial 
and Royal Government is compelled to protect its own rights and 
interests by a recourse to armed force. 

Austria-Hungary, therefore, considers herself from now on to be 
in state of war with Serbia. 

Notification of declaration of war against Serbia, July 28, 1914? 

[British White Paper.] 
No. 50. Sir M. de Bunsen to Sir Edward Grey. 

(Received July 31.) 

Vienna, July 28, 1914. 
Sir: I have the honor to transmit to you herewith the text of 
the Austro-Hungarian note announcing the declaration of war 
against Serbia. 

I have, etc., 

Maurice de Bunsen. 

1 " The Government of Austria-Hungary declared war to-day (July 28) 
at noon, in an unciphered telegram addressed to the Serbian Government." 
(Serbian Blue Book, No. 47.) 

2 See also Journal Officiel de la Republique Francaise, Aug. 3, 1914, 
p. 7078. 

4.3760—18 4 



50 Declarations of War, Austrian. 

Inclosure in No. 50. 

copy of note verbale, dated vienna, july 2 8> 1914. 

(Translation.) 

In order to bring to an end the subversive intrigues originating 
from Belgrade and aimed at the territorial integrity of the 
Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, the Imperial and Royal Govern- 
ment has delivered to the Royal Serbian Government a note in 
which a series of demands were formulated, for the acceptance 
of which a delay of 48 hours has been granted to the Royal Gov- 
ernment. The Royal Serbian Government not having answered 
this note in a satisfactory manner, the Imperial and Royal Govern- 
ment are. themselves compelled to see to the safeguarding of their 
rights and interests, and, with this object, to have recourse to 
force of arms. 

Austria-Hungary, who had just addressed to Serbia a formal 
declaration, in conformity with article 1 of the convention of the 
18th October, 1907, relative to the opening of hostilities, considers 
herself henceforth in a state of war with Serbia. 

In bringing the above notice of his Britannic Majesty's Em- 
bassy, the ministry of foreign affairs has the honor to declare 
that Austria-Hungary will act during the hostilities in con- 
formity with the terms of the conventions of The Hague of the 
18th October, 1907, as also with those of the declaration of Lon- 
don of the' 28th February, 1909, provided an analogous pro- 
cedure is adopted by Serbia. 

The embassy is requested to be so good as to communicate the 
present notification as soon as possible to the British Govern- 
ment. 

Declaration of war against Russia, 6 p. m., August 6, 191If. x 

[Austro-Hungarian Red Book. See also Russian Orange Book, No. 79.1 

LIX. Count Berchtold to County Szapary, St. Petersburg. 

[Telegram.] 

Vienna, August 5, 1914- 
You are instructed to hand the following note to the Russian 
minister of foreign affairs : 

By order of his Government, the undersigned ambassador of Austria- 
Hungary has the honor to notify his excellency, the Russian minister of 
foreign affairs, as follows : 

" In view of the threatening attitude assumed by Russia in the conflict 
between the Austro-Hungarian monarchy and Servia, and in view of the 
fact that, in consequence of this conflict, and according to a communication 
of the Berlin cabinet, Russia has considered it necessary to open hostilities 



1 Presented to the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs on Aug. 6, 1014, 
at 6 p. m. (Russian Oranage Book, No. 79.) 



Declaration against Belgium. 51 

against Germany ; furthermore, in view of the fact that the latter conse- 
quently has entered Into a state of war with the former power, Austria- 
IJungary considers herself equally in a state of war with Russia." 

After having presented this note, you will ask for the return of 
your passports and take your departure without delay accompanied 
by the entire staff of the embassy, with the sole exception of those 
officials who may have to remain. 

Simultaneously passports are being handed to M. Schebeko. 

Declaration of toar against Belgium, August 22, 191^. 

LAustro-Hungarian Red Book, see also Belgian Gray Book, No. 77, under 
date of reception August 28, 1914.] 

LXVII. Count Berchtold to Count Clary, Brussels. 

[Telegram.] 

Vienna, August 22, 191 4. 

I request you to inform the royal Belgian minister of foreign 
affairs without delay, as follows : 

By order of my Government I have the honor to notify you, as 
follows : 

In view of the fact that Belgium, having refused to accept the 
propositions addressed to her on several occasions by Germany, is 
now in military cooperation with France and Great Britain, both 
of which have declared war on Austria-Hungary ; and in view of 
the recently established fact that Austrian and Hungarian subjects 
resident in Belgium have, under the eyes of the royal authorities, 
been treated in a manner contrary to the most primitive laws of 
humanity, and inadmissible even toward subjects of a hostile State, 
Austria-Hungary is necessarily compelled to break off diplomatic 
relations and considers herself from now on in a state of war with 
Belgium. 

I leave the country with the staff of the legation and place the 
subjects of my country under the protection of the minister of the 
United States of America in Belgium. 

The Imperial and Royal Government has handed his passports 
to Count Errembault cle Dudzeele. 

Instructions in regard to Japan, August 24, 1914* 

[Austro-Hungarian Red Book.] 

LXIX. Count Berchtold to Baron Miiller, Tokio. 

[Telegram.] 

Vienna, August 24, 1914- 
The commander of H. M. S. Elisabeth has been instructed to 
participate in the action at Tsingtau. 

1 This information was communicated to the United States Department 
of State on Aug. 27, 1914, by the Austro-Hungarian ambassador. As- 
serting that " a state of war unhappily exists between Japan and Austria- 



52 Breaking Diplomatic Relations, Austria- United States. 

In view of Japan's action against our ally, the German Empire, 
I request you to ask for your passports, notify consulates, and leave 
Japan for America together with our colony and the staffs of 
embassy and consulates. You will place our subjects and interests 
under the protection of the American ambassador. Passports will 
be handed to Japanese ambassador here. 

Note breaking diplomatic relations with United States April 8, 1917. 

Charge Grew to the Secretary of State. 

[Telegram.] 

Ameeican Embassy, 
Vienna, April 8, 1911. 
Minister for foreign affairs has just informed me that the diplo- 
matic relations between the United States and Austria-Hungary 
are broken and has handed me passports for myself and the mem- 
bers of the embassy. He states that we may leave the Monarchy 
at your convenience and that every possible courtesy will be ex- 
tended. Am telegraphing consuls to arrange their affairs and pro- 
ceed to Vienna with a view to leaving for Switzerland if possible 
at end of week. 

Following is translation of text of note handed me by minister : 

Imperial and Royal Ministry of the Imperial and 

Royal House and of Foreign Affairs, 

Vienna, April 8, 1911. 
Since the United States of America has declared that a state of war 
exists between it and the Imperial German Government, Austria-Hungary, 
as ally of the German Empire, has decided to break off the diplomatic re- 
lations with the United States, and the Imperial and Royal Embassy in 
Washington has been instructed to inform the Department of State to that 
effect. 

While regretting under these circumstances to see a termination of the 
personal relations which he has had the honor to hold with charge d'af- 
faires of the United States of America, the undersigned does not fail to 
place at the former's disposal herewith the passport for the departure 
from Austria-Hungary of himself and the other members of the embassy. 
At the same time the undersigned avails himself of the opportunity to 
renew to the charge d'affaires the expression of his most perfect consid- 
eration. 

Czernin. 
To Mr. Joseph Clark Grew, 

Charge" d' Affaires of the United States of America. 

Grew. 



Hungary," the United States issued a neutrality proclamation upon that 
date. The London Times of Aug. 27, 1914 (p. 5, b), after printing a 
Reuter dispatch of Aug. 26, 1914, stating that the Petit Journal had 
printed a telegram from Rome announcing that Austria had declared war 
on Japan, says : " Reuter's Agency was informed last night at the Japa- 
nese embassy * * * that the embassy had no news of the declaration 
of war between Austria and Japan, but had heard through an indirect 
source that the Japanese ambassador at Vienna had received his pass- 
ports." 



German Violation of Belgium. 53 

Notification of blocJcade of Montenegro, August JO, 191J t . 
[Journal Offlciel de la Republique Francaise, Aug. 12, 1914, p. 7837.] 

The Government of the (French) Republic was informed on 
August 10, 1914, by the Imperial and Royal Government of 
Austria-Hungary " that from August 10, at noon, the coast * of 
Montenegro will be held in a state of effective blockade by the 
Austro-Hungarian naval forces." 

The present notification is brought to the knowledge of those 
interested under all reservation of rights. 

BELGIUM. 

Protest against proposed German violation of neutrality August 

3, 1914- 
[Belgian gray book.] 

No. 22. — Note communicated by Monsieur Davignon, Belgian Minister for 
Foreign Affairs, to Herr von Below Saleske, German Minister. 

Brussels, August 3, 19 14. — (7 a. m.) 

The German Government stated in their note of August 2, 1914, 
that according to reliable information French forces intended to 
march on the Meuse via Givet and Namur, and that Belgium, in 
spite of the best intentions, would not be in a position to repulse, 
without assistance, an advance of French troops. 

The German Government, therefore, considered themselves com- 
pelled to anticipate this attack and to violate Belgian territory. 
In these circumstances, Germany proposed to the Belgian Govern- 
ment to adopt a friendly attitude toward her, and undertook, on 
the conclusion of peace, to guarantee the integrity of the King- 
dom and its possessions to their full extent. The note added 
that if Belgium put difficulties in the way of the advance of 
German troops, Germany would be compelled to consider her as 
an enemy, and to leave the ultimate adjustment of the relations 
between the two States to the decision of arms. 

This note has made a deep and painful impression upon the 
Belgian Government. 

The intentions attributed to France by Germany are in con- 
tradiction to the formal declarations made to us on August 1, 
in the name of the French Government. 

Moreover, if, contrary to our expectation, Belgian neutrality 
should be violated by France, Belgium intends to fulfil her in- 
ternational obligations and the Belgian army would offer the 
most vigorous resistance to the invader. 

The treaties of 1839, 1 confirmed by the treaties of 1870, 2 vouch 
for the independence and neutrality of Belgium under the guaran- 

1 British and Foreign State Papers, 27 : 990 et seq. 

2 Ibid., 60 : 13. 



54 Breaking of Belgian Relations with Germany. 

tee of the powers, and notably of the Government of His Majesty 
the King of Prussia. 

Belgium has always been faithful to her international obliga- 
tion's, she has carried out her duties in a spirit of loyal impartiality 
and she has left nothing undone to maintain and enforce respect 
for her neutrality. 

The attack upon her independence with which the German 
Government threaten her constitutes a flagrant violation of in- 
ternational law. No strategic interest justifies such a violation 
of law. 

The Belgian Government, if they were to accept the proposals 
submitted to them, would sacrifice the honor of the nation and 
betray their duty toward Europe. 

Conscious of the part which Belgium has played for more than 
80 years in the civilization of the world, they refuse to believe 
that the independence of Belgium can only be preserved at the 
price of the violation of her neutrality. 

If this hope is disappointed the Belgian Government are firmly 
resolved to repel, by all the means in their power, every attack 
upon their rights. 

Note breaking diplomatic relations with Germany. 

[Belgian Graf Book.] 

No. 31. Monsieur Davignon, Belgian Minister for Foreign Affairs, to Herr von 
Below Saleske, German Minister. 

(Translation.) 

Brussels, August 4> 1914. 
Sir: I have the honor to inform your Excellency that ,from 
to-day the Belgian Government are unable to recognize your 
diplomatic status and cease to have official relations with you. 
Your excellency will find inclosed the passports necessary for 
your departure with the staff of the legation. 

( Signed ) Davignon. 

Notification to guaranteeing powers of violation of neutrality by 

Germany August 4, 1914. 

[Belgian Gray Book.] 

No. 40. — Monsieur Davignon, Belgian Minister for Foreign Affairs, to British, 
French, and Russian Ministers at Brussels. 

Brussels, August 4, 1914. 

Sir : The Belgian Government regret to have to announce to 
your excellency that this morning the armed forces of Germany 
entered Belgian territory in violation of treaty engagements. 

The Belgian Government are firmly determined to resist by 
all the means in their power. 



Notification of Violation of Neutrality. 55 

Belgium appeals to Great Britain, France, and Russia to co- 
operate as guaranteeing powers in the defense of her territory. 

There should he concerted and joint action to oppose the forcible 
measures taken by Germany against Belgium, and, at the same 
time, to guarantee the future maintenance of the independence 
and integrity of Belgium. 

Belgium is happy to be able to declare that she will undertake 
the defense of her fortified places. 

General notification of violation of neutrality by Germany August 

5, 191-4. 

[Belgian Gray Book.] 

No. 44. — M. Davignon, Belgian Minister for Foreign Affairs, to the Belgian 
heads of missions in all countries having diplomatic relations with Belgium. 

Brussels, August 5, 19V/.. 

Sir: By the treaty of April IS, 1839, Prussia, France, Great 
Britain, Austria, and Russia declared themselves guarantors of the 
treaty concluded on the same clay between His Majesty the King 
of the Belgians and His Majesty the King of the Netherlands. The 
treaty runs : " Belgium shall form a State independent and perpetu- 
ally neutral." 1 Belgium has fulfilled all her international obliga- 
tions, she has accomplished her duty in a spirit of loyal impar- 
tiality, she has neglected no effort to maintain her neutrality and 
to cause that neutrality to be respected. 

In these circumstances the Belgian Government have learnt 
with deep pain that the armed forces of Germany, a power guaran- 
teeing Belgian neutrality, have entered Belgian territory in viola- 
tion of the obligations undertaken by treaty. 

It is our duty to protest with indignation against an outrage 
against international law provoked by no act of ours. 

The Belgian Government are firmly determined to repel by all 
the means in their power the attack thus made upon their neu- 
trality, and they recall the fact that, in virtue of article 10 of 
The Hague Convention of 1907 respecting the rights and duties of 
neutral powers and persons in the case of war by land, if a neutral 
power repels, even by force, attacks on her neutrality such action 
can not be considered as a hostile act. 

I have to request that you will ask at once for an audience with 
the minister for foreign affairs and read this dispatch to his excel- 
lency, handing him a copy. If the interview can not be granted at 
once you should make the communication in question in writing. 

Davignon. 

1 Annex to treaties of Apr. 19, 1839, art. 7, British and Foreign State 
Papers, 27 : 994. 



56 Neutrality of Congo. 

Neutrality of Congo August ?', Wl.4. 1 
[Belgian Gray Book.] 

No. 57.— Monsieur Davignon, Belgian Minister for Foreign Affairs, to the 
Belgian Ministers at Paris and London. 

[ Telegram — translation. ] 

Brussels, August 1, 1914- 
Belgium trusts that the war will not be extended to Central 
Africa. The governor of the Belgian Congo has received instruc- 
tions to maintain a strictly defensive attitude. Please ask the 
French Government [British Government] whether they intend to 
proclaim the neutrality of the French Congo [British colonies in 
the conventional basin of the Congo], in accordance with article 11 
of the general act of Berlin. 2 A telegraph from Boma reports that 
hostilities are probable between the French and Germans in the 
Ubangi. 

Davignon. 

No.' 58. — Monsieur Davignon, Belgian Minister for Foreign Affairs, to the 
> Belgian Ministers at Paris and London. 

[Translation.] 

Brussels, August 7, 191^. 

Sir : With reference to my telegram of this morning, I have the 
honor to request you to bring to the notice of the French [British] 
Government the following information : 

While instructions have been sent to the governor general of the 
Congo to take defensive measures on the common frontiers of the 
Belgian colony and of the German colonies of East Africa and the 
Cameroons, the Belgian Government have suggested to that officer 
that he should abstain from all offensive action against those 
colonies. 

In view of the civilizing mission common to colonizing nations, 
the Belgian Government desire, in effect, for humanitarian reasons, 
not to extend the field of hostilities to Central Africa. They will, 
therefore, not take the initiative of putting such a strain on civili- 
zation in that region, and the military forces which they possess 
there will only go into action in the event of their having to repel a 
direct attack on their African possessions. 

I should be glad to learn whether the French [British] Govern- 
ment share this view, and in that case whether it is their intention, 
during the present conflict, to avail themselves of article 11 of the 
general act of Berlin to neutralize such of their colonies as are 
contained in the conventional basin of the Congo. 

I am addressing an identical communication to your colleague at 
London [Paris]. 

Davignon. 

1 See British, note, Aug. 17, 1914, p. 118. 

2 Feb. 26, 1885, British and Foreign State Papers, 76 : 12. 



Departure of Belgian Minister from Luxemburg . 57 

Notification to Belgian Minister to depart from Luxemburg, 

August 10, 1914. 

[Belgian Gray Book.] 

No. 66. — Monsieur Davignon, Belgian Minister for Foreign Affairs, to the 
Belgian Ministers at London, Paris, and St. Petersburg. 1 

[Translation.] 

Brussels, Augut 10, 1914. 

Sir : I have the honor to inform you of the circumstances which 
led to the departure of the Belgian representative from Luxem- 
burg. 

The general officer commanding the German troops in the Grand 
Duchy of Luxemburg informed the German minister in that town, 
on August 8, of the desire of the military authorities for the de- 
parture of the Belgian representative at the Grand Ducal Court. 

Herr von Buch addressed to Monsieur Eyschen, president of the 
government, a note, of which the following is a translation : - 

Luxemburg, August 8, 1914. 

Your Excellency : In consequence of the completely hostile attitude 
adopted by Belgium toward Germany, the military authorities find them- 
selves obliged to insist upon the departure of the Belgian minister from 
Luxemburg. 

His excellency the general officer commanding begs Count van den 
Steen de Jehay to arrange his journey home in such a way that he may be 
able, within 24 hours, to see Gen. von Ploetz at Coblentz, with a view 
to settling the details of the further stages of his journey. It is im- 
possible for him to travel except via Treves-Coblentz. 

Von Buch. 

Monsieur Eyschen forwarded this note the same day to Count 
van den Steen de Jehay, accompanied by a letter in the following 
terms : 

Luxemburg., August 8, 1914. 

Sir : I greatly regret to have to communicate to you the inclosed copy 
of a note from the German minister, informing me that the German mili- 
tary authorities demand your departure. 

You will find in it the conditions which they attach thereto. 

Herr von Buch told me that the military authorities advise you to 
travel by railway, as an attempt to carry out your journey by motor would 
expose you to being too frequently stopped for reasons connected with the 
control of the roads. But the choice is left to you. 

The German minister will come to me for your answer. 

I can not tell you how painful it is to me to fulfill my present task. I 
shall never forget the pleasant relations which have existed between us, and 
I hope that your journey may be carried out under the best possible con- 
ditions. 

Eyschen. 

The Belgian Government, considering that the Grand Ducal 
Government had no choice in their attitude, and that the course 
they had been obliged to adopt in no way implied any discourteous 

1 See German note, Aug. 2, 1914, p. 101. 



58 Belgian Refly to, Austrian Declaration. 

intention toward the King of the Belgians or toward Belgium, 
decided that there was no reason, in these circumstances, for re- 
questing the Luxemburg charge d'affaires to leave Belgium. 

Davignon. 

Note replying to declaration of war by Austria-Hungary , August 

29, 191J h 

[Belgian Gray Book.] 

No. 78. — Monsieur Davignon, Belgian Minister for Foreign Affairs, to Baron 
Fallon, Belgian Minister at The Hague. 

[Telegram.] 

Antwekp, August 29, 191^. 

Please inform the Austrian legation through the minister for 
foreign affairs that I have received Austria-Hungary's declaration 
of war against Belgium, and add the following : 

Belgium has always entertained friendly relations with all her 
neighbors without distinction. She had scrupulously fulfilled the 
duties imposed upon her by her neutrality. If she has not been 
able to accept Germany's proposals, it is because those proposals 
contemplated the violation of her engagements toward Europe, en- 
gagements which form the conditions of the creation of the Belgian 
Kingdom. She has been unable to admit that a people, howevei 
weak they may be, can fail in their duty and sacrifice their honor 
by yielding to force. The government have waited, not only until 
the ultimatum had expired, but also until Belgian territory had 
been violated by German troops, before appealing to France and 
Great Britain, guarantors of her neutrality, under the same terms 
as are Germany and Austria-Hungary, to cooperate in the name 
and in virtue of the treaties in defense of Belgian territory. By 
repelling the invaders by force of arms, she has not even committed 
an hostile act as laid down by the provisions of article 10 of The 
Hague Convention respecting the rights and duties of neutral 
powers. 

Germany herself has recognized that her attack constitutes a 
violation of international law, and, being unable to justify it, she 
has pleaded her strategical interests. 

Belgium formally denies the allegation that Austrian and Hun- 
garian nationals have suffered treatment in Belgium contrary to 
the most primitive demands of humanity. 

The Belgian Government, from the very commencement of hostili- 
ties, have issued the strictest orders for the protection of Austro- 
Hungarian persons and property. 

Davignon. 



Break Belgian-Turkish Relations. 59 

Notes breaking diplomatic relations with Turkey, November 6, JOJ//. 

[Belgian Gray Book, No. 2.] 

No. 62. — M. Davignon, Minister for Foreign Affairs, to M. van Ypersele de 
Strihou, Belgian Minister at Bucharest. 

[Telegram.] 

Le Havre, November 0, 7.9 / //. 
The Turkish minister has asked for his passports. Notify the 
Belgian minister at Constantinople either directly or through 
the Roumanian Government to do the same and to leave Turkey 
with his staff and the consular officials. 

Davignon. 

< 

No. 64. — M. Davignon, Minister for Foreign Affairs, to all the Belgian Minis- 
ters in Foreign Countries. 

Le Havre, November 9, 191/f. 

Sir : The French Government has informed the Belgian Govern- 
ment of the state of war existing between France and Turkey, and 
in these circumstances the presence at Havre of the Turkish min- 
ister with the Belgian Government became delicate. Understand- 
ing the situation in which he was placed by ,the course of events 
His Excellency Nousret Sadoullah Bey took the initiative by ask- 
ing for his passports and by putting Turkish interests in Belgium 
under the protection of the minister of the Netherlands. 

Under date November 6, I sent to his excellency the passports 
which he had asked for, and remarked that, according to the in- 
terpretation of the Belgian Government, the rupture of diplomatic 
relations in no way implied a state of war between the two 
countries. 

The Belgian minister at Constantinople has received instruc- 
tions to ask for his passports and to leave Turkey. The care of 
Belgian interests in Turkey has been entrusted to the ambassador 
of the United States of America. 

Davignon. 

BOLIVIA. 

Extract from the Presidential Message to the Bolivian Con- 
gress of 1915, relating to neutrality. 

Making reference to these matters, we expressed not long ago 
the following ideas : " Neutrals as we are in the armed conflict of 
the great powers of the Old World, we are met by the duty of 
seeing that our neutrality be not perverted, as it threatened to be 
through a passive acceptance of the sacrifice of our economical 
and commercial interests Much could be obtained in that and 
other orders by the joint, and also the individual action harmo- 
niously developed by the nations of North, Central, and South 



60 Neutrality Message, Bolivia. 

America, if their interests could be bound together more than 
they are at present. The realization of such binding together 
must then constitute an essential topic of American policy, as, 
from it will rise the political conception so indispensable to the 
solidarity of these countries as well as necessary in abnormal 
times similar to the present, that the care of the economic inter- 
ests of an American Nation as well as the respect of its neutrality 
interests all of them." 

Although it may appear unnecessary, on account of dealing with 
the simple compliance of a duty, it may not be amiss to make it 
clear in this part, that Bolivia maintaining the best relations 
of friendship with all the belligerent countries, the attitude of 
the Government in relation to the strife that is being developed, 
has been and is of the most perfect neutrality, its acts having 
been conformed on this order with the principles contemplated in 
the International Convention of The Hague of October, 1907. 

Extract from the report of the Bolivian minister for foreign af- 
fairs, to the Ordinary Congress of 1916, relating to neutrality. 

Unfortunately the development of the national industries and 
the traffic of our international commerce are still struggling 
against the inconveniencies produced by the operations of the 
European war, without the efforts displayed by the States that 
are foreign to this conflict, to safeguard and obtain the respect 
due the plenitude of the rights annexed to the situation of neu- 
trality, having reached a desirable efficacy, the result being in- 
sufficient, in most cases, to establish the effectiveness of the inter- 
national principles and practices that were universally accepted 
as indispensable to the normal life of the nations. 

Our situation as a mediterranean country protects us from 
differences and incidents that could depreciate or place any 
doubt on the absolute correctness of our proceedings, before the 
interests and aspirations that are struggling ; but, nevertheless, 
the Government has not neglected to resort to the mediums within 
its reach to protect the rights of Bolivian commerce, in all the 
cases in which its intervention has become necessary ; and it has 
also not forgotten its duty to obtain the respect due to the rights 
of its condition as a sovereign country and claim the international 
consideration which is due to it. 

Note breaking diplomatic relations with Germany, .April 14, 1917. 
[Associated Press dispatch, April 14, 1917.] 

La Paz, Bolivia, April U/. 
The German minister and his staff have been handed their pass- 
ports by the Bolivian Government, with a note declaring that 
diplomatic relations between Bolivia and Germany have been sev- 
ered. 



Neutrality Order, Brazil. 61 

The note denounces the attacks of German submarines on neutral 
vessels as violations of international law and of The Hague con- 
vention. It recalls that the Bolivian minister to Berlin was on 
board the Holland-Lloyd liner Tubantia when that vessel was sunk 
in neutral waters a year ago. The note concludes : 

Your excellency will understand that although we regret the breach 
of diplomatic relations between Bolivia and the German Empire, such rela- 
tions have become insupportable under existing circumstances. In conse- 
quence your excellency will find herewith passports for yourself and the 
members of your legation. 

The note declares that German subjects and property will enjoy 
all liberties guaranteed by law, provided that they do not commit 
any act of delinquency, either collectively or as individuals. 



BRAZIL. 

Order that complete neutrality be observed during the war of the 
German Empire against the French Republic and the Empire of 
Russia. 1 

[Decree N. 11,038 of Aug. 4, 1914.] 

The President of the Republic of the United, States of Brazil : 

The Federal Government having received official notification 
from the Government of the German Empire that it finds itself in 
a state of war with the French Republic and the Empire of Russia. 

Resolved, That there be faithfully and rigorously observed and 
carried out by the Brazilian authorities the rules of neutrality set 
forth in the circular 2 which accompanied the decree n. 11,037, of 
the 4th of the current month and year, as long as the said state 
of war shall last. 

Rio de Janeiro, August 4, 1914, 93d of the independence and 26th 
of the Republic. 

Heemes R. da Fonseca. 
Feedeeico Affonso de Caevalho. 



1 Similar decrees were issued as follows : No. 11,066, war between Great 
Britain and Germany, Aug. 12, 1914 ; No. 11,068, France and Austria-Hun- 
gary, Aug. 17, 1914 ; No. 11,069, Austria-Hungary and Russia, Aug. 17, 1914 ; 
No. 11,092, Japan and Germany, Aug. 24, 1914 ; No. 11,118, Austria-Hun- 
gary and Servia, Aug. 31, 1914 ; No. 11,122, Austria-Hungary and Belgium, 
Sept. 3, 1914 ; No. 11,199, Great Britain and Austria-Hungary, Oct. 7, 1914 ; 
No. 11,353, Great Britain and Turkey, Nov. 11, 1914 ; No. 11,590, Italy and 
Austria-Hungary, May 24, 1915 ; No. 11,684, Italy and Turkey, Aug. 24, 
1915 ; No. 11,751, Great Britain and Bulgaria, Oct. 22, 1915 ; No. 11,763, 
Italy and Bulgaria, Oct. 27, 1915 ; No. 11,984, Portugal and Germany, Mar. 
10, 1916. 

2 International Law Topics, 1916, p. 10. 



62 Use of Brazilian, Ports. 

Unloading, in Brazilian ports, of merchandise destined to Brazil 
and located on hoard of captured ships. 

[Decree N. 11,093 of Aug. 24, 1914.] 

The President of the Republic of the United States of Brazil : 

Considering the advisability of favoring, as far as possible, the 
supplying of the markets of Brazil, facilitating the entrance of 
merchandise destined to them ; 

Considering, also, the practice followed previously by Brazil, 
as neutral, in occasions of war between foreign powers ; 

Resolved, to include in article 20 of the rules of neutrality, 
established by the decree n. l^OST, 1 of the 4th of the current month, 
also the case in which the merchant ship, captured by any one of 
the belligerents, comes or is brought to a Brazilian port to dis- 
charge the merchandise destined to Brazil, the said article remain- 
ing drawn up as follows : 

Article 20. The captures made by a belligerent may only be brought 
to a Brazilian port in case of unseaworthiness, stress of weather, lack of 
fuel or provisions, or in case of discharge of merchandise destined to 
Brazil, and, also, under the conditions provided hereinbelow in Article 21. 
The prize must depart as soon as the cause or causes of her arrival cease. - 
Failing that departure the Brazilian authority will notify the commander 
of the prize to leave at once, and, if not obeyed, will take the necessary 
measures to have the prize released with her officers and crew, and to 
intern the prize crew placed on board by the captor. Any prize entering 
a Brazilian port or harbor, except under the aforesaid five conditions, will 
be likewise released. 

Add after the article 21 the following single paragraph : 

In any one of the hypotheses of the Articles 20 and 21 the Brazilian 
Government reserves to itself the right to demand the disembarking from 
on board the prizes of the merchandise destined to Brazil. 

Rio de Janeiro, August 24, 1914, 93d of the independence and 
26th of the Republic. 

Hermes R. da Fonseca. 

LaTJRO MtJLLEE. 

Declares ivithout effect article 24 1 of the rules of neutrality which 
accompanied the decree N. 11037, of August h of the current 
year. 

[Decree N. 11209A of Oct. 14, 1914.] 

The President of the Republic of the United States of Brazil : 
There being difficulties in the prac.ical execution of the disposi- 
tions of the article 24 of the rules of neutrality which accompanied 
the decree N. 11037, of the 4th of last August. 

Resolved, To declare without effect article 24 of the same gen- 
eral rules of neutrality during the time which the present state of 
war may last between various powers. 

1 International Law Topics, 1916, p. 13. 



Control of Merchant Marine. 63 

Rio de Janeiro, October 14, 1914, Ninety-third of the independ- 
ence and twenty-sixth of the Republic. 

Hermes R. da Fonseca. 

LAURO MtJLLER. 

Declares of public necessity, as long as the European war shall last, 
the taking over of the ships of the national merchant marine. 

[Decree N. 11806 of Dec. 9, 1915.] 

The President of the Republic of the United States of Brazil : 

Considering that coasting navigation can not be carried on save 
by national ships (Constitution, art. 13, single paragraph) ; 

That, therefore, it is a necessity of public order to take precau- 
tions, so that the national merchant marine may not disappear or 
be reduced to the point of not being able to lend the service to which 
the Federal Constitution destined it ; 

That these precautions are imposed, at the present moment, by 
the Government finding itself in the presence of a well-defined case 
of defense of the State (law of Sept. 9, 1826, art. 1, n. 1 ; decree n. 
4956 of Sept. 9, 1903, art. 2, n. 1) defense of vital ecomomic inter- 
ests, and especially of the existing juridical and constitutional 
order ; 

Considering, also, that the present condition of the country, with 
the calamity of the drought in different States of the North, de- 
mands exceptional increase in the means of transportation, either 
in order to attend to those who, leaving the afflicted zone, where 
they do not find means of subsistence, seek refuge in other points of 
the Republic, or that succor may be furnished, in provisions of 
first necessity or in materials for public works ; 

That the sending of succor in times of famine or of extraordinary 
calamity, as is the drought, with which the interior of the north is 
suffering cruelly, is a case of public necessity, in the terms of the 
law which defined it (law of Sept. 9, 1S26, art. 1, 3°), and conse- 
quently authorizes the disappropriation permitted by the federal 
constitution, article 72, section 17, as exception to the assurance 
given by it to the right of private property, in its fullness ; 

Considering, also, that the sale of national ships to foreigners 
might, by the ulterior destination which shall be given them, alter 
the situation of scrupulous neutrality which Brazil resolved to 
maintain in the war in which at present various friendly nations 
find themselves involved ; 

That in the abnormal situation in which the civilized world finds 
itself it behooves the Government of the union to have the greatest 
care and all vigilance, in order to avoid international frictions 
which might compromise the cordiality of the relations of perfect 
friendship in which fortunately we live with other peoples ; 



64 Breaking Diplomatic Relations, Brazil. 

Considering, finally, that the national merchant marine might, 
eventually, become auxiliary of the navy, and that, consequently, 
to prevent its dissolution is providing for the defense of the 
State ; 

And using the attributes which article 48, n. 1, of the constitution 
confers upon him, 
Decrees : 

Art. 1. There is declared of public necessity, as long as the 
present European war shall last, the taking over of the ships 
of the national merchant marine. 

Art. 2. The taking over will be carried out by the attorney of 
the Republic before the federal justice in the terms of the law in 
effect. 

Rio de Janeiro, December 9, 1915, ninety-fourth of the inde- 
pendence and twenty-seventh of the Republic. 

Wenceslau Braz P. Gomes. 
Carlos Maximiliano Pereira dos Santos. 
Lauro Muller. 
. Alexandrino Faria de Alencar. 
Joao Pandia Calogeras. 
A. Tavares de Lyra. 
Jose Caetano de Faria. 
Jose Rufino Bezerra Cavalcanti. 

Notification of breaking of diplomatic relations loith Germany 

April 11, 1917. 

Rio Janeiro, April 11, 1917. 

Considering that the inquiry and the conclusions cabled by the 
legation at Paris on the subject of torpedoing of the steamer 
Parana established the fact that the Parana was proceeding under 
reduced speed, was illuminated outside and inside, including the 
shield with the name " Brazil," and 

Considering that the steamer received no warning to stop, ac- 
cording to the unanimous deposition of the crew, and 

Further, that the steamer was torpedoed and was shelled five 
times, and that the submarine made no attempt to save life, 

Then, in the presence of such aggravating circumstances and in 
accord with the note of February 9 and the telegram of February 
13, sent by the Brazilian Government to the legation at Berlin, the 
Brazilian Government severs relations with Germany. 

Note on revocation of neutrality, June 4, 1917. 

[United States Official Bulletin, No. 37.] 

June 4, 1917. 

Mr. Secretary of State : The President of the Republic has just 
instructed me to inform your excellency's Government that he has 
approved the law which revokes Brazil's neutrality in the war 



Declaration of War against Germany. 65 

between the United States of America and the German Empire. 
The Republic thus recognized the fact that one of the belligerents 
is a constituent portion of the American Continent and that we 
are bound to that belligerent by traditional friendship and the 
same sentiment in the defense of the vital interests of America 
and the accepted principles of law. 

Brazil ever was and is now free from warlike ambitions, and 
while it always refrained from showing any partiality in the 
European conflict, it could no longer stand unconcerned when the 
struggle involved the United States, actuated by no interest what- 
ever but solely for the sake of international judicial order, and 
when Germany included us and the other neutral powers in the 
most violent acts of war. 

While the comparative lack of reciprocity on the part of the 
American Republics divested until now the Monroe doctrine of its 
true character, by permitting of an interpretation based on the 
prerogatives of their sovereignty, the present events which brought 
Brazil even now to the side of the United States at a critical 
moment in the history of the world are still imparting to our for- 
eign policy a practical shape of continental solidarity, a policy, 
however, that was also that of the former regime whenever any 
of the other sister friendly nations of the American Continent was 
concerned. The Republic strictly observed our political and dip- 
lomatic traditions and remained true to the liberal principles in 
which the nation was nurtured. 

Thus understanding our duty and Brazil taking the position to 
which its antecedents and the conscience of a free people pointed, 
whatever fate the morrow may have in store for us, we shall con- 
serve the constitution which governs us and which has not yet 
been surpassed in the guaranties due to the rights, lives, and prop- 
erty of foreigners. 

In bringing the above-stated resolution to your excellency's 
knowledge, I beg you to be pleased to convey to your Govern- 
ment the sentiments of unalterable friendship of the Brazilian 
people and Government. 

I avail myself of the opportunity to reiterate to your excellency 
the assurances of my highest consideration. 

Domicio da Gama. 

Declaration of war against Germany, October 26, 1917. 
[United States Official Bulletin, No. 145, p. 6.] 

The Department of State has been informed that at 6.20 o'clock 
Friday afternoon the Brazilian Senate unanimously voted the fol- 
lowing resolution which had been approved by the Chamber at 3 
o'clock : 

A state of war between Brazil and the German Empire, provoked by the_ 
latter, is hereby recognized and proclaimed, and the President of the 
43760—18 5 



66 Declarations, Bulgaria. 

Republic, in accordance with the request contained in his message to the 
National Congress, is hereby authorized to take such steps for the na- 
tional defense and public safety as he shall consider adequate, to open 
the necessary credits and to authorize the credit operations required. 
All previous measures to the contrary are hereby revoked. 



BULGARIA. 

Neutrality declaration, July 29, 1914. 

[Russian Orange Book, No. 1.] 

No. 52. — The Charge d'Affaires in Serbia to the Minister of Foreign Affairs. 

[Telegram.] 

Nish, 16 (29th) July, 19 V h 
To-day the minister of Bulgaria, in the name of his Government, 
ii) formed Pachitch that Bulgaria would observe neutrality. 

Stkandtman. 

Notification of hostilities with Serbia, October 12, 1915. 
[London Times, Oct. 14, 1915, p. 9, f.] 

Sofia, October 12, 1915. 

This evening the Ministerial Narodni Prava publishes the fol- 
lowing : 

Near Bielogradchik yesterday (Monday, Oct. 11, 1915) morn- 
ing Serbian troops, without any cause, attacked our forces. 1 In 
reply to this foolish provocation our troops, in order to defend 
themselves better, captured, after a short conflict, the heights of 
Kitka, in Serbian territory. The fighting lasted from 7 a. m. 
until 6 p. m. 

Notification of existence of war with Serbia, October 14, 1915. 
[London Times, Oct. 15, 1915, p. 9, d.] 

Athens, October 14, 1915. 
The Bulgarian minister announced to-day to the Greek Gov- 
ernment that, in consequence of Serbian attacks at two points on 

1 "Athens, October 11, 1915. 

This afternoon the Bulgarians began the attack on Serbia at Kadibogas, 
a point in the direction of Kniashevatz." (London Times, Oct. 13, 1915, 
P. 9, f.) 

"The Serbian Legation in London learned yesterday (Oct. 12, 1915), 
from Nish, that during Monday (Oct. 11, 1915) the Bulgarians had begun 
to attack in the direction of the Vlasma." (London Times, Oct. 13, 1915, 
P. 9, f.) 

" Bucharest, October 12, 1915. 

According to telegrams from the frontier, the Bulgarians opened hostili- 
ties against Serbia on Monday (Oct. 11, 1915) at 4 a. m. by bombarding a 
train carrying munitions." (London Times, Oct. 14, 1915, p. 9, f.) 



War against Roumania. 67 

the Bulgarian frontier, Kustendil and Tren, as a result of which 
70 Bulgarians were killed and 500 wounded, Bulgaria is at war 
with Serbia since 8 o'clock this morning. 

Declaration of tear against Roumanid, September 1, 1916. 

[Revue Generale de Droit International Public, Documents, 23: 199.] 

M. Radoslavoff, president of the council of Bulgaria, to the Roumanian minister 

at Sofia. 

I have had the honor to indicate during the last month to the 
foyal legation of Roumania, either by notes verbales or by letters 
addressed to your excellency, or in his absence to M. Langa- 
Rascano, charge d'affaires, the very numerous incidents which 
have constantly held on the alert the troops charged with sur- 
veillance of the Roumano-Bulgarian frontier. 

These incidents, more and more frequent, always provoked 
from the Roumanian side, in spite of the more than correct atti- 
tude of the Bulgarian authorities and in spite of the assurances 
and protestations of friendship given by the Roumanian Legation, 
have ended by bringing to light intentions which the Bulgarian 
Government has hesitated to suppose of its neighbor, the recent 
past not having been sufficient to make them forget the senti- 
ments of lively sympathy of the Bulgarian people toward Rou- 
mania. These sentiments date from a distant past, and in the 
recent past of which I speak your excellency has not forgotten 
the Balkan war of 1912-13, in which Roumania profited by the 
bloody trial which the Bulgarian people were enduring to seize 
from them, when they were struggling for their existence, a 
strip of territory, thus manifesting a tenacious ill will which 
nothing can justify. 

The peace of Bucharest followed, which imposed on Bulgaria 
most heavy sacrifices. Nevertheless, she was resigned and wished 
to offer to her neighbor the hand of friendship. She was disap- 
pointed in her hopes. Since then evidences of animosity have 
continued without intermission. There was first the attitude of 
the Roumanian press, which overflowed with insults to Bulgaria 
and her sovereign ; the endless difficulties over the transit of 
merchandise destined to Bulgaria; the refusal to deliver, in 
spite of regular contracts, products of prime necessity purchased 
in Roumania — salt, petrol, etc. There are the vexations to which 
the Bulgarians are exposed who live in Roumania or only cross 
its territory ; the closure of the frontier on July 13 to merchan- 
dise and travelers from and to Bulgaria ; the protests which the 
royal legation of Roumania at Sofia made with the greatest en- 
ergy on the subject of pretended incidents provoked by the 
Bulgarian frontier guards, incidents which had never taken place, 



68 Proclamation to Bulgarians. 

such as that of Rahova, in reference to which I had the honor to 
write your excellency on the 15th of August, and M. Rascano on 
the 21st of the same month. 

To the incessant frontier incidents, but of a character more or 
less mild, succeeded genuine battles, organized by Roumanian 
detachments against the Bulgarian frontier posts. Post No. 9, 
to the east of Kemanlar, was attacked on the night of August 
25-26. Posts Nos. 10 and 13 were attacked at the same time. 
There were indeed veritable operations of war which the Rou- 
manian troops carried on at the frontier ; the bombardment of 
Kaldovo on the 28th of August, and that of Rousse the same day. 
The 29th of August a Roumanian detachment opened heavy fire 
on a Bulgarian post situated opposite them, and soon after the 
fire extended along the frontier line up to Bulgarian Post No. 17. 

Similarly, on the shores of the Black Sea the Roumanian fron- 
tier guards vigorously attacked the Bulgarian posts and were 
repulsed. Finally M. Radeff has been forbidden, since August 28, 
to communicate with his Government. His passports were sent 
to him without the Bulgarian Government having been able to 
give him at the time instructions with reference to the circum- 
stances which developed into a rupture of relations. On the 30th 
it was your excellency who demanded his passports and notified 
of the rupture of diplomatic relations as the natural consequence 
of the event which had preceded. 

In the meantime, on the night of the 30th-31st, without an 
express declaration of war, the Roumanian Army tried to con- 
struct a bridge over the Danube before Kladovo and to cross the 
river in this way. Your excellency understands what is then 
the solution desired by the Roumanian Government, and which 
is compelled by the turn of events. The situation being given, 
as that Government has created it, Bulgaria is obliged to accept 
the fait accompli, and I have the honor, M. Minister, to bring to 
the knowledge of your excellency that from this morning it con- 
sfders itself in a state of war with Roumania. 

Accept the assurance of my highest consideration. 

Radoslavoff. 

Proclamation of war against Roumania, September 1 (14), 1916. 
I Revue Generale de Droit International Public, Doc. 23 : 200.] 

Bulgarians ! In 1913, after the termination of the Bulgarian 
war, when the Bulgarians were obliged to fight against their 
disloyal allies, our northern neighbor, Roumania, treacherously 
attacked us under pretence of a breach of the balance of power 
in the Balkans, and invaded the undefended portions of our 
fatherland without meeting resistance there. By this predatory 
invasion of our country she not only prevented us from harvest- 
ing the holy fruits of the war, but also succeeded, as a result 



Vessels in Chilean Waters. 69 

of the peace of Bucharest, in humiliating us and depriving us 
of our fertile districts of the Dobrudsha, the nucleus of our 
Kingdom. Obeying my orders, our brave army fired not a single 
shot against the Roumanian soldier, and allowed him to gain a 
sorry military fame of which he has not dared to boast till now. 

Bulgarians ! To-day, when Bulgaria, with the assistance of the 
brave troops of our allies, has succeeded in repulsing Serbia's 
attack on our territory, in defeating Serbia and in destroying 
her, and in realizing the unity of the Bulgarian people ; to-day, 
when Bulgaria is mistress of almost all the territory over which 
she has historical and ethnological claims ; to-day, this self- 
same neighbor Roumania has declared war on our ally Austria - 
Hungary, this time also under the pretense that the European 
war involves important territorial changes in the Balkans which 
would menace her future. 

Without any declaration of war from Bulgaria, Roumanian 
troops had already on August 28 bombarded Rustchuk and 
other Bulgarian Danube towns. Owing to this provocation by 
Roumania, I command our brave army to chase the enemy from 
the frontiers of my Kingdom, to destroy a perfidious neighbor, 
to secure the unity of the Bulgarian people, which was achieved 
at the cost of so many sacrifices, and to free our brothers in 
the Dobrudsha from slavery. We will fight hand in hand with the 
brave and victorious troops of our mighty allies. 

I summon the Bulgarian nation to new glorious deeds of heroism 
to crown the present w T ork of liberation. May the Bulgarian 
soldier go on from victory to victory. Forward ! 

Ferdinand. 

Announcement of mining of Bulgarian coast, October 15, 1915. 
[London Times, Oct. 16, 1915, p. 8, d.] 

Sofia, October 15, 1915. 
It is semiofficially announced that the Bulgarian coast on the 
Black and Aegean seas is mined, that the lighthouse lights have 
been extinguished, and that the entry of vessels into the port of 
Dedeagatch must in the future be conducted under the guidance of 
Bulgarian pilots.— Reuter. 

CHILE. 

Decree relating to the admission of vessels which have violated 
neutrality, September 30, 1915. 

No. 1280. Department of Foreign Affairs, 

Santiago, September 30, 1915. 
In order to assure in efficacious manner on the part of the 
belligerents a respect for the neutrality declared 1 by the Supreme 
Government in the present European conflict, and mindful of the 

1 International Law Topics, 1916, p. 15. 



70 Breaking Chinese Diplomatic Relations. 

provisions of paragraph 2 or article 9 of the thirteenth conven- 
tion at The Hague 

/ decree that: No boat of the belligerent countries which shall 
have violated, or may violate in the future, the rules of neu- 
trality adopted because of the present European struggle shall be 
admitted in the ports of the Republic, except in the case of acci- 
dent provided for in article 17 of the thirteenth convention of 
the Second Hague Conference. 

The ship which shall infringe this provision shall be interned 
in conformity with article 24 of the same thirteenth convention. 

Barros Luco. 
Alejandre Lira. 

CHINA. 

Presidential mandate breaking diplomatic relations with Ger- 
many, March 14, 1917. 

Our country has maintained strict neutrality since the out- 
break of the war in Europe. To our surprise, a note was re- 
ceived from the German Government on the 2d of February of 
the present year, stating that beginning with that date, neutral 
ships would, in accordance with Germany's new blockade 
measures, sail in certain prohibited zones at their own risk, etc. 

In view of the fact that previous to that time Chinese life and 
property had suffered heavy losses because of the German policy 
of attacking merchantmen, and that such losses would assume a 
far greater magnitude consequent upon the plan of unrestricted 
submarine warfare, we lodged a strong protest with Germany. 
We also declared then that if Germany should fail to change her 
policy, our country would be constrained to sever existing diplo- 
matic relations. 

It was our earnest hope that Germany would not insist on her 
policy, so that the friendly relations hitherto existing between 
the two countries might be preserved. Unfortunately, Germany 
has not yet modified her policy of submarine warfare although 
our note of protest has been delivered over a month, and during 
all that time many cases of loss of life by our people have oc- 
curred owing to the sinking of merchantmen of the various 
powers. 

A formal note of reply was, however, received from Germany 
on the 11th instant. Against our expectations and wishes, the 
reply stated that the blockade warfare could not be cancelled. 
Therefore, for the purpose of upholding international law and 
to safeguard the lives and property of our people, it is hereby 



Breaking Diplomatic Relations, China. 71 

declared that from to-day we sever our diplomatic relations with 
Germany. 
Bearing the seal of the President, and signed by 

Tuan Chi-jui, 
Prime Minister and Minister of War, Etc. 
(Here follow the signatures of the other cabinet ministers.) 

Note breaking diplomatic relations with Germany, noon, March 

14, 1917. 

Chinese Foreign Office to German Minister at Peking - . 

With reference to the new submarine policy of Germany, the 
Government of the Republic of China, actuated by the desire to 
further the cause of the peace of the world and to maintain the 
sanctity of international law, addressed a protest to Your Excel- 
lency on February 9 and declared that if, contrary to its expecta- 
tions, its protest was ineffectual, the Chinese Government would 
be constrained to sever the diplomatic relations at present exist- 
ing between the two countries. During the lapse of a month no 
heed has been paid to the protest of the Chinese Government in 
the activities of German submarines, which have caused the loss 
of many Chinese lives. 

On March 10 a reply was received from Your Excellency. Al- 
though it states that the German Government is willing to open 
negotiations to arrive at: a plan for the protection of Chinese life 
and property, yet it declares that it is difficult for Germany to 
cancel her blockade policy and, therefore, is not in accord with 
the object of the protest, and the Chinese Government, to its deep 
regret, considers its protest ineffectual. 

Therefore, the Chinese Government is constrained to sever the 
diplomatic relations at present existing with the German Govern- 
ment. I have the honor to send herewith a passport for Your 
Excellency, the members of the legation staff, and their families 
and retinue, for their protection while leaving Chinese territory. 

As regards the German consular officers, this ministry has in- 
structed the different commissioners for foreign affairs in the 
treaty ports to issue them similar passports for leaving the 
country. 

Presidential mandate declaring war on Germany and Austria- 
Hungary, August 14, 1917. 

On the 9th day of the 2d month of this year we addressed a 
protest to the German Government against the policy of sub- 
marine warfare inaugurated by Germany, which was considered 
by this Government as contrary to international law and imper- 
iling neutral lives and property, and declared therein, in case 
the protest be ineffectual, we would be constrained, much to our 
regret, to sever diplomatic relations with Germany. 



72 War against Austria and Germany. 

Contrary to our expectations, however, no modification was 
made in her submarine policy after the lodging of our protest. 
On the contrary, the number of neutral vessels and belligerent 
merchantmen destroyed in an indiscriminate manner were daily 
increasing and the Chinese lives lost were numerous. Under 
such circumstances, although we might yet remain indifferent 
and endure suffering, with the meager hope of preserving a tem- 
porary peace, yet in so doing we would never be able to satisfy 
our people, who are attached to righteousness and sensible to 
disgrace, nor could we justify ourselves before our sister states 
which had acted without, hesitation in obedience to the dictates 
of the sense of duty. Both here, as well as in the friendly 
states, the cause of indignation was the same, and among the 
people of this country there could be found no difference of 
opinion. This Government thereupon being compelled to con- 
sider the protest as being ineffectual, notified, on the 14th of 
the 3rd month, the German Government of the severance of dip- 
lomatic relations and at the same time the events taking place 
from the beginning up to that time were announced for the gen- 
eral information of the public. 

What we have desired is peace ; what we have respected is 
international law ; what we have to protect are the lives and 
property of our people. As we originally had no other grave 
causes of enmity against Germany, if the German Government 
had manifested repentance for the deplorable consequences result- 
ing from its policy of warfare, it might still be expected to modify 
that policy in view of the common indignation of the whole world. 
That was what we eagerly desired and it was the reason why we 
felt reluctant to treat Germany as a common enemy. Neverthe- 
less, during the five months following the severance of the diplo- 
matic relations the submarine attacks continued in operation as 
vigorously as before. It is not Germany alone, but Austria- 
Hungary as well, which adopted and pursued this policy without 
abatement. Not only has international law been thereby violated, 
but also our people are suffering injury and loss. The most sin- 
cere hope on our part to bring about a better state of affairs is 
now shattered. Therefore it is hereby declared, against Germany 
as well as Austro-Hungary, that a state of war exists commenc- 
ing from 10 o'clock of the 14th day of the 8th month of the 6th 
year of the Republic of China. In consequence thereof all trea- 
ties, agreements, conventions concluded between China and Ger- 
many, and between China and Austria-Hungary, as well as such 
parts of the international protocols and international agreements 
as concern the relations between China and Germany, and be- 
tween China and Austria-Hungary, are in conformity with the 
law of nations and international practice, abrogated. This Gov- 
ernment, however, will respect The Hague conventions and her 
international agreement respecting the humane conduct of war. 



Chinese Declaration against Germany. 73 

Tlie chief object of our declaration of war is to put an end to 
the calamities of war and to hasten the restoration of peace, 
which, it is hoped, our people will fully appreciate. Seeing, how- 
ever, that our people have not yet at the present time recovered 
from sufferings on account of the recent political disturbances 
and the calamity again befalls us in the breaking out of the pres- 
ent war, I, the President of this Republic, can not help having 
profound sympathy for our people when I take into consideration 
their further suffering. I would never resort to this step of striv- 
ing for the existence of our nation unless and until I, consider- 
ing it no longer possible to avoid it, am finally forced to this 
momentous decision. 

I can not bear to think that through us the dignity of inter- 
national law should be impaired, or the position in the family of 
nations should be undermined or the restoration of the world's 
peace and happiness should be retarded. It is, therefore, hoped 
that all of our people will exert their utmost in these hours of 
hardship, with a view to maintaining and strengthening the exist- 
ence of the Chinese Republic, so that we may establish ourselves 
amidst the family of nations and share with them the happiness 
and benefits derived therefrom. 

(Countersigned) Gen. Ttjan Chi-jtji, 

Prime Minister and Minister of War, etc. 

(Here follow the signatures of the other cabinet ministers.) 

Declaration of war against Germany transmitted through the 
'Netherlands minister to Peking, 10 a. m., August Hi, 1911. 

Peking, 14th August, 1917. 

Tour Excellency : On 9th February last, the Chinese Gov- 
ernment addressed a protest to the German Government against 
the policy of submarine warfare inaugurated by the Central 
European Powers, which was considered by the . Chinese Gov- 
ernment as contrary to the established principles of public in- 
ternational law and imperiling Chinese lives and property. The 
Chinese Government declared that in case its protest be ineffec- 
tual China would be constrained, much to her regret, to sever 
diplomatic relations with Germany. 

Contrary to expectations the submarines . of the Central Eu- 
ropean Powers continued to sink neutral and belligerent mer- 
chantmen whereby more Chinese were lost, and the Chinese Gov- 
ernment could not but consider its protest to be ineffectual and 
notified Germany on 14th March last of the severance of diplo- 
matic relations. 

The Chinese Government still expected that the general con- 
demnation of that policy — a policy contrary to public interna- 
tional law and violating the principles of humanity — would lead 



74 Chinese Declaration against Austria. 

to its modification, but it now finds that its expectations are no 
longer realizable. 

The Chinese Government, actuated by the desire to maintain 
international law and protect Chinese lives and property, can 
not remain indifferent to this state of affairs indefinitely, and 
therefore now declares that a state of war exists between China 
and Germany from 10 o'clock a. m. of the 14th day of the 8th 
month of the sixth year of the Republic of China. In conse- 
quence hereof the treaty of 2d September, 1861, the supple- 
mentary convention of 31st March, 1880, and all other treaties, 
conventions and agreements of whatever nature, at present in 
force between China and Germany, are abrogated, as also all 
such provisions of the protocol of 7th September, 1901, and other 
similar international agreements as only concern China and Ger- 
many. China, however, declares that she will conform to the 
provisions of the Hague conventions and other international 
agreements respecting the humane conduct of war. 

Besides telegraphically requesting the Danish Government to 
inform the German Government, I have the honor to request Your 
Excellency to transmit this note to the German Government. 

I avail, etc. 

His Excellency, 

JONKEER BEERLAERTS VAN BlOKLAND, 

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary of The Netherlands. 

Declaration of war against Austria-Hungary, 10 a. m., August lit, 

1917. 1 

Peking, Utth August, 1917. 
Your Excellency : On 9th February last the Chinese Govern- 
ment addressed a protest to the German Government against the 
policy of submarine warfare inaugurated by the central European 
powers, which was considered by the Chinese Government as con- 

1 The Austro-Hungarian minister replied as follows : 

Peking, lkfh August, 1917. 

Your Excellency : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of 
your note of to-day of the following tenor : 

(Here follows text of Chinese note above.) 

I can not here enter, into the arguments contained in the declaration 
of war, but feel bound to state that I must consider this declaration 
as unconstitutional and illegal, seeing that, according to so high an 
authority as the former President Li Yuan-hung, such a declaration 
requires the approbation of both Houses of Parliament. 

His Excellency, Wang Ta-hsieh, 

Minister of Foreign Affairs. 

The Chinese Government returned this communication from the Austrian 
minister without comment. The grounds taken by Foreign Minister Wang 
Ta-hsieh were that no communications could be received from tbe Austrian 
representative since he had ceased to have a diplomatic status. 



Notification of Declaration. 75 

trary to the established principles of public international law and 
imperiling Chinese lives and property. 

The Chinese Government, considering its protest to be ineffec- 
tual, later notified the German Government, on 14th March last, 
of the severance of diplomatic relations with Germany, which fact 
was duly communicated to your excellency. 

As the policy inaugurated by the central European powers — a 
policy contrary to public international law and violating the prin- 
ciples of humanity — remains unmodified, the Chinese Government, 
actuated by the desire to maintain international law and protect 
Chinese lives and property, can not remain indifferent indefinitely. 

Inasmuch as Austria-Hungary is acting in this matter in con- 
cert with Germany, the Chinese Government is unable to adopt a 
different attitude toward them, and therefore now declares that 
a state of war exists between China and Austria-Hungary from 
10 o'clock a. m. of the 14th day of the eighth month of the sixth 
year of the Republic of China. In consequence thereof the treaty 
of 2d September, 1869, and all other treaties, conventions, and 
agreements of whatever nature at present in force between China 
and Austria-Hungary are abrogated, as also all such provisions of 
the protocol of 7th September, 1901, and other similar inter- 
national agreements as only concern China and Austria-Hungary. 
China, however, declares that she will conform to the provisions 
of The Hague conventions and other international agreements re- 
specting the humane conduct of war. 

Besides telegraphing to the Chinese minister at Vienna to in- 
form the Austro-Hungarian Government and to apply for his pass- 
port, I have the honor to send you herewith passports for Your 
Excellency, the members of the Austro-Hungarian legation, and 
their families and retinue for protection while leaving Chinese 
territory. With regard to consular officers of Austria-Hungary 
in China, this ministry has instructed the different commissioners 
of foreign affairs to issue them likewise passports for leaving the 
country. 

I avail, etc. 

His Excellency Dr. A. von Rosthorn, - 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 

Plenipotentiary of Austria-Hungary. 

Notification of declaration of war against Germany and Austria- 
Hungary, August 14, 1917. 

Chinese Foreign Office to Ministers of Neutral and Allied Powers at Peking. 

Peking, 14th August, 1917. 
Your Excellency: 

On 14th March last, the Chinese Government severed its diplo- 
matic relations with Germany, which fact was duly communi- 
cated to Your Excellency for transmission to your Government. 



76 - Chinese Notification to United States. 

As there is no hope of the Central European Powers modify- 
ing their policy of submarine warfare — a policy contrary to 
public international law and violating the principles of human- 
ity — the Chinese Government has therefore declared that a state 
of war exists simultaneously between -China and Germany as 
well as Austria-Hungary as from 10 o'clock a. m, of the 14th 
clay of the 8th month of the sixth year of the Republic of China, 
and that all the treaties of whatever nature between China and 
Germany as well as Austria-Hungary are abrogated, as also all 
such provisions of the Protocol of 7th September, 1901, and other 
similar international agreements as only concern China and 
Germany as well as Austria-Hungary. The Chinese Govern- 
ment, however, declares that it will conform to the provisions 
of the Hague Conventions and other international agreements 
respecting the humane conduct of war. 

I have the honor to request Your Excellency to take note of 
this communication and to be so good as to transmit its contents 
to your Government. 

I avail, etc. 

Notification to the United States of declaration of war against 
Germany and Austria-Hungary, August 14, 1917. 1 

[U. S. Official Bulletin, No. 84, p. 1.] 

The Chinese Minister to the Secretary of State. 

August 14, 1917. 
Sie : In pursuance of instructions from my Government, I have 
the honor to inform you that China having previously broken off 
diplomatic relations with Germany, after protesting in vain against 
the policy of submarine warfare adopted by the central powers of 
Europe, in the hope that Germany might change that policy out of 

1 Washington, August 16. — China's official explanation of the declara- 
tion of a state of war with Germany and Austria-Hungary, in the form of 
a statement by the foreign office, was received last night at the Chinese 
Legation here. It said : 

"In view of the many kinds of German intrigue seeking to create disorder 
in China, the Chinese Government found it impossible to wait for the 
convocation of parliament before declaring the existence of the state of 
war with Germany, especially since the rupture of diplomatic relations 
with the Imperial German Government had been previously approved by 
parliament almost unanimously. 

"Austria-Hungary has all along been acting in concert with the German 
Imperial Government. Moreover, the Austrians, like the Germans, have 
special settlements in China, which might easily be used by Germans, 
who speak the same language as Austrians, as a base of operation for 
further intrigues, thereby rendering the situation all the more difficult for 
China to cope with. 

" The Chinese Government, therefore, was unable to adopt a different 
attitude toward Austria-Hungary, but was constrained, as an act of self- 
protection, simultaneously to accord her the same treatment as was ac- 
corded Germany." 



Attitude of Costa Rica and Cuba. 77 

consideration for the adverse opinion of the world, now the Gov- 
ernment of the Republic, having been disappointed in this hope, 
in order to manifest proper respect for the law of nations and to 
protect the lives and property of its citizens, declares that a state 
of war exists with Germany and Austria-Hungary from 10 o'clock 
in the forenoon of the 14th instant, and that it will observe all the 
stipulations of the conventions signed at the International Peace 
Conferences at The Hague and other international agreements 
relating to civilized warfare. 

Accept, sir, the renewed assurances of my highest consideration. 

Vi Kyuin Wellington Koo. 

COSTA RICA. 

Note stating attitude toward war between United States and 
Germany April 12, 1917. 1 

[Note delivered by R. Fernandez Guardia, diplomatic agent of the Tinoco 

Government.] 

The United States having declared that a state of war exists 
with the Imperial Government, my Government has instructed me 
to reiterate to your excellency the assurances ,of Costa Rica's most 
loyal and sincere friendship for the United States. 

The Costa Rican Government considers that it is the duty of all 
American Republics to support, at least morally, the noble attitude 
assumed by the United States in defense of the highest ideals of 
law. of right and justice, and of democracy. 

The Republic of Costa Rica regrets that because of its lack of 
material strength it can not in this crisis tender to the United 
Stntes a more substantial cooperation, but if it might be permitted 
to demostrate its solidarity with the Government and the people of 
its great sister Republic of the North in such manner, for instance, 
as by permitting the use of its waters and ports for war needs by 
the American Navy, that cooperation would be undertaken with 
the greatest satisfaction. 

CUBA. 

Declaration of war against Germany, April 7, 1917. 

[Gaceta Oficial, Edicion extraordinaria, No. 20, p. 3.] 

Mario G. Menocal, President of the Republic of Cuba. 

Whereas the Congress has voted and I have sanctioned the 
following Joint Resolution : 

Article 1. Resolved, That from to-day a state of war is formally 
declared between the Republic of Cuba and the Imperial Govern- 
ment of Germany, and the President of the Republic is authorized 
and directed by this resolution to employ all the forces of the 

1 Costa Rica declared war upon Germany May 24, 1918, preceded by 
Nicaragua on May 7. 1918. (Associated Press dispatches.) 



78 Danish Proclamation. 

nation and the resources of our Government to make war against 
the Imperial German Government, with the object of maintaining 
our rights, guarding our territory, and providing for our security, 
prevent any acts which may be attempted against us, and defend 
the navigation of the seas, the liberty of commerce, and the rights 
of neutrals and international justice. 

Art. 2. The President of the Republic is hereby authorized to 
use all the land and naval forces in the form he may deem neces- 
sary, using existing forces, reorganizing them, or creating new 
ones, and to dispose of the economic forces of the nation in any 
way he may deem necessary. 

Art. 3. The President will give account to Congress of the meas- 
ures adopted in fulfillment of this law, which will be in operation 
from the moment of its publication in the official gazette. 

Therefore, I command that the present law be complied with 
and executed in all its parts. 

Given at the palace of the President in Habana, April the 
seventh, nineteen hundred and seventeen. 



M. G. Menocal. 



Pablo Desvernine, 

Secretary of State. 



DENMARK. 1 

Royal proclamation in reference to neutrality, August 1, 19.14- 

Under the serious conditions which have arisen for our country 
through the fateful occurrences of the last few days, we feel con- 
strained to make the following statement to our people: 

Never has the feeling of responsibility on the part of the indi- 
vidual or nation been more strongly aroused. 

Our country is in friendly relations with all nations. We feel 
assured that the strong and impartial neutrality which has always 
been cherished as our foreign policy, and which will now be fol- 
lowed undeviatingly, will be respected by all. 

But though this be the common view of the Government and of 
all responsible and thoughtful men, we also trust that no one, 
through untimely utterance of opinion, through thoughtless dem- 
onstration, or in similar ways, may compromise the dignity and 
serenity which are so essential to create reliance in our country's 
attitude. We feel convinced that the seriousness of the hour will 
impress the acts of all Danish men and women. 

God protect our fatherland ! 

Christian, R. 
Zahle. 

1 See Norway, p. 183. 



Use of Danish Territory. 79 

Law by ivhich it is forbidden to aid belligerent powers from Danish 
territory, August 2, 10 / //. 

Amalienbokg, August 2, lOl.'i. 

We, Christian the Tenth, by the grace of God King of Denmark, 
of the Vandals and Goths, Duke of Slesvig, Holstein, the Dit- 
marshes, Lauenborg, and Oldenborg — 

Cause to be known that the Rigsdag has adopted and we by our 
consent have confirmed the following law : 

Section 1. By imprisonment, or under peculiarly mitigating cir- 
cumstances with fine, is to be punished, in so far as more severe 
punishment is not provided, he who, in case of war in which the 
Danish State is neutral, within Danish territory commits any of 
the acts hereinafter mentioned : 

1. Publicly induces entry into the armed forces of the belliger- 
ents, on land or at sea, or in any other way gives them warlike as- 
sistance, and also, when the Government has issued special pro- 
hibition against it, publicly invites participation in a State loan 
to any of the belligerent powers ; 

2. In so far as the Government has issued special prohibitions 
against such acts, in any way takes service in the armed forces of 
the belligerent powers or on board their public ships, including 
therein the lading of their transports, or, except in case of accident 
through peril of the seas, assists them in navigation ; 

3. Constructs or reconstructs, sells, or in any other way trans- 
fers, directly or indirectly, to any of the belligerent powers ships 
which it is known or there is reasonable ground to believe, are 
destined to warlike use ; as well as in any way assists in arming 
such ships or fitting them out for warlike undertakings ; 

4. Supports any of the belligerent powers in their warlike under- 
takings, such as by supplying their warships with military supplies 
or armament, by supplying them with provisions or fuel beyond 
that which is permitted under royal regulations, by repairing such 
ships further than that which is absolutely necessary for the safety 
of navigation, or, besides, taking any measures with the object of 
increasing the strength or mobility in war of such ships ; 

5. Assists in violations of neutrality against the Danish State 
by any of the belligerent powers. 

The ordinary provisions of the criminal law for the punishment 
of participation or attempt shall be applied. 
All who are concerned shall govern themselves accordingly. 
Given at Amalienborg, August 2, 1914. 
Under our royal hand and seal. 

Christian, R. [l. s.] 

Zahle. 



80 Use of Danish Territory. 

Amendment to the general criminal law of February 10, 1866, 
■in reference to the establishment of foreign military intelligence 
departments in neutral territory August 2, 1914- 

We, Christian the Tenth, etc. 

Section 1. Anyone who undertakes anything whereby a foreign 
military intelligence department is placed in a position, or is as- 
sisted, directly or indirectly, to operate within the domain of the 
Danish State, shall be punished, in so far as more severe punish- 
ment is not provided, with fine, imprisonment, or, under aggravat- 
ing circumstances, with hard labor not to exceed two years. 

Sec. 2. Complaint as to the above-mentioned acts can only occur 
upon the orders of the minister of justice. 

This law goes into effect at once. 

All who are concerned shall govern themselves accordingly. 

Given at Amalienborg, August 2, 1914. 

Under our royal hand and seal. 

Christian, R. 
Zahle. 

Amendment to section 13 of the law of May 15, 1875, concerning the 
supervision over foreigners, travelers, etc., August 2, 1914- 

We. Christian the Tenth, etc. 

As to the second paragraph in section 13 there is inserted : 

Furthermore, the minister of justice shall be entitled to deport 
persons who commit acts described in the law of this date amend- 
ing the general criminal law of February 10, 1866, unless they are 
Danish subjects. 

This law goes into effect at once. 

All who are concerned shall govern themselves accordingly. 

Given at Amalienborg August 2, 1914. 

Under our royal hand and seal. 

Christian, It. 
Zahle. 

Law in regard to compulsory pilotage into or out of Copenhagen, 

August 2, 1914. 

We, Christian the Tenth, etc. 

Section 1. When conditions necessitate, as a measure for the 
enforcement of neutrality, that in waters in the vicinity of Copen- 
hagen ships may not navigate without pilotage assistance, the 
minister in charge of the pilotage department is authorized to 
order compulsory pilotage on entering or leaving Copenhagen. 

Sec 2. The minister is authorized to make regulations in regard 
tc the areas within which ships shall be subject to compulsory 
pilotage, as well as the rules which shall be observed in that respect. 

Sec 3. Compulsory pilotage is to be carried out without direct 



Danish Pilotage Law. 81 

expense to vessels. For every pilotage executed, going north or 
south, in the area between Taarbaek Reef and Kronelobets Break- 
water, the Government treasury shall pay the sum of 4£ kroner as 
the summer rate, and 6 kroner as the winter rate, irrespective of 
the size of the ship. In the period from April 1 to September 30, 
this sum is determined according to the summer rate, and in the 
remainder of the year according to the winter rate. For a pilotage 
service which falls within both periods, the sum is to be reckoned 
according to the rate in force at the time the service begins. 

Sec. 4. As long as this compulsory pilotage continues, the 
three sound pilotage stations shall work with a common fund, 
and the sums so received shall be divided among the three sta- 
tions in the ratio of the respective gross incomes of the stations 
during the last calendar year. The pilotage income which is 
to be paid into the common fund by the Helsingor (Elsinore) 
pilotage station is as far as concerns the channel and long pilotage, 
the share of this pilotage station in the fees for these pilotage 
services ; and on behalf of the oresunds pilotage station, those 
sums which result after the accounting with the Viken pilotage 
station has been settled. 

Section 42 of the pilotage law shall apply as far as concerns 
the sums due to each pilotage station under the distribution. 

Sec 5. If the above compulsory pilotage shall necessitate the 
appointment of assistant pilots at the stations, they shall be 
paid according to a share in the pilotage fees to be determined 
by the minister or by a settled monthly honorarium. 

Sec. 6. The management of the pilot ship which will be placed 
on the station as a result of the provisions of this law, does not 
concern the sound pilotage stations. 

From such a station ship the necessary watch and ship's serv- 
ice shall be rendered in regard to receiving pilots from and placing 
them on board ships. 

Sec 7. In so far as the expenses of the management of the 
pilot stations' steam and motor boats are larger than normal 
in comparison with the receipts, the minister may permit the 
increase to be met out of treasury funds. Said sum belongs to 
the " yal fund " of the pilotage station concerned. 

Sec 8. This law goes into force at once. 

All who are concerned shall govern themselves accordingly. 

Given at Amalienborg, August 2, 1914. 

Under our royal hand and seat. 

Cheistian, R. (l. s.) 

P. Munch. 
43760—18 6 



82 Danish Neutrality Laws. 

'Notification concerning the relation of Danish subjects toward 
Government vessels of belligerent powers, August 11, I9I4. 

Under penalty according to the law of August 2, 1914, for- 
bidding support from Danish territory to belligerent powers, 
it is hereby forbidden Danish subjects to take service in any 
capacity in belligerent powers' public ships, including therein 
the pilotage of their warships or transports or, apart from ac- 
cidents due to perils of the sea, to give them help in navigation. 
However, pilots authorized by the Danish authorities may, in 
accordance with the existing rules of neutrality, within their 
respective pilotage areas, pilot the ships of war of the belligerent 
powers on their entry into or departure from Danish harbors and 
roadsteads. On the occasion of such pilotage service, the Danish 
sanitary, pilotage, customs, harbor, and police regulations shall 
be observed and maintained. 

The Ministry of Marine, August 11, 1914. 

P. Munch. 

Saxild. 

Amendment to the general criminal lata of February 10, 1866, in 
reference to military defenses and violations of neutrality, 
September 9, 191Jf. 

We, Christian, etc. 

Anyone who does the following acts, intentionally or negli- 
gently, shall be punishable with fine or simple imprisonment or 
under peculiarly aggravating circumstances with imprisonment 
upon customary prison fare not to exceed six months, in so far as 
a more severe punishment is not provided : 

(a) Without due authorization, describes or draws plans of 
Danish military defense works, or copies or publishes such de- 
scriptions or drawings. 

(b) Violates any regulations or prohibitions established by the 
civil or military authorities in execution of the Government's 
neutrality measures. 

This law goes into force at once. 

All who are concerned shall govern themselves accordingly. 

Given at Amalienborg, September 9, 1914. 

Under our royal hand and seal. 

Christian, R. [l. s.] 

Zahle. 

Law concerning penalty for violation of declaration touching im- 
portation and exportation, October 29, 1914- 

We, Christian the Tenth, etc. 

Anyone who acts or attempts to act at variance with a declara- 
tion made by him before a public authority in regard to the 
destination of a ship or goods which he intends to export from or 
import into this country, as well as anyone who intentionally co- 



Use of Danish Flag. 83 

operates to that end, shall be punished with fine from 500 to 
10,000 kroner, or imprisonment ; compare the general criminal 
law section 35, according to which the goods are confiscable. The 
fine shall go into the public treasury. The case is to be dealt with 
as a public police prosecution. 

This law goes into force at once. 

All who are concerned shall govern themselves accordingly. 

Given at Amalienborg, October 29, 1914. 

Under our royal hand and seal. 

Christian, R. [l. s.] 

Zahle. 

Notification in regard to the prohibition from using the flag of a 
foreign nation April 10, 1915. 

As an addition to the existing regulations compare royal reso- 
lution of July 7, 1854, made public by the circular of the ministry 
of justice of August 2, 1854, it is forbidden in this country to hoist 
any other flag than the Dannebrog, as it is likewise forbidden to 
make use of the flag of a belligerent power either under the open 
sky or in inns, public houses, or other placed where the public is 
admitted, whether the use thereof is "for decoration or any other 
purposes. 

The prohibition does not include : 

(a) The ministers, consuls, or vice consuls of foreign States. 
These are entitled to hoist the flag which concerns them before 
their official offices in this country as well as before the residences 
of the ministers. 

( b ) Such persons as have received the permission of the ministry 
of justice to hoist a foreign national flag. 

Violations of this notification will be punished according to law 
No. 200, September 9, 1914, amendment to the general criminal 
law of February 10, 1866. 

If anyone violates this notification, he is bound, on request of the 
proper police authorities, to deliver up the unlawfully employed 
flag. The latter may then be taken into custody of the authorities 
until the case which is to be instituted on the occasion of the 
violation has been finally concluded. 

This notification goes into force at once. 

The ministry of justice, April 10, 1915. 

, Zahle. 

Temporary law concerning the amendment to the law of April 1, 
1892, regarding the registration of Danish ships May 7, 1915. 

We, Christian the Tenth, etc. 

Xo ship may obtain certificate of nationality or registration or 
temporary certificate of nationality without first securing the per- 
mission of the Government. 



84 Danish Neutrality Laics. 

This law goes into force at once, and it shall remain in force 
until it is abrogated by royal resolution, but not beyond October 15, 
1915. 1 
All who are concerned shall govern themselves accordingly. 
Given at Amalienborg, May 7, 1915. 
Under our royal hand and seal. 

Christian R. 
Hassing Jorgensen. 

Law concerning temporary amendment to the General Criminal 
Law of February 10, 1866, in reference to attempts to cause par- 
tiality in commercial matters or public opinion in time of Neu- 
trality, June 17, 1915. 

We, Christian Tenth, etc., 

1. Whoever publicly in writing or orally without warrant attacks 
Danish Government officials in order that in settlements concern- 
ing imports and exports there shall not be observed that impar- 
tiality as to belligerent countries which is required by neutrality, 
shall be punished, in so far as a more severe punishment is not 
provided by general laws, by fine of not less than 500 kroner or im- 
prisonment. 

The same punishment shall apply to whoever publicly in writing 
or orally endeavors to incite the population against a belligerent 
nation. 

2. This law, which goes into effect at once, shall cease to be ef- 
fective on January 1, 1916, if it has not been abrogated before that 
time by royal regulation. 

All who are concerned shall govern themselves accordingly. 
Given at Amalienborg, June 17, 1915. 
Under our royal hand and seal. 

Christian It. 

Zahle. 

Notification of prohibition of sale of Danish ships abroad, October 

6, 1915. 

In regard to section 1 of the temporary law of August 7, 1914, as 
to the regulation of the price of necessities of life and commodities, 
compare law of November 16, 1914, concerning the punishment for 
violation of the measures taken in execution of said law, the fol- 
lowing is ordered after discussion with the ministry of commerce : 

Sec. 1. Until further notice it is forbidden under any form to 
transfer to foreign countries (foreign citizens, foreign firms, etc.) 
ships registered in the Danish registry of ships, or for whch there 
has been issued a temporary Danish certificate of nationality. 

1 By a law of October 15, 1915, the time was extended to March 5, 1910, 
and by a law of March 13, 1916, to October 3 5, 1916. 



Vessels in Dominican Waters. 85 

Sec. 2. Application for radiation from the ships registry in con- 
sequence of transfer to foreign countries will not until further no- 
tice be received by the bureau of registration and ships survey. 
Sec. 3. This notice goes into effect at once. 
The Ministry of the Interior, October 6, 1915. 

Ove Rode. 

Fr. Martensen-Larsen. 

Law in regard to amendment of the General Criminal Lata of Feb- 
ruary 10, 1S66, in reference to false declarations of the ultimate 
destination of imported goods, April 5, 1916. 

We, Christian the Tenth, etc. 

Whoever acts in contradiction to a declaration made by him be- 
fore the committee of the wholesalers or the Industrial Council as 
to the manner in which he will deal with goods imported by him 
or which he intends to import into the country through the coin- 
mitte of wholesalers, or of which he has come into possession with 
the object of dealing in the same, shall be punished with' imprison- 
ment, or under mitigating circumstances with fine. 

This law goes into effect at once, and' shall cease to be effective 
January 1, 1917, if it has not been abrogated before that time by 
royal regulation. 

All who are concerned shall govern themselves accordingly. 

Given at Amalienborg, April 5, 1916. 

Under our royal hand and seal. 

Cheistian R. 
Zahle. 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 

Decree relating to clearance of merchant vessels November 25, 

1914. 
[Gazeta Oficial, Dec. 9, 1914.] 

Dr. Ramon Baez, Provisional President of the Republic : 

Whereas it is the duty imposed by the neutrality of States to 
prevent any illicit traffic by sea ; 

In use of the faculties with which I am invested ; 

I decree: 

Article 1. No merchant vessel shall be dispatched from the ports 
of the Republic without the statement from the consular agent 
of the country to which it belongs that the trip is a commercial 
one, and without the port of destination and stopping places being 
indicated. 

Let it be communicated and published : 

Given in Santo Domingo, etc., this 25th day of November, 1914. 

Dr. Baez. 

The Secretary of War and Marine, 

Pedro A. Lltjberes. 



86 Notification of War, France. 

Decree relating to clearance of merchant vessels January 5, 1915. 
[Gaceta Oficial, Jan. 13, 1915.] 

Juan I. Jimenes, Constitutional President of the Republic : 

Whereas it is the duty imposed by the neutrality of States to 
prevent any illicit traffic by sea ; 

Whereas the decree of November 25, 1914, relative to the dis- 
patch of foreign merchant vessels leaves unsanctioned the order 
contained in its sole article: 

In use of the attributes that the constitution of State in article 
53, 3d insert, confers on me: 

I decree: 

Akticxe 1. No merchant vessel shall be dispatched from the ports 
of the Republic without the statement of the consular agent of the 
country to which it belongs that the trip is a commercial one, and 
without the port of destination and stopping places being indicated. 

Art. 2. If it should be proved that a vessel dispatched from one 
of the ports of the Republic has not gone directly to its stopping 
places or port of destination, according to the declaration made 
by the consular agent, the Dominican maritime authorities shall 
detain that vessel the first time it returns to one of the ports of the 
Republic and shall consider it as a part of the naval forces of the 
country to which it belongs and shall treat it as such. 

Let it be communicated and published. 

Given in Santo Domingo, etc., January 5, 1915. 

J. I. Jimenes. 

The Secretary of War and Marine, 

Desiderio Arias. 

FRANCE. 

WAR DECLARATIONS. 

Notification of war with Germany, August //, 191 Jf. 

[French Yellow Book. Journal Officiel, Aug. 6, 1914, p. 7133.] 

No. 157. — Notification of the French Government to the "representatives of the 

Powers at Paris. 

The German Imperial Government, after having allowed its 
armed forces to cross the frontier, and to permit various acts of 
murder and pillage on French territory; after having violated the 
neutrality of the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg in defiance of the 
stipulations of the Convention of London, 11th of May, 1867, 1 and 
of Convention V of The. Hague, October 18, 1907, on the rights 
and duties of powers and persons in case of war on land (arts. 
1 and 2), conventions which have been signed by the German 
Government ; after having addressed an ultimatum to the Royal 

1 British and Foreign State Papers, 57 : 32. 



Breaking Diplomatic Relations with Austria. 87 

Government of Belgium with the object of requiring passage for 
German troops through Belgian territory in violation of the 
treaties of April 19, 1839, 1 which had been signed by them, and 
in violation of the above Convention of The Hague. 

Have declared war on France at 6.45 p. m. on August 3, 1914. 

In these circumstances the Government of the Republic find 
themselves obliged on their side to have recourse to arms. 

They have in consequence the honor of informing by these pres- 
ents the Government of * * * that a state of war exists between 
France and Germany dating from 6.45 p. m. on August 3, 1914. , 

The Government of the Republic protest before all civilized 
nations, and especially those Governments which have signed the 
conventions and treaties referred to above, against the violation 
by the German Empire of their international engagements, and 
they reserve full right for reprisals which they might find them- 
selves brought to exercise against an enemy so little regardful of 
its plighted word. 

The Government of the Republic, who propose to observe the 
principles of the law of nations, will, during the hostilities, and as- 
suming that reciprocity will be observed, act in accordance with the 
International Conventions signed by France concerning the law of 
w^ar on land and sea. 

The present notification, made in accordance with article 2 of 
the Third Convention of The Hague of October 18, 1907, relating 
to the opening of hostilities and handed to * * *. 

Paris, August 5, 191/f — 2 p. m. 2 

Note relating to breaking of diplomatic relations with Austria- 
Hungary, August 10, 191 Jj. 

[Austro-Hungarian Red Book.] 
LXIII. Count Szecsen to Count Berchtold. 

(Telegram.) 

Paris, August 10, 1914. 

Received telegram of 9th August. 

Immediately communicated contents to M. Doumergue. The 
Minister, having received a similar telegraphic report from M. 
Dumaine concerning his conversation with you, is satisfied that 
our troops are not on the French frontier, but says that he has 
positive information that an Austro-Hungarian army corps has 
been transported to Germany, thus enabling the latter to with- 
draw her own troops from the German territories now occupied by 
our forces. In the Minister's view this facilitates the military 
operations of the Germans. 



1 British and Foreign State Papers, 27 : 990. 

2 As corrected, Journ. Off., Aug. 9, 1914, p. 7286. 



88 Notification of War with Austria. 

I have repeatedly called the Minister's attention to the word- 
ing of your reply; he recognizes that there could be no question 
of an active participation of our troops in the_ Franco-German 
war, but insists that the presence of our troops on German terri- 
tory is undeniable and represents military support to Germany. 
Under these circumstances, he has instructed the French Ambas- 
sador in Vienna to ask immediately for his passports and to leave 
Vienna with the entire staff of the Embassy, to-day. 

The Minister told me that, under the circumstances, my pres- 
ence here could be of no avail, but owing to public excitement, 
might even give rise to unpleasant incidents which he would like 
to avoid. He offered to have a special train ready to-night for 
my conveyance out of France. I replied that it would be impos- 
sible for me to obtain instructions from you by to-night, but in 
view of the recall of M. Dumaine, I begged him to have my pass- 
ports handed to me. 

Notification of declaration of war against Austria-Hungary, 

August 13, 19U. 1 

( Journ. Off., Aug. 14, 1914, p. 1418 ; Dalloz, Le Guerre de 1914, 1 : 79.) 

The following notification was, under date of yesterday, sent 
to his excellency the Ambassador of the United States at Paris, 
in charge of Austro-Hungarian interests in France, as well as to 
the diplomatic representatives of powers accredited at Paris. 

" After having been, in spite of pacific affirmations, the original 
co-author of the aggression of Germany against France, the im- 
perial and royal Government of Austria-Hungary, by acts of mili- 
tary assistance given to Germany, and incompatible with neutral- 
ity, provoked, on the date of August 10, 1914, the rupture of diplo- 
matic relations between the cabinets of Paris and Vienna. 

" New information having established that the imperial and 
royal government persists in the assistance above denounced, the 
government of the Republic, sees itself constrained to no longer 
recognize it as neutral and to consider it as an enemy from the 
date of August 12, at midnight. 

" The present notification is made in conformity with article 2, 
of the III Convention of the Hague of October 18, 1907, relative 
to the opening of hostilities and is sent to (diplomatic representa- 
tive at Paris of the power to which notification is made) at Paris, 
August 13, 1914, at 4 o'clock in the afternoon. 

1 For text of note to Austro-Hungarian Government, transmitted 
through the British Government, see supra, p. 117. 



Provisions for Peace. 89 

Notice of declaration by the Triple Entente, September //, 1914- 1 

[French Yellow Book.] 

No. 160. — M. Delcasse, Minister for Foreign Affairs, to the French ambassadors 

and ministers abroad. 

Paris, September //, 191/f. 
The following declaration has this morning been signed at the 
foreign office at London : 

The undersigned, duly authorized thereto by their respective Govern- 
ments, hereby declare as follows : 

" The British, French, and Russian Governments mutually engage not 
to conclude peace separately during the present war. The three Govern- 
ments agree that when terms of peace come to be discussed, no one of the 
allies will demand terms of peace without the previous agreement of each 
of the other allies." 

Paul Cambon. 
Count Benckendorpf. 
Edward Grey. 
This declaration will be published to-day. 

Delcasse. 

ADHESION OF JAPAN. . (EEV. GEN., DOC, 23 : 4.) 

The Ambassadors of France and Russia and the Secretary of State for 
Foreign Affairs of Great Britain to the Ambassador of Japan at Lon- 
don, M. Inouye. 

London, October 19, 1915. 
Excellency : We, the undersigned, duly authorized by our respective 
Governments, have the honor to invite the Imperial Government of Japan 
to signify, by the intermediary of your excellency, its adhesion to the decla- 
ration between the French, Russian, and British Governments, signed at 
London, September 4, 1914, the text of which is thus conceived : 

" The French, Russian, and British Governments mutually engage 
not to conclude peace separately during the present war. The three 
Governments agree that when terms of peace come to be discussed, no 
one of the allies will demand terms of peace without the previous 
agreement of each of the other allies." * 
Wishing your, etc. 

Paul Cambon. 
Benckendorff. ■ 
E. Grey. 

REPLY OF THE JAPANESE AMBASSADOR AT LONDON. 

London, October 19, 1915. 
I have the honor to make known to your excellency that the Imperial 
Japanese Government has authorized me to make known its entire and 
complete adhesion to the terms of this declaration. 

Inouye. 

adhesion of italy. (rev. gen., doc, 23 : 124.) 

The Italian Government having decided to adhere to the declaration 
made at London, September 4, 1914, by the British, French, and Russian 
Governments, a declaration to which the Japanese Government has ad- 



90 France and Turkey at War. 

hered under date of October 19, 1915, the undersigned, duly authorized 
by their respective Governments, make the following declaration : " The 
British, French, Italian, Japanese, and Russian Governments engage not 
to conclude a separate peace during the course of the present war. The 
five Governments agree that when there will be occasion for discussion 
of terms of peace, none of the allied powers will propose conditions of 
peace without a previous understanding with each of the other allies." 
In faith of which the undersigned have signed the present declaration 
and have attached thereto their seals. 

Done at London, in five originals, November 30, 1915. 

E. Grey. 

Paul Cambon. 
• Imperiali. 

Inouye. 

Benckendoret. 

Declaration recognizing a state of war with Turkey, November 

5, 19U. 1 

[Rev. Gen., Doc, 22: 6.] 

The acts of hostility which the Turkish fleet, commanded by 
German officers, has committed against a French merchant vessel 
and which have caused the death of two Frenchmen and serious 
damage to the vessel, not having been followed by the dismissal 
Of the German military and naval missions, a measure by which 
the Porte might still have relieved itself of responsibility, the 
Government of the Republic is obliged to state that by the act of 
the Ottoman Government the state of war exists between France 
and Turkey. 

1 Exequaturs were withdrawn from Turkish consuls on November 6 
(Journ. Off., Nov. 7, 1914) : 

The President of the French Republic, on the report of the minister of 
foreign affairs — 

Decrees: 

Article 1. By reason of the state of war between France and Turkey, 
the exequaturs accorded to the Ottoman consul general, consuls and 
consular agents in France and in the colonies and protectorates are 
withdrawn. 

Art. 2. The minister of foreign affairs is charged with the execution of 
the present decree. 

Done at Bordeaux, the 6th November, 1914. 

R. Poincaree. 
By the President of the Republic. 

Delcasse, 
The Minister of Foreign Affairs. 

The French prize court has said : " The state of war existed en fait 
between France and Turkey since October 29, 1914, at 3 o'clock in the 
morning, the time of the bombardment by the Turks of the port of 
Odessa, where there was a French vessel which was bombarded and on 
board of which two French nationals were killed." (The Mahrousseh, 
Journ. Off., Dec. 17, 1915; Decisions du Conseil des Prises, 1:94.) 



Notifications of Blockade. 91 

Declaration of war against Bulgaria, 6 a. m., October 16, 1915. 
[Journ. Off., Oct. 18, 1915, p. 7481.] 

Bulgaria having taken action with our enemies and against one 
of the allies of France, the Government of the Republic announces 
iliat a state of war exists between France and Bulgaria, from 
October 16 at 6 o'clock in the morning, through the action of 
Bulgaria. 

BLOCKADES AND COMMERCIAL RESTRICTIONS. 

Notification, blockade of Cameroons, April 23, 1915. 1 
[Journ. Off., Apr. 23, 1915, p. 2497.] 

On date of April 20, 1915, the commander of the allied naval 
forces, present at the Cameroons, acting by virtue of the powers 
vested in him, declared that from Wednesday, April 23, 1915, at 
midnight, mean Greenwich time, the part of the coast of Cameroon 
comprised between the limits indicated below will be held in a 
state of blockade by the said naval forces : 

1. Between the mouth of the Akwayafe River, latitude 4° 41' 
north, longitude 8° 30' east, and the mouth of the Bimbia Creek, 
latitude 3° 58' north, longitude 9° 18' east. 

2. Between the mouth of the Sanaga River, latitude 3° 35' 
north, longitude 9° 39' east, and the mouth of the Campo River, 
latitude 2° 21' north, longitude 9° 50' east. 

The longitudes are counted from the Greenwich meridian. 

Friendly and neutral vessels present on the blockaded coast 
may weigh anchor and will be free to pass until Sunday, April 
25, 1915, at midnight, mean Greenwich time. 

All vessels which attempt to violate the blockade will be pro- 
ceeded against according to international law. 

Notification of this declaration has been regularly made to the 
German authorities of the parts of Cameroon not occupied by the 
allied troops, as well as to the Governor General at Fernando-Po. 

Notification, restriction of Cameroons blockade, January 10, 

1916. 1 

[Journ. Off., Jan. 12, 1916, p. 295.] 

On date of January 10, zero o'clock, the blockade of the coast 
of the Cameroons (coast of West Africa), the object of the notifi- 
cation published in the Journal Officiel of April 23, 1915, is re- 
stricted to the following limits : 

Between the mouth of the Sanaga River, latitude 3° 35' north, 
longitude 9° 39' east, and the mouth of the Campo River, latitude 
2° 21' north, longitude 9° 50' east. 

The longitudes are counted from the Greenwich meridian. 

1 See British notifications, infra, p. 135. 



92 French Blockades. 

Notification, raising of Cameroons blockade, March 1, 1916. 
[Journ. Off., Mar. 1, 1916, p. 1642.] 

From the date of March 1, 1916, zero o'clock, the blockade of 
the coast of the Cameroons (coast of West Africa), the object of 
notifications published in the Journal Officiel of April 23, 1915, 
and January 12, 1916, is declared raised. 

Notification, blockade of Asia Minor, June 2, 1915. 1 
[Journ. Off., June 6, 1915, p. 3641.] 

The Government of his Britannic Majesty made known on 
June 1, 1915, its decision to declare under blockade, from June 2, 
1915, the coast of Asia Minor extending between 37° 35' north 
latitude and 40° 45' north latitude, and comprising the entrance 
of the Dardanelles. Seventy-two hours of grace from the date 
of the commencement of the blockade have been accorded to 
neutral vessels to leave the blockaded zone. 

The Government of the Republic hereby gives notice that the 
said blockade is also maintained by French naval forces. 

Notification, blockade of Asia Minor and Syria, August 25, 1915. 
[Journ. Off., Aug. 27, 1915, p. 6005.] 

On date of August 22, 1915, the commander in chief of the 
navy in the Mediterranean, acting by virtue of the powers con- 
ferred upon him by the Government of the Republic, declared in 
a state of blockade the coasts of Asia Minor and of Syria from 
the Island of Samos to the Egyptian frontier — that is to say, 
between the following points : Latitude 37° 38', longitude 27° 2' 
east (Greenwich) and latitude 31° 20', longitude 34° 13' east 
(Greenwich). 

The blockade is declared effective from August 25, 1915, at noon. 

Neutral vessels can leave blockaded points until August 28, 
1915, at noon. 

The order has been given at the same time to the commanders 
of blockading forces to proceed immediately to the notification 
of the local authorities. 

Notification, blockade of Bulgaria, October 16, 1915. 1 
[Journ. Off., Oct. 18, 1915, p. 7482.] 

On date of October 16, 1915, the commander in chief of the navy 
in the Mediterranean, acting by virtue of the powers conferred 

1 See British notification, infra, p. 136. 



French Blockade*. 93 

upon him by the Government of the Republic, declared in a state 
of blockade the coasts of Bulgaria on the Aegean Sea, from the 
Greek frontier to the Turkish frontier. 

The blockade is declared effective from October 16, at 6 o'clock 
in the morning. 

Friendly or neutral vessels may leave blockaded points until 
October 18, 1915, at 6 o'clock in the morning. 

The order has been given at the same time to commanders of 
the blockading forces to proceed immediately to notification of 
the local authorities. 

Notification, blockade of Cavalla, September 16, 1916. 
[Journ. Off., Sept. 20, 1916, p. 8303.] 

On September 16, 1916, the commander in chief of the navy on 
the Mediterranean, acting by virtue of the powers which have been 
conferred upon him by the Government of the Republic, has, in 
view of the state of war with Bulgaria and the occupation of 
Cavalla by the Bulgarian Army, declared in a state of blockade 
the coast of Macedonia from the mouth of the Strouma (40° 46' 
north latitude, 23° 53' east longitude, Greenwich) to the Greco- 
Bulgarian frontier (40° 51' north latitude, 24° 50' east longitude 
(Greenwich). 

The blockade is declared effective from September 16, 1916. 

Neutral vessels can leave blockaded points until September 21, 
1916, at 8 o'clock in the morning (West European time). 

Notification of the said declaration has been addressed to the 
local authorities. 

Notification, bockade of Greece, December 8, 1916. 
[Journ. Off., Dec. 8, 1916, p. 10591.] 

The Government of the French Republic, having agreed with 
its allies to declare a blockade of Greece, hereby gives notice of 
the conditions by which they will proceed. 

The blockade is declared effective from December 8, 1916, at 8 
o'clock in the morning. 

The blockade extends to the coasts of Greece and comprises 
the islands of Eubee, Zarite, and Sainte-Maure from a point sit- 
uated at 39° 20' north, 20° 20' east of Greenwich, to a point situ- 
ated 39° 50' north, 22° 50' east of Greenwich, as well as the 
islands actually under the dependence or the occupation of the 
Royal Hellenic authorities. 

Vessels of third powers finding themselves in blockaded ports 
can freely depart until December 10 1 at 8 o'clock in the morning. 



1 In the announcement in the London Times, Dec. 9, 1915, p. 7, d, this 
reads " December 12." 



94 French Attitude on German War Zones. 

The order has been given to the commander in chief of the 
blockading forces to proceed immediately to notify the local au- 
thorities of the present declaration. 

Paris, December 7, 1916. 

Decree authorizing retaliatory measures against trade of Germany, 

March 13, 1915. 

[Journ. Off., Mar. 16, 1915, p. 1388 ; Dalloz, Guerre de 1914, 3 : 269.] 
Report to the President of the French Republic. 

Ministry for Foreign Affairs, 

Paris, March 12, 1915. 
Mr. President: The German Government has decreed certain 
measures which, in violation of the usages of war, are aimed at 
declaring the waters which encircle northern France and the 
United Kingdom a military zone, in which all Allied merchant 
vessels shall be destroyed without regard for the lives of the 
crew and the noncombatant passengers and in which neutral 
shipping will be exposed to the same dangers. 

In a memorandum accompanying the publication of the afore- 
said measures neutrals are warned not to embark sailors, pas- 
sengers, or cargo on ships belonging to the Allies. 

Such pretensions on the part of the enemy give to the Allied 
Governments the right to respond by preventing every kind of 
merchandise from reaching or leaving Germany. - However, the 
Allied Governments never intend to follow their enemy in the 
cruel and barbarous methods of which he habitually makes use, 
and the measures to which they have been obliged to have re- 
course shall not in their intention carry any risk for neutral 
vessels or for the lives of neutrals or noncombatants and shall 
be applied in strict conformity with the laws of humanity. 

It is under these conditions and in this spirit that the joint 
declaration hereto annexed, notified to the Allied Governments on 
March 1, 1915, 1 has been conceived, and in which are drafted 
the terms of the decree which we have the honor to submit for 
your high approval. 

We beg you to accept, Mr. President, the assurances of our 
profound respect. 

Minister of Finance : 

A. Ribot. 
Minister of Marine : 

Victor Augagneur. 
Minister for Foreign Affairs : 

Delcasse. 
Minister of War : 

A. MlLLERAND. 

1 Infra, p. 137. 



Regulation of Commerce. 05 

The President of the French Republic, on the part of the min- 
ister for foreign affairs, the minister of finance, the minister of 
war, and the minister of marine, decrees : 

Aeticle 1. All goods belonging to subjects of the German Em- 
pire, either shipped from or to Germany and having taken the sea 
since the promulgation of this present decree shall be stopped 
by the cruisers of the Republic. 

All territory occupied by the German armed forces is assimilated 
to German territory. 

Aet. 2. All articles and goods either of German brand or manu- 
facture or made in Germany, the products of German soil, as well 
as all articles and merchandise, whatsoever the point of departure 
of which, either direct or in transit, is in German territory, shall be 
considered as merchandise coining from Germany. 

However, the present stipulation shall not apply to articles or 
merchandise which the subject of a neutral country may prove to 
have brought lawfully into a neutral country prior to the promul- 
gation of the present decree or of which he may prove that he was 
in regular and lawful possession prior to the said promulgation. 

Aet. 3. All articles and merchandise whatsoever shipped either 
direct or in transit to Germany or to a country close to Germany, 
whenever the documents accompanying said articles or mer- 
chandise shall not show proof that their ultimate and true destina- 
tion is in a neutral country, shall be considered as merchandise 
destined for Germany. 

Aet. 4. Neutral vessels on board of which shall be found mer- 
chandise falling within article 1 shall be conducted to a French or 
allied port. In the event of the vessel being brought to a French 
port the merchandise shall be unloaded unless otherwise provided 
as hereinafter stipulated. The vessel shall afterward be liberated. 

All merchandise recognized as belonging to German subjects 
shall be placed under sequestration or sold, the proceeds thereof 
being deposited at the caisse des depots et consignations until the 
conclusion of peace to the account of the persons entitled thereto. 

All merchandise belonging to neutrals and coming from Ger- 
many shall be held at the disposal of their neutral owners to be re- 
shipped to their port of departure within a delay which shall be 
determined. 1 After expiration of the said delay the said mer- 
chandise shall be subject to requisition or sold for the account 
and at the expense and risk of the owners. 

Merchandise belonging to neutrals and bound for Germany shall 
be held at the disposal of the neutral owners, either to be returned 

1 " The Department of the Marine gives notice to those interested that 
the delay provided in Article 4, paragraphs 3 and 4, of the decree of 
Mar. 13, 1915, has been fixed at three months, from the time of insertion 
in the Journal OJficiel of the notice of deroutement of the vessel. 

" After this delay the merchandise will be disposed of as provided iD 
the above-mentioned decree." (Journ. Off., May 28, 1915, p. 3401.) 



96 French Regulation of Commerce. 

to the port of departure or to be sent to any other French, allied, 
or neutral port as may be authorized. In either case a period of 
time shall be fixed, at the expiration of which the merchandise 
6 hall be subject to requisition or sold for the account and at the 
expense and risk of the owner. 

Aet. 5. In exceptional cases, at the suggestion of the minister 
for foreign affairs, approved by the minister of war, the minister 
of marine may grant authorization for the passage of a specified 
cargo or a certain special category of merchandise destined to or 
coming from a specified neutral country. 

Goods coming from Germany shall only be authorized to pass 
when they shall have been loaded in a neutral port after having 
paid the customs duty of the neutral country. 

Aet. 6. Nothing in this decree shall be deemed to affect the 
provisions decreed regarding merchandise declared absolute or 
conditional contraband of war. 

Aet. 7. The question as to whether the captured merchandise 
belongs to German subjects or is bound to or from Germany shall 
be decided before a prize court as hereinafter provided. 

Within two days from the arrival of the captured ship, the ship's 
papers and other documents justifying the capture shall be sent 
by the prize service of the port through the minister of marine to 
the commissioner representing the Government at the prize court, 
who will immediately notify the president of the said court. 

The president shall convene the court which shall declare sen- 
tence upon the said documents within eight days of the registration 
of the dossier at the court. Notwithstanding the said delay, the 
court shall always be entitled to order any investigation which 
may appear to it advisable and to grant, if necessary, to the parties 
who may so demand sufficient time to justify their rights. 

The decision of the prize court shall be transmitted to the minis- 
ter of marine, who shall be directed to execute same. 

Aet. 8. The minister for foreign affairs, the minister of finance, 
the minister of war, and the minister of marine shall be directed, 
in so far as they are respectively concerned, to execute the present 
decree. 

Done at Paris March 13, 1915. 

R. Poincare. 

By the President of the Republic. 
The minister for foreign affairs, 

Delcasse. 
The minister of finance, 

A. Ribot. 
The minister of war, 

A. MlLLEEAND, 

The minister of marine, 

VlCTOE AUGAGNEUE. 



Notification as to Mines. 97 

MISCELLANEOUS WAR MEASURES. 

Notification of mined area October 6, 191Jf. 

MlNISTERY FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS, 

French Republic. 

The minister for foreign affairs has the honor to transmit to 
his excellency the ambassador of the United States, the accom- 
panying notification made in conformity with the stipulation of 
article 3, paragraph 2 of the Eighth Convention of The Hague, 
1907, relative to the use of submarine mines. 

Bordeaux, October 6, 191/f. 

NOTICE. 
[Published in the Journal Offlciel, official part.] 

Automatic mines having been sown in the Adriatic sea by the 
Austro-Hungarian Navy, the French naval forces have been 
obliged to resort to similar measures in the said sea. 

However, in order to avoid that inoffensive neutral ships 
should suffer harm such as has been unjustly caused by the 
Austro-Hungarian mines, the mines laid down by the French 
Navy are in conformity with the provisions stipulated by the 
Eighth Convention of The Hague, 1907. 

The zone that is dangerous to navigation, comprises the terri- 
torial waters of the Austro-Hungarian Kingdom and the chan- 
nels between the islands along the coast of Dalmatia. 

Notice is hereby given to all whom it may concern, in con- 
formity with article 3, paragraph 2 of the aforesaid convention. 

Approved : 

The Minister for Marine. 

Victor Augagnetjr. 

Attest : 

The Vice Admiral Chief of Staff. 

PlVET. 

43760—18 7 



98 Submarines in Neutral Waters. 

Memorandum relating to the sojourn of belligerent submarines in 
neutral waters, August 21, 1916. 1 

[Memorandum.] 2 

French Embassy, 
Washington, August 21, 1916. 

In the presence of the development of submarine navigation, un- 
der existing circumstances and by reason of what may unfor- 
tunately be expected from enemy submarines, the allied Govern- 
ments deem it necessary, in order to protect their belligerent rights 
and the freedom of commercial navigation, as well as to remove 
chances of conflict, to exhort the neutral Governments, if they have 
not already done so, to take efficacious measures tending to prevent 
belligerent submarines, regardless of their use, to avail themselves 
of neutral waters, roadsteads, and harbors. 

In the case of submarines the application of the principles of in- 
ternational law offers features that are as peculiar as they are 
novel, by reason, on the one hand, of the facility possessed by such 
craft to navigate and sojourn in the seas while submerged and thus 

1 Identic memoranda were received from the embassies of Great Britain, 
Russia, and Japan, and on Sept. 2, 1916, from the Italian Embassy, and on 
Sept. 11, 1916, from the Portuguese Legation. 

2 Memorandum of the United States to the French Embassy. 

[Same to the Embassies of Great Britain, Russia, and Japan,, and, 
mutatis mutandis, to the Italian Embassy, Sept. 8, 1916, and to the Portu- 
guese Legation, Sept. 13, 1916.] 

Department of State, 

Washington, August 31, 1916. 

The Government of the United States has received the identic memo- 
randa of the Governments of Prance, Great Britain, Russia, and Japan in 
which neutral Governments are exhorted " to take efficacious measures 
tending to prevent belligerent submarines, regardless of their use, to avail 
themselves of neutral waters, roadsteads, and harbors." These Govern- 
ments point out the facility possessed by such craft to avoid supervision or 
surveillance or determination of their national character and their power 
" to do injury that is inherent in their very nature," as well as the " addi- 
tional facilities " afforded by having at their disposal places where they 
can rest and replenish their supplies. Apparently on these grounds the al- 
lied Governments hold that " Submarine vessels must be excluded from the 
benefit of the rules heretofore accepted under international law regarding 
the admission and sojourn of war and merchant vessels in neutral waters, 
roadsteads, or harbors ; any submarine of a belligerent that once enters a 
neutral harbor must be held there," and, therefore, the allied Governments 
" warn neutral powers of the great danger to neutral submarines attending 
the navigation of waters visited by the submarines of belligerents." 

In reply the Government of the United States must express its surprise 
that there appears to be an endeavor of the allied powers to determine the 



Submarines in Neutral Waters. 99 

escape any supervision or surveillance, and, on the other hand, of 
the impossibility to identify them and determine their national 
character, whether neutral or belligerent, combatant or innocent, 
and to put out of consideration the power to do injury that is in- 
herent in their very nature. 

It may be said, lastly, that any submarine war vessel far away 
from its base, having at its disposal a place where it can rest and 
replenish its supplies, is afforded, by mere rest obtained, so many 
additional facilities that the advantages it derives therefrom turn 
that place into a veritable basis of naval operations. 

In view of the present condition of things the allied Govern- 
ments hold that — 

Submarine vessels must be excluded from the benefit of the rules 
heretofore accepted in international law regarding the admission 
and sojourn of war and merchant vessels in the neutral waters, 
roadsteads, and harbors ; any submarine of the belligerents that 
once enters a neutral harbor must be held there. 

The allied Governments take this opportunity to warn the neu- 
tral Powers of the great danger to neutral submarines attending the 
navigation of waters visited by the submarines of belligerents. 

rule of action governing what they regard as a " novel situation " in re- 
spect to the use of submarines in time of war and to enforce acceptance of 
that rule, at least in part, by warning neutral powers of the great danger 
to their submarines in waters that may be visited by belligerent subma- 
rines. In the opinion of the Government of the United States the allied 
powers have not set forth any circumstances,- nor is the Government of the 
United States at present aware of any circumstances, concerning the use 
of war or merchant submarines which would render the existing rules of 
international law inapplicable to them. In view of this fact and of the 
notice and warning of the allied powers announced in their memoranda 
under acknowledgement it is incumbent upon the Government of the United 
States to notify the Governments of France, Great Britain, Russia, and 
Japan that, so far as the treatment of either war or merchant submarines 
in American waters is concerned, the Government of the United States re- 
serves its liberty of action in all respects and will treat such vessels as, in 
its opinion, becomes the action of a power which may be said to have taken 
the first steps toward establishing the principles of neutrality and which 
for over a century has maintained those principles in the traditional spirit 
and with the high sense of impartiality in which they were conceived. 

In order, however, that there should be no misunderstanding as to the 
attitude of the United States, the Government of the United States an- 
nounces to the allied powers that it holds it to be the duty of belligerent 
powers to distinguish between submarines of neutral and belligerent na- 
tionality, and that responsibility fbr any conflict that may arise between 
belligerent warships and neutral submarines on account of the neglect of a 
belligerent to so distinguish between these classes of submarines must rest 
entirely upon the negligent power. 



100 German Declaration against Russia. 

GERMANY. 

WAR ULTIMATA AND DECLARATIONS. 

Ultimatum to Russia, July 31, 1914. 

[German White Book.] 

Annex 24. — Telegram of the Imperial German Chancellor to the Imperial 
German Ambassador in St. Petersburg. 

July 31, 1914. 
In spite of still pending mediatory negotiations, and although we 
ourselves have up to the present moment taken no measures for 
mobilization, Russia has mobilized her entire army and navy; in 
other words, mobilized against us also. By these Russian meas- 
ures we have been obliged, for the safeguarding of the empire, to 
announce that danger of war threatens us, which does not yet 
mean mobilization. Mobilization, however, must follow unless 
Russia ceases within twelve hours all warlike measures against 
us and Austria-Hungary and gives us definite assurance thereof. 
Kindly communicate this at once to M. Sazonof and wire hour of 
its communication to him. 

Declaration of War Against Russia, 7.10 p. m., August 1, 1914. 1 

[German White Book, see also Russian Orange Paper, No. 76.] 

Annex 26. — Telegram of the Imperial German Chancellor to the Imperial 
German Ambassador in St. Petersburg. 

Important ! - August 1, 1914. 

In case the Russian Government gives no satisfactory answer to 
our demand, will yOur excellency, at 5 o'clock this afternoon (cen- 
tral European time), kindly hand to it the following declaration: 

The Imperial Government has endeavored from the beginning 
of the crisis to bring it to a peaceful solution. In accordance with 
f\ wish expressed to him by His Majesty the Emperor of Russia, 
His Majesty the Emperor of Germany, in cooperation with Eng- 
land, applied himself to the accomplishment of a mediating role 
toward the cabinets of Vienna and St. Petersburg, when Russia, 
without awaiting the outcome, proceeded to mobilize her entire 
land and naval forces. 

Following this threatening measure, occasioned by no military 
preparation on the part of Germany, the German Empire found 
itself confronted by a serious and imminent peril. If the Imperial 
Government had failed to meet this peril, it would have jeopardized 

1 " Note handed in by the ambassador of Germany at St. Petersburg on 
July 19 (Aug. 1), 1914, at 10 minutes past 7 in the evening." (Russian 
Orange Paper No. 76.) 



German Ultimatum to Belgium. 101 

the safety and even the existence of Germany. Consequently, the 
German Government was obliged to address the Government of the 
Emperor of all the Russias and insist upon the cessation of all 
these military measures. Russia having refused to accede to this 
demand, and having manifested by this refusal that her acts were 
directed against Germany, I have the honor, by order of my Gov- 
ernment, to make known to your excellency the following : 

His Majesty the Emperor, my august Sovereign, in the name of 
the Empire, takes up the defiance, and considers himself in a state 
of Avar against Russia. 

I urgently ask that you wire the hour of arrival of these in- 
structions, and of their carrying out, according to Russian time. 

Kindly ask for your passports and hand over protection and 
business to the American Embassy. 

Note Relating to Military Measures in Luxemburg, August 2, 1914. 

[French Yellow Book.] 
No. 133. — Note handed in by the German Ambassador. 

Paris, August 2, 1914- 
The German ambassador has just been instructed, and hastens 
to inform the minister for foreign affairs, that the military meas- 
ures taken by Germany in the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg do not 
constitute an act of hostility. They must be considered as purely 
preventive measures taken for the protection of the railways, 
which, under the treaties between Germany and the Grand Duchy 
of Luxemburg, are under German administration. 

von Schoen. 
Ultimatum to Belgium August 2, 1914. 

[Belgian Gray Book.] 

No. 20. — Note presented by Herr von Below Saleske, German Minister at 
Brussels, to Monsieur Davignon, Belgian Minister for Foreign Affairs, 
Imperial German Legation in Belgium. 

Brussels, August 2, 1914. 

(Very confidential.) 

Reliable information has been received by the German Govern- 
ment to the effect that French forces intend to march on the line 
of the Meuse by Givet and Namur. This information leaves no 
doubt as to the intention of France to march through Belgian ter- 
ritory against Germany. 

The German Government can not but fear that Belgium, in 
spite of the utmost good will, will be unable, without assistance, 
to repel so considerable a French invasion with sufficient prospect 
of success to afford an adequate guarantee against danger to Ger- 



102 German Use of Force against Belgium. 

many. It is essential for the self-defense of Germany that she 
should anticipate any such hostile attack. The German Govern- 
ment would, however, feel the deepest regret if Belgium regarded 
as an act of hostility against herself the fact that the measures 
of Germany's opponents force Germany, for her own protection, to 
enter Belgian territory. 

In order to exclude any possibility of misunderstanding the 
German Government make the following declaration : 

1. Germany has in view no act of hostility against Belgium. 
In the event of Belgium being prepared in the coining war to 
maintain an attitude of friendly neutrality toward Germany the 
German Government bind themselves, at the conclusion of peace, 
to guarantee the possessions and independence of the Belgian 
Kingdom in full. 

2. Germany undertakes, under the above-mentioned condition, 
to evacuate Belgian territory on the conclusion of peace. 

3. If Belgium adopts a friendly attitude Germany is prepared, in 
cooperation with the Belgian authorities, to purchase all neces- 
saries for her troops against a cash payment, and to pay an in- 
demnity for any damage that may have been caused by German 
troops. 

4. Should Belgium oppose the German troops, and in particular 
should she throw difficulties in the way of their march by a 
resistance of the fortresses on the Meuse, or by destroying rail- 
ways, roads, tunnels, or other similar works, Germany will, to her 
regret, be compelled to consider Belgium as an enemy. 

In this event Germany can undertake no obligations toward 
Belgium, but the eventual adjustment of the relations between 
the two States must be left to the decision of arms. 

The German Government, however, entertain the distinct hope 
that this eventuality will not occur, and that the Belgian Govern- 
ment will know how to take the necessary measures to prevent 
the occurrence of incidents such as those mentioned. In this case 
the friendly ties which bind the two neighboring States will grow 
stronger and more enduring. 

Declaration, use of force in Belgium, August //, 191Jf. 
[Belgian Gray Book.] 

No. 27. Herr von Below Saleske, German Minister, to Monsieur Davignon, 
Belgian Minister for Foreign Affairs. 

(Translation. The original is in French.) 

Bktjssels, August 4, 1914 (6 a. m.). 
Sir: In accordance with my instructions, I have the honor to 
inform your Excellency that in consequence of the refusal of the 
Belgian Government to entertain the well-intentioned proposals 



German Declaration of War against France. 103 

made to them by the German Government, the latter, to their 
deep regret, find themselves compelled to take — if necessary by 
force of arms — those measures of defense already foreshadowed 
as indispensable, in view of the menace of France. 

Von Below. 

Ultimatum to France, July 31, 191^. 

[German White Book.] 

Annex 25. — Telegram of the Imperial German Chancellor to the Imperial 
German Ambassador in Paris. 

* July 31, 1914. 

Important ! 

In spite of our still pending mediatory action, and although we 
ourselves have adopted no steps toward mobilization, Russia has 
mobilized her entire army and navy, which means mobilization 
against us also. Thereupon we declared the existence of a threat- 
ening danger of war, which must be followed by mobilization, 
unless Russia within 12 hours ceases all warlike steps against us 
and Austria. Mobilization inevitably means war. Kindly ask the 
French Government whether it will remain neutral in a Russian- 
German war. Answer must come within 18 hours. Wire at once 
hour that inquiry is made. Act with the greatest possible dispatch. 

Declaration of toar against France, 6.45 p. m., August 3, 191Jf. 
[French Yellow Book, Dalloz, Guerre de 1914, 1 : 26.] 

No. 147. — Letter handed by the German ambassador to M. Rene Viviani, presi- 
dent of the council, minister for foreign affairs, during his farewell 
audience, August 3, 1914, at 6.45 p. m. 

M. le Peesident : 

The German administrative and military authorities have estab- 
lished a certain number of flagrantly hostile acts committed, on 
German territory by French military aviators. Several of these 
have openly violated the neutrality of Belgium by flying over the 
territory of that country ; one has attempted to destroy buildings 
near Wesel ; others have been seen in the district of the Eifel ; 
one has thrown bombs on the railway near Carlsruhe and Nurem- 
berg. 

I am instructed, and I have the honor to inform your excellency 
that in the presence of these acts of aggression the German Empire 
considers itself in a state of war with France in consequence of 
the acts of this latter power. 

At the same time I have the honor to bring to the knowledge of 
your excellency that the German authorities will detain French 
mercantile vessels in German ports, but they will release them, if 
within 48 hours they are assured of complete reciprocity. 



104 German Break with- Japan. 

My diplomatic mission having thus come to an end, it only 
remains for me to request your excellency to be good -enough to 
furnish me with my passports, and to take the steps you consider 
suitable to assure my return to Germany, with the staff of the 
embassy, as well as with the staff of the Bavarian Legation and of 
the German consulate general in Paris. 

Be good enough, M. le President, to receive the assurances of my 
deepest respect. 

Schoen. 

Note breaking diplomatic relations with Japan, August 23, 1914. 
[Austro-Hungarian Red Book.] 

LXVIII. — Prince Hohenlohe to Count Berchtold. 

[Telegram.] 

Berlin, August 23, 1914. 

The Japanese minister here has been informed by the foreign 
office that the German Imperial Government had no intention to 
reply to the Japanese ultimatum. The German Government has 
instructed its ambassador in Tokyo to leave Japan upon the expira- 
tion of the time limit fixed by Japan for noon to-day. Simul- 
taneously the Japanese chargg d'affaires is to be handed his pass- 
ports. 

At noon the charge d'affaires received his passports; he will 
leave Berlin to-morrow morning with the staff of the embassy. 

Declaration of war against Portugal, 6 p. m., March 9, 1916. x 
[Rev. Gen., Doc. 23 : 171.] 

Since the outbreak of the war the Portuguese Government, by 
actions which are in conflict with her neutrality, has supported 
the enemies of the German Empire. The British troops have been 
allowed four times to march through Mozambique. The coaling of 
German ships was forbidden. The extensive sojourn of British 
war vessels in Portuguese ports, which is also in conflict with the 
laws of neutrality, was allowed; Great Britain was also permitted 
to use Madeira as a point d'appui for her fleet. Guns and material* 
of war were sold to Entente Powers, and even a destroyer was sold 
to Great Britain. 

1 " The Government of the French Republic has been informed by the 
minister of Portugal at Paris that on the date of March 9, 1916, at 6 
o'clock p. m., the Imperial German Government remitted by its minister 
at Lisbon to the Government of the Portuguese Republic a note by which 
it declared that it considered itself in a state of war with Portugal." 
(Journal Officiel, March 13, 1916, p. 2001.) 

Austria-Hungary is reported to have declared war upon Portugal March 
15, 1916. (Am. Year Book, 1916, p. 815.) 



German Declaration against Portugal. 105 

German cables were interrupted, the archives of the imperial 
vice consul in Mossamedes were seized, and expeditions sent to 
Africa were described as directed against Germany. At the frontier 
of German Southwest Africa and Angola the German district com- 
mander and two officers and men were tricked into visiting Naulila, 
and on October 19, 1915, were declared to be under arrest. When 
they tried to escape arrest they were shot at, and forcibly taken 
prisoners. 

During the course of the war the Portuguese press and Parlia- 
ment have been more or less openly encouraged by the Portuguese 
Government to indulge in gross insults on the German people. We 
repeatedly protested against these incidents in every individual 
case, and made most serious representations. We held the Portu- 
guese Government responsible for all consequences, but no remedy 
was afforded us. 

The Imperial Government, in forbearing appreciation of Portu- 
gal's difficult position, has hitherto avoided taking more serious 
steps in connection with the attitude of the Portuguese Government. 
On February 23 the German vessels in Portuguese ports were seized 
and occupied by the military. On our protest, the Portuguese 
Government declined to go back from these forcible measures, and 
tried to justify them by illegal (gesetzwidrig) interpretations of 
existing treaties. These interpretations appeared to the German 
Government to be empty evasions. It is a fact that the Portuguese 
Government seized a number of German vessels out of proportion 
to what was necessary for meeting the shortage of Portugal's ton- 
nage, and that the Government did not attempt even once to come 
to an understanding with the German shipowners, either directly 
oi- through the mediation of the German Government. The whole 
procedure of the Portuguese Government, therefore, represents a 
serious violation of existing laws and treaties. 

The Portuguese Government by this procedure openly showed 
that it regards itself as the vassal of Great Britain, which subordi- 
nates all other considerations to British interests and wishes. 
Furthermore, the Portuguese Government effected the seizure of 
the vessels in a manner in which the intention to provoke Germany 
can not fail to be seen ; the German flag was hauled down in the 
German vessels, and the Portuguese flag with a war pennon was 
hoisted, and the flagship of the admiral fired a salute. 

The Imperial Government sees itself obliged to draw the neces- 
sary conclusions from the attitude of the Portuguese Government. 
It regards itself from now onward in a state of war with the Portu- 
guese Government. 



106 German Notes on Mines. 

Statement of declaration of war against Roumania, August 

28, 1916. 

' [Rev. Gen., Doc, 23:199, London Times, Aug. 29, 191G, p. 7e.] 

After Roumania, as already reported, disgracefully broke 
treaties concluded with Austria-Hungary and Germany, she de- 
clared war Sunday against our ally. The Imperial German minis- 
ter . to Roumania has received instructions to request his pass- 
ports and to. declare to the Roumanian Government that Germany 
now likewise considers herself at war with Roumania. 

MINED AREAS. 

Statement in reference to mine laying, August 1, 191^. 

Ambassador Gerard to the Secretary of State. 

[ Telegram — Paraphrase. ] 

American Embassy, 
Berlin, August 7, 1914. 
Mr. Gerard reports that he is informed by the German for- 
eign office that German ports are strewn with mines and it is 
requested that timely warning be given shippers against navigat- 
ing in ports which foreign forces might use as bases. 

Note relating to navigation near the German coast, November 

U, 1914. 

The foreign office has the honor to inform the Embassy of the 
United States of America in reply to the note verbale of 12th 
instant, F. O. No. 1078, that the following are the material regula- 
tions, governing navigation in the German Bay of the North Sea : 

1. Steamships are permitted to make for the German coast, to 
enter or leave the mouths of rivers only from sunrise to sunset, 
and in clear weather. Ships attempting to point for the coast in 
the dark, in foggy or thick weather, run the risk of being shot at. 

2. All commercial steamers bound for the Eider, Elbe, Weser, 
and Jade must first point for the Listertief Buoy ; those bound for 
the Ems should make directly for its mouth. 

3. In the interest of the safety of the ships, a pilot is obligatory 
from the Listertief Buoy. 

4.' If ships can not pilot, on account of bad weather or for other 
reasons, they must either anchor or put out to sea again. 

The approximate location of the Listertief Buoy is 55° 3 3-4' 
north, 8° 17£' east. 

For the rest reference made to issue No. 59 of the " Nachrichten 
fur Seefahrer " of 4th instant, pages 1006 and 1007, two copies 
of which are attached. 1 

1 Not printed. 



German War Zone Proclamation, Feb. 4, 1915. 107 

American shipping interests cup. obtain any further informa- 
tion from the " Nachrichten fur Seef ahrer " which is accessible to 
them. 

Berlin, November Uf, 191 h- 

Notification of mined areas, April 8, 1917. 

Minister Egan to the Secretary of State. 

[Telegram.] 

American Legation, 
Copenhagen, April 8, 1917. 
On August 8, 1914, foreign office here published the following 
notice to mariners : The German Government has issued the fol- 
lowing warning to mariners : Vessels are cautioned against ap- 
proaching places from which attacks from hostile fleets may be 
expected or harbors and roadsteads from which embarkation of 
troops may be made, as mines may have been sown in such 
places. 

Egan. 
WAR ZONES. 

Procla iiiation of war zone. February //, 1915. 

PROCLAMATION. 

1. The waters surrounding Great Britain and Ireland, including 
the whole English Channel, are hereby declared to be war zone. 
On and after the 18th of February, 1915, every enemy merchant 
ship found in the said war zone will be destroyed without its 
being always possible to avert the danger threatening the crews 
and passengers on that account. 

2. Even neutral ships are exposed to danger in the war zone as, 
in view of the misuse of neutral flags ordered on January 31 by 
the British Government and of the accidents of naval war, it can 
not always be avoided to strike even neutral ships in attacks that 
are directed at enemy ships. 

3. Northward navigation around the Shetland Islands, 1 in the 
eastern waters of the North Sea, and in a strip of not less than 
30 miles width along the Netherland coast is in no danger. 

Von Pohl, 
Chief of the Admiral Staff of the Navy. 
Berlin, February //, 1915. 

1 Note verbale. — With reference to its note verbale of the 4th instant 
the foreign office has the honor to inform the embassy of the United 
States of America, in order to avoid any doubts as to the northward ex- 
tent of the war area defined in the proclamation of the chief of the ad- 
miralty staff of the same day, that the waters surrounding the Orkneys and 



108 German Memorial on Retaliation. 

Memorial of the Imperial German Government respecting retalia- 
tory measures rendered necessary by the means employed by 
England contrary to international law in intercepting neutral 
maritime trade with Germany, February J t , 1915. 

Since the commencement of the present war Great Britain's 
conduct of commercial warfare against Germany has been a mock- 
ery of all the principles of the law of nations. While the British 
Government have, by several orders, declared that their naval 
forces should be guided by the stipulations of the Declaration of 
London they have, in reality, repudiated this declaration in the 
most essential points, notwithstanding the fact that their own 
delegates at the Maritime Conference of London acknowledged 
its acts as forming part of existing international law. The British 
Government have placed a number of articles on the contraband 
list which are not at all, or only very indirectly, capable of use 
in warfare and, consequently, can not be treated as contraband 
either under the Declaration of London or under the generally 
acknowledged rules of international law. In addition, they have, 
in fact obliterated the distinction between absolute and conditional 
contraband by confiscating all articles of conditional contraband 
destined for Germany, whatever may be the port where these 
articles are to be unloaded, and without regard to whether they are 
destined for uses of war or peace. They have not even hesitated 
to violate the Declaration of Paris, since their naval forces have 
captured on neutral ships German property which was not contra- 
band of war. Furthermore, they have gone further than their 
own orders respecting the Declaration of London and caused 
numerous German subjects capable of bearing arms to be taken 
from neutral ships and made prisoners of war. Finally, they have 
declared the North Sea in its whole extent to be the seat of war, 
thereby rendering difficult and extremely dangerous, if not impos- 
sible, all navigation on the high seas between Scotland and Nor- 
way, so that they have, in a way, established a blockade of neutral 
coasts and ports, which is contrary to the elementary principles 
of generally accepted international law. Clearly all these meas- 
ures are part of a plan to strike not only the German military 
operations, but also the economic system of Germany, and in the 
end to deliver the whole German people to reduction by famine 
by intercepting legitimate neutral commerce -by methods contrary 
to international law. 

the Shetlands belong to the war area, but that navigation on both sides 
of the Faroe Isles is not endangered. 

The foreign office begs the embassy of the United States of America 
to be good enough to inform its Government of the above by cable and 
to notify the Governments of Great Britain, Japan, and Servia accordingly. 

Berlin, February 28, 1915. 

To the Embassy of the United States of America. 



German Memorial on Retaliation. L09 

The neutral powers have in the main acquiesced in the measures 
of the British Government ; in particular they have not been suc- 
cessful in securing the release by the British Government of the 
German subjects and German merchandise illegally taken from 
their vessels. To a certain extent they have even contributed 
toward the execution of the measures adopted by England in de- 
fiance of- the principle of the freedom of the seas by prohibiting the 
export and transit of goods destined for peaceable purposes in Ger- 
many, thus evidently yielding to pressure by England. The 
German Government have in vain called the attention of the neu- 
tral powers to the fact that Germany must seriously question 
whether it can any longer adhere to the stipulations of the declara- 
tion of London, hitherto strictly observed by it, in case England 
continues to adhere to its practice, and the neutral powers persist 
in looking with indulgence upon all these violations of neutrality 
to the detriment of Germany. Great Britain invokes the vital 
interest of the British Empire which are at stake in justification 
of its violations of the law of nations, and the neutral powers ap- 
pear to be satisfied with, theoretical protests,' thus actually admit- 
ting the vital interests of a belligerent as a sufficient excuse for 
methods of waging war of whatever description. 

The time has come for Germany also to invoke such vital inter- 
ests. It therefore finds itself under the necessity, to its regret, of 
taking military measures against England in retaliation of the 
practice followed by England. Just as England declared the whole 
North Sea between Scotland and Norway to be comprised within 
the seat of war, so does Germany now declare the waters sur- 
rounding Great Britain and Ireland, including the whole English 
Channel to be comprised within the seat of war, and will prevent 
by all the military means at its disposal ail navigation by the 
enemy in those waters. To this end it will endeavor to destroy, 
after February 18 next, any merchant vessels of the enemy which 
present themselves at the seat of war above indicated, although 
it may not always be possible to avert the dangers which may 
menace persons and merchandise. Neutral powers are accordingly 
forewarned not to continue to entrust their crews, passengers, or 
merchandise to such vessels. Their attention is furthermore called 
to the fact that it is of urgency to recommend to their own vessels 
to steer clear of these waters. It is true that the German Navy 
has received instructions to abstain from all violence against 
neutral vessels recognizable as such; but in view of the hazards 
of war, and of the misuse of the neutral flag ordered by the British 
Government, it will not always be possible to prevent a neutral 
vessel from becoming the victim of an attack intended to be di- 
rected against a vessel of the enemy. It is expressly declared that 
navigation in the waters north of the Shetland Islands is outside 
the danger zone, as well as navigation in the eastern part of the 



110 German War Zone, Jan. 31, 1917. 

North Sea and in a zone 30 marine miles wide along the Dutch 
coast. 

The German Government announces this measure at a time per- 
mitting enemy and neutral ships to make the necessary arrange- 
ments to reach the ports situated at the seat of war. They hope 
that the neutral powers will accord consideration to the vital in- 
terests of Germany equally with those of England, and will on 
their part assist in keeping their subjects and their goods far from 
the seat of war ; the more so since they likewise have a great in- 
terest in seeing the termination at an early day of the war now 
ravaging. 

Notice in reference to tvar zone, April 22, 1915. 

NOTICE. 

Travelers intending to embark on the Atlantic voyage are re- 
minded that a state of war exists between Germany and her allies 
and Great Britain and her allies ; that the zone of war includes 
the waters adjacent the British Isles; that, in accordance with 
formal notice given by the Imperial German Government, vessels 
flying the flag of Great Britain, or of any of her allies, are liable 
to destruction in those waters, and that travelers sailing in the 
war zone on ships of Great Britain or her allies do so at their own 
risk. 

Impeeial German Embassy. 

Declaration of war zone, January 31, 1917. 

From February 1, 1917, within barred zones arOund Great 
Britain, France, Italy, and in the eastern Mediterranean, as out- 
lined in the following; all sea traffic forthwith will be opposed. 
Such barred zones are : 

In the North Sea, the district around England and France, which 
is limited by a line 20 nautical miles; the district along the 
Dutch coast as far as the Terschelling Lightship, the degree of 
longitude of the Terschelling Lightship to Udsir ; a line from there 
across the point 62° north latitude, 5° longitude, westward along 
62° to a point 3 nautical miles south of the south point of the 
Faroe Islands, from there across the point 62° north, 10° 
west, to 61° north, 15° west; then 57° north, 20° west, to 47° 
north, 20° west; further, to 43° north, 15° west; then on degree 
latitude 43° north to the point 20 nautical miles from Cape Finis- 
terre and 20 nautical miles distance along the Spanish north coast 
as far as the French frontier. 

Concerning the south, in the Mediterranean: For neutral ship- 
ping there remains open the sea district west of a line from Pt. 
de les Paquett to 38° 20' north and 6° east, as well as north and 
west of a zone 00 sea miles broad along the North African coast, 
beginning on (2°) west longitude. 



German War Zone, Jan. 31, 1917. Ill 

In order to connect this sea district with Greece, the zone leads 
20 sea miles in width north and east, following li»e : 38° north 
and 6° east, 38° north and 10° east, 37° north and 11° 30' east, 
to 34° north and 11° 30' east to 34° north and 22° 30' east. From 
there it leads to a zone 20 sea miles broad west of 22° 30' east 
longitude into Greek territorial waters. 

Neutral ships plying within the barred zones do so at their own 
risk. Although precautions are being taken to spare neutral ships 
which on February 1 are on the way to ports in the barred zone, 
during an appropriate delay, yet it is urgently to be advised that 
they should be warned and directed to other routes by all means 
available. 

Neutral ships lying in ports of "the barred zones can with the 
same safety abandon the barred zones if they sail before February 
5 and take the the shortest route into the open district. 

The instructions given to the commanders of German sub- 
marines provide for a sufficiently long period during which the 
safety of passengers on unarmed enemy passenger ships is guar- 
anteed. Americans en route to the blockaded zone on enemy 
freight steamers are not endangered, as the enemy shipping firms 
can prevent such ships in time from entering the zone. 

Traffic of regular American passenger steamers can go on un- 
molested if — 

A. Falmouth is taken as the port of destination ; and if, 

B. On the going and return journey the Scilly Islands, as well 
as the point 50° north, 20° west, be steered on. Along this route 
no German mines will be laid. 

C. If steamers on this journey bear the following special signals, 
which only they will be permitted to display in American ports : 
A coating of paint on the ship's hull and the superstructure in 
vertical stripes 3 meters broad, alternating white and red; on 
every mast a large flag checkered white and red, on the stern the 
American national flag ; during darkness the national flag and the 
coat of paint to be as easily recognizable as possible from a dis- 
tance ; and the ships must be completely and brightly illuminated. 

D. If only one steamer runs each week in each direction arriving 
at Falmouth on Sundays, leaving Falmouth on Wednesdays. 

E. If guaranties and assurances are given by the American 
Government that these steamers carry no contraband (according to 
the German list of contraband). 

Memorandum relating to war zone declaration January 31, 1917. 

After bluntly refusing Germany's peace offer, the entente powers 
stated in their note addressed to the American Government that 
they are determined to continue the war in order to deprive Ger- 
many of German Provinces in the west and east, to destroy Austria- 
Hungary, and to annihilate Turkey. In waging war with such 
aims the entente allies are violating all rules of international law, 



112 German Memorandum on War Zone. 

as they prevent the legitimate trade of neutrals with the central 
powers, and Of the neutrals among themselves. 

Germany has so far not made unrestricted use of the weapon 
which she possesses in her submarines. Since the entente powers, 
however, have made it impossible to come to an understanding 
based upon equality of rights of all nations, as proposed by the 
central, powers, and have instead declared only such a peace to be 
possible which .shall be dictated by the entente allies and shall 
result in the destruction and the humiliation of the central powers, 
Germany is unable further to forego the full use of her submarines. 

The Imperial Government, therefore, does not doubt that the 
Government of the United States will understand the situation 
thus forced upon Germany by the entente allies' brutal methods 
of war and by their determination to destroy the central powers, 
and that the Government of the United States will further realize 
that the now openly disclosed intentions of the entente allies gives 
back to Germany the freedom of action which she reserved in her 
note addressed to the Government of the United States on May 4, 
1916. 

Under these circumstances Germany will meet the illegal meas- 
ures of her enemies by forcibly preventing, after February 1, 1917, 
in a zone around Great Britain, France, Italy, and in the eastern 
Mediterranean all navigation, that of neutrals included, from and 
to England and from and to France, etc. AIL ships met within 
that zone will be sunk. 

The Imperial Government is confident that this measure will 
result in a speedy termination of the war and in the restoration of 
peace, which the Government of the United States has so much at 
heart. Like the Government of the United States, Germany and 
her allies had hoped to reach this goal by negotiations. Now that 
the war, through the fault of Germany's enemies, has to be con- 
tinued, the Imperial Government feels sure that the Government of 
the United States will understand the necessity of adopting such 
measures as are destined to bring about a speedy end of the 
horrible and useless bloodshed. 

The Imperial Government hopes all the more for such an under- 
standing of her position, as the neutrals have under the pressure 
of the entente powers suffered great losses, being forced by them 
either to give up their entire trade or to limit it according to con- 
ditions arbitrarily determined by Germany's enemies in violation of 
international law. 



Note relating to toar zone declaration, January 31, 1917. 

bassador, to Mr. Lansing, Secretary of St 
;he United States. 

Washington, D. C, January 31, 1917. 



Count Bernstorff, German Ambassador, to Mr. Lansing, Secretary of State of 

the United States. 



Mr. Secretary of State : 

Your excellency was good enough to transmit to the Imperial 
Government a copy of the message which the President of the 



Freedom of /Seas, etc. 113 

United States of America addressed to the Senate on the 22d 
instant. The Imperial Government has given it the earnest con- 
sideration which the President's statements deserve, inspired, as 
they are, by a deep sentiment of responsibility. 

It is highly gratifying to the Imperial Government to ascer- 
tain that the main tendencies of this important statement corre- 
spond largely to the desires and principles professed by Germany. 
These principles especially include self-government and equality of 
rights for all nations. Germany would be sincerely glad if in 
recognition of this principle countries like Ireland and India, 
which do not enjoy the benefits of political independence, should 
now obtain their freedom. 

The German people also repudiate all alliances which serve to 
force the countries into a competition for might and to involve 
them in a net of selfish intrigues. On the other hand, Germany 
will gladly cooperate in all efforts to prevent future wars. 

The freedom of the seas, being a preliminary condition of the 
free existence of nations and the peaceful intercourse between 
them, as well as the open door for the commerce of all nations, 
has always formed part of the leading principles of Germany's 
political program. All the more the Imperial Government regrets 
that the attitude of her enemies, who are so entirely opposed to 
peace, makes it impossible for the world at present to bring about 
the realization of these lofty ideals. 

Germany and her allies were ready to enter now into a dis- 
cussion of peace, and had set down as basis the guarantee of exist- 
ence, honor, and free development of their peoples. Their aims, 
as has been expressly stated in the note of December 12, 1916, 
were not directed toward the destruction or annihilation of their 
enemies and were, according to their conviction, perfectly com- 
patible with the rights of the other nations. As to Belgium, for 
which such warm and cordial sympathy is felt in the United 
States, tire chancellor had declared only a few weeks previously 
that its annexation had never formed part of Germany's inten- 
tions. The peace to be signed with Belgium was to provide for 
such conditions in that country, with which Germany desires to 
maintain friendly neighborly relations, that Belgium should not 
be used again by Germany's enemies for the purpose of instigating 
continuous hostile intrigues. Such precautionary measures are 
all the more necessary, as Germany's enemies have repeatedly 
stated, not only in speeches delivered by their leading men, but 
also in the statutes of the Economical Conference in Paris, that it 
is their intention not to treat Germany as an equal, even after 
peace has been restored, but to continue their hostile attitude, and 
especially to wage a systematical economic war against her. 

The attempt of the four allied powers to bring about peace has 
failed, owing to the lust of conquest of their enemies, who desired 
43760—18 8 



114 German Memorandum on War Zones. 

to dictate the conditions of peace. Under the pretense of following 
the principle of nationality our enemies have disclosed their real 
aims in this way, viz : To dismember and dishonor Germany, 
Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria. To the wish of recon- 
ciliation they oppose the will of destruction. They desire a fight to 
the bitter end. 

A new situation has thus been created which forces Germany to 
new decisions. Since two years and a half England is using her 
naval power for a criminal attempt to force Germany into sub- 
mission by starvation. In brutal contempt of international law 
the group of powers led by England does not only curtail the 
legitimate trade of their opponents, but they also, by ruthless 
pressure, compel neutral countries either to altogether forego every 
trade not agreeable to the entente powers or to limit it according 
to their arbitrary decrees. 

The American Government knows the steps which have been 
taken to cause England and her allies to return to the rules of 
international law and to respect the freedom of the seas. The 
English Government, however, insists upon continuing its war of 
starvation, which does not at all affect the military power, of its 
opponents, but compels women and children, the sick and the aged, 
to suffer for their country pains and privations which endanger 
the vitality of the nation. Thus British tyranny mercilessly in- 
creases the sufferings of the world, indifferent to the laws of 
humanity, indifferent to the protests of the neutrals whom they 
severely harm, indifferent even to the silent longing for peace 
among England's own allies. Each day of the terrible struggle 
causes new destruction, new sufferings. Each day shortening the 
war will, on both sides, preserve the lives of thousands of brave 
soldiers and be a benefit to mankind. 

The Imperial Government could not justify before its own con- 
science, before the German people, and before history the neglect 
of any means destined to bring about the end of the war. Like the 
President of the United States, the Imperial Government had hoped 
to reach this goal by negotiations. After the attempts to come to 
an understanding with the entente powers have been answered by 
the latter with the announcement of an intensified continuation of 
the war, the Imperial Government — in order to serve the welfare 
of mankind in a higher sense and -not to wrong its own people — 
is now compelled to continue the fight for existence, again forced 
upon it, with the full employment of all the weapons which are at 
its disposal. 

Sincerely trusting that the people and the Government of the 
United States will understand the motives for this decision and its 
necessity, the Imperial Government hopes that the United States 
may view the new situation from the lofty heights of impartiality, 
and assist, on their part, to prevent further misery and unavoid- 
able sacrifice of human life. 



German War Zone, March 28, 1917. 115 

Inclosing two memoranda regarding the details of the contem- 
plated military measures at sea, I remain, etc., 

.T. Bernstorff. 

Notification of ioar zone extension, March 23, 1917. 

Foreign Governments have been informed that in future in 
the district of the northern Arctic Ocean east of the twenty- 
fourth degree of eastern longitude and south of the seventy- 
fifth degree of northern "latitude, with the exception of Nor- 
wegian territorial waters, all ocean traffic forthwith will be 
opposed with all arms. 

Neutral ships plying this district do so at their own risk, but 
provision is made that neutral ships that are already on voyage 
to ports in this barred zone or that desire to leave such ports 
will not be attacked without special warning until April 5. 

Proclamation of war zone, November 22, 1911. 1 

The hostile Governments are endeavoring by the intensification 
of the hunger blockade against neutral countries to force out to 
sea neutral cargo space, which is keeping in port, and to press 

1 Since the above was put in type the following has been published : 

The Swiss Legation in Washington bas transmitted to the Department 
of State the following communication from the German Government : 

" Supplement to the German declaration of Jan. 31, 1917, concerning 
the blockaded zone. 

" On and after Jan. 11, 1918, a new zone of sea is declared blockaded 
around the enemy point of support in Cape Verde Islands and Dakar and 
the adjoining coasts. That zone is bounded as follows : 

" From the Cape Palmas lighthouse toward the point 10° 0' N., 
29° 30' W., to the point 17° 0' N., 29° 30' W., to the point 20° 30' N., 
to the point 25° 30' W. ; there the line follows the parallel 20° 30' lati- 
tude northeastwardly as far as the point where that parallel strikes the 
western coast of Africa. 

" On the same date the zone blockaded around the Azores will be 
extended eastward as far as Madeira Island, which is used by our enemies 
as a point of support, so that the zone will be bounded as follows : 
From point 44° 0' N., 34° 0' W., to point 42° 30' N., 37° 0' W., to 
the point 37° 0' N., 37° 0' W., to point 30° 0' N., 27° 0' W., to the point 
30° 0' N., 17° 0' W., to the point 34° 0' N., 12° 0' W., to the point 
36° 45' N., 12° 0' WV, and back to the starting point. 

" Neutral vessels which at the time of publication of this declaration 
happen to be in ports within the new blockaded zone may yet leave those 
ports without coming under the military measures ordered for that zone 
if ihey can leave before or on Jan. 18, 1918, and take the shortest route 
to the free regions. Sufficient time has been allowed so that neutral 
vessels that may enter the new blockaded zone without having a knowl- 
edge of the present declaration or unable to gain such knowledge be 
spared. 

" It is earnestly recommended that neutral shipping be cautioned and 
warned off the blockade zone." 

Berlin, Jan. 5, 1918. (TJ. S. Official Bulletin, No. 221, p. 4.) 



116 British Ultimatum, August 4, 1914. 

it into their service. As hostile shipping and shipping sailing in 
hostile interest are being supplemented by violent measures, the 
German Government in its struggle against Great Britain's domi- 
nation of violence, which tramples under foot all rights, especially 
those of smaller nations, finds itself obliged to extend the field 
of operation of its submarines. 

The zone is outlined thus : 

From 39° north latitude and 17° west longitude to 44° north 
latitude and 27° 45' west longitude to 44° north latitude and 34° 
west longitude, to 42° 30' north latitude and 37° west longitude, 
to 57° north latitude and 37° west longitude, to 30° north latitude 
and 26° west longitude, to 34° north latitude and 20° west longi- 
tude, and thence back to the starting point. 



GREAT BRITAIN. - 

WAR ULTIMATA AND DECLARATIONS. 

Ultimatum to Germany, August 4, 1914. 
[British White Paper.] 

No. 159.— Sir Edward Grey to Sir E. Goschen. 

[Telegraphic] 

London, Foeeign Office, August 4, 1914. 

We hear that Germany has addressed note to Belgian minister 
for foreign affairs stating that German Government will be com- 
pelled to carry out, if necessary by force of arms, the measures 
considered indispensable. 

We are also informed that Belgian territory has been violated 
at Gemmenich. 

In these circumstances, and in view of the fact that Germany 
cleclined to give the same assurance respecting Belgium as France 
gave last week in reply to our request made simultaneously at 
Berlin and Paris, we must repeat that request, and ask that a 
satisfactory reply to it and to my telegram of this morning 1 be 
received here by 12 o'clock to-night. If not, you are instructed to 



1 No. 153. — Sir Edward Grey to Sir E. Goschen. 
[Telegraphic] 

London, Foreign Office, August l h 19U. 

The King of the Belgians has made an appeal to His Majesty the King 
for diplomatic intervention on behalf of Belgium in the following terms : 

'■ Remembering the numerous proofs of Your Majesty's friendship and 
that of your predecessor, and the friendly attitude of England in 1870, 
and the proof of friendship you have just given us again, I make a 
supreme appeal to the diplomatic intervention of Your Majesty's Govern- 
ment to safeguard the integrity of Belgium." 

His Majesty's Government are also informed that the German Govern- 
ment has delivered to theBelgian Government a note proposing friendly 



Declaration against Austria, August 12, 1914. 117 

ask for your passports, and to say that His Majesty's Government 
feel bound to take all steps in their power to uphold the neutrality 
of Belgium and the observance of a treaty to which Germany is as 
much a party as ourselves. 

Proclamation of tvar against Germany, 11 p. m., August ^, 191 4* 
[London Times, Aug. 5, 1914, p. 6, a.] 

The following statement was issued from the Foreign Office at 
12.15 this morning (Aug. 5) : 

Owing to the summary rejection by the German Government of 
the request made by His Majesty's Government for assurances 
that the neutrality of Belgium will be respected, His Majesty's 
ambassador at Berlin has received his passports and His Majesty's 
Government have declared to the German Government that a 
state of war exists between Great Britain and Germany as from 
11 p. m. on August 4. 

Declaration of war against Austria-Hungary,, 12 p. ni., August 12, 

1911,. 2 

[Austro-Hungarian Red Book.] 

LXV. — Count Mensdorff to Count Berchtold. 

[Telegram.] 

London, August 12, 191k. 

1 have just received from Sir Edward Grey the following com- 
munication : 

By request of the French Government, which no longer is able to com- 
municate directly with your Government, I wish to inform you of the 
following : 

After having declared war on Servia and having thus initiated hos- 
tilities in Europe, the Austro-Hungarian Government has, without any 
provocation on the part of the Government of the French Republic, entered 
into a state of war with France. 

neutrality entailing free passage through Belgian territory, and promis- 
ing to maintain the independence and integrity of the kingdom and its 
possessions at the conclusion of peace, threatening in case of refusal to 
treat Belgium as an enemy. An answer was requested within 12 hours. 

We also understand that Belgium has categorically refused this as a 
flagrant violation of the law of nations. 

His Majesty's Government are bound to protest against this violation 
of a treaty to which Germany is a party in common with themselves, and 
must request an assurance that the demand made upon Belgium will not 
be proceeded with, and that her neutrality will be respected by Germany. 
You should ask for an immediate reply. 

X A notification of similar effect was published in the London Gazette, 
Aug. 7, 1914, pp. 6161, 6181, and in the Manual of Emergency Legisla- 
tion, p. 1. 

2 A notification of similar effect was published in the London Gazette, 
Aug. 14, 1914, pp. 6375, 6385, and in the Manual of Emergency Legisla- 
tion, p. 1. See also Journ. Off., Aug. 14, 1914, p. 1448. 



118 Neutrality of Congo. 

1st. After Germany had declared war successively upon Russia and 
France, the Austro-Hungarian Government has intervened in this conflict 
by declaring war on Russia, which was already in alliance with France. 

2d. According to manifold and reliable information Austria has sent 
troops to the German border under circumstances which constitute a 
direct menace to France. 

In view of these facts the French Government considers itself compelled 
to declare to the Austro-Hungarian Government that it will take all 
measures necessary to meet the actions and menaces of the latter. 

Sir Edward Grey added : 

A rupture with France having been brought about, the Government 
of His Britannic Majestj^ is Obliged to proclaim a state of war between 
Great Britain and Austria-Hungary, to begin at midnight. 

Note relating to the neutrality of Congo, August 11, 191'/. 
[Belgian Gray Book.] 

No. 75. — Count de Lalaing, Belgian Minister at London, to Monsieur Davignon, 
Belgian Minister for Foreign Affairs. 

[Translation.] 

London, August 11, 1914. 

Sir : In reply to your dispatch of August 7, I have the honor to 
inform you that the British Government can not agree to the 
Belgian proposal to respect the neutrality of the belligerent powers 
in the conventional basin of the Congo. 

German troops from German East Africa have already taken 
the offensive against the British Central African Protectorate. 
Furthermore, British troops have already attacked the German 
port of Dar-es-Salaam, where they have destroyed the wireless 
telegraphy station. 

In these circumstances, the British Government, even if . they 
were convinced from the political and strategical point of view of 
the utility of the Belgian proposal, would be unable to adopt it. 

The British Government believes that the forces they are send- 
ing to Africa will be sufficient to overcome all opposition. They 
will take every step in their power to prevent any rising of the 
native population. 

France is of the same opinion as Great Britain, on account of 
German activity which has been noticed near Bonar and Eko- 
dodo. 

Count De Lalaing. 

Notification of state of war with Turkey, November 4, 1914. 

[British. Parliamentary Papers, Misc. No. 13 (1914).] 

No. 184. — Sir Edward Grey to Sir G. Buchanan, Sir F. Bertie, and 

Sir C. Greene. 

Foreign Office, November //, 1914. 
Sir: Tewfik Pasha called upon me this afternoon and informed 
me that he had received instructions to ask for his passports, as 
His Majesty's ambassador had already left Constantinople. 



Great Britain, IV ar with Turkey. 119 

I expressed to Tewfik Pasha my personal regret at our official 
relations being terminated, as he had always acted in a loyal, 
straightforward, and friendly manner, and I had much appre- 
ciated the intercourse which we had had together during the past 
few years. I informed Tewfik Pasha that if his government 
wished that hostilities between the two countries should cease, 
the only chance was to dismiss the German naval and military 
missions, and especially the officers and crews of the Ooeben 
and Breslau. So long as German officers remained in complete 
naval and military control at Constantinople, it was clear that 
they would continue to make war against us. 
I am, &c. 

E. Geey. 

Proclamation of state of war with Turkey, November 5, 1914* 

[London Gazette, November- 5, 1914, pp. 8997, 9011 ; Manual of Emergency 
Legislation, Supp. No. 2, p. 1.] 

Owing to hostile acts committed by Turkish forces under German 
officers, a state of war exists between Great Britain and Turkey as 
from to-day. 

Foeeign Office, November 5, 1914. 

Proclamation of breaking diplomatic relations ivitJi Bulgaria, 

October 13, 1915. 

[London Times, Oct. 13, 1915, p. 9f.] 

His Majesty's Government announce that the Bulgarian min- 
ister has been handed his passports and that diplomatic relations 
between Great Britain and Bulgaria have been broken off. 

Proclamation of war against Bulgaria, 10 p. m., October 15, 1915. 
[London Gazette, Oct. 16, 1915, pp. 10229, 10257.] 

The King of the Bulgarians, an ally of the central powers, being 
now in a state of war with the King of Serbia, an ally of His Maj- 
esty King George V, His Majesty's government have notified the 
Swedish Minister in London, who is in charge of Bulgarian in- 
terests in this country, that a state of war exists between Great 
Britain and Bulgaria as from 10 p. m. to-night. 

Foeeign Office, October 15, 1915. 

1 Following this proclamation, Cypress was annexed by an order in 
council Nov. 5, 1914, and Egypt declared a protectorate by a notification 
of Dec. 18, 1914. (London Gazette, Nov. 5, 1914, Dec. 18, 1914; Manual 
of Emergency Legislation, Supp. 2, p. 76 ; Supp. 3, p. 371.] 



120 British Memoranda on Mines. 

MINED AREAS. 

Memorandum reserving right to lay mine fields, August 11, 1914- 
[Memorandum from the British Embassy.] 

His Majesty's Government announce that the Bulgarian inin- 
Secretary of State and has the honor to communicate to him the 
following telegram which he received last night from the foreign 
office: 

The Germans are scattering contact mines indiscriminately about the 
North Sea in the open sea without regard to the consequences to merchant- 
men. Two days ago four large merchant ships were observed to pass within 
a mile of the mine field which sank H. M. S. Amphion. The waters of the 
North Sea must therefore be regarded as perilous in the last degree to mer- 
chant shipping of all nations. In view of the methods adopted by Ger- 
many the British Admiralty must hold themselves fully at liberty to adopt 
similar measures in self defense which must inevitably increase* the dan- 
gers to navigation in the North Sea. But, before doing so, they think it 
right to issue this warning in order that merchant ships under neutral 
flags trading with North Sea ports should be turned back before entering 
the area of such exceptional danger. 

Beitish Embassy, 

Washington, August 11, 1914- 

Memorandum relating to navigation through enemy mine fields 

August Ik, 1914. 

[Memorandum from the British Embassy.] 

The British Embassy presents its compliments to the Depart- 
ment of State and, with reference to its memorandum of August 
11 on the subject of contact mines in the North Sea, has the 
honor to communicate the following telegram received from His 
Majesty's Government : 

German action and the measures it may entail are a source of grave 
danger to shipping. British Admiralty will, however, from time to time 
and subject to naval exigencies, try to indicate certain routes and chan- 
nels for trade to pass to the Scheldt, and they do not wish in any degree 
to keep trade away from the English Channel. 

Difliculties in the way of a guarantee for the Rhine, which is nearer 
to the center of war, are at present insuperable. 

Beitish Embassy, 

Washington, August 14, 1914. 

Memorandum relating to enemy mine fields, August 20, 1914. 
[Memorandum from the British Embassy.] 

The British ambassador presents his compliments to the Secre- 
tary of State and has the honor to communicate the text of a 
telegram received to-day from Sir E. Grey : 

His Majesty's Government have learned that on or about August 26 an 
Iceland trawler is reported to have struck a mine 25 miles off the Tyne 



Mines and Merchant Vessels. 121 

and sunk, and at least one foreign newspaper has stated that the mine 
was English. Although the German action in laying mines has forced 
the Admiralty to reserve to themselves the right to do likewise, the state- 
ment already made by His Majesty's Government that no British mines 
have been laid remains absolutely true at this moment. The mines 
off the Tyne were laid 30 miles to seaward, not as part of any definite 
military operation nor by German ships of war, but by German trawlers, 
of which a considerable number appear to have been engaged on this 
work, the number of one such trawler actually seen to be doing this 
was A. E. 24 Emden. It would be well if the conduct of those who 
ordered her to perform this act were carefully considered by neutral 
powers. 

British Embassy, 

Washington, August 20, 1914- 

Memorandum relating to enemy mine fields and importance that 
merchant vessels stop at British ports, August 28, 191k. 

[Memorandum from the British Embassy.] 

His Majesty's ambassador presents his compliments to the 
Secretary of State and has the honor to communicate to him the 
following telegram received from the foreign office yesterday 
summarizing the naval position of the war up to date : 

The Admiralty wish to draw attention to their previous warning to 
neutrals of the danger of traversing the North Sea. The Germans are 
continuing their practice of laying mines indiscriminately upon the 
ordinary trade routes. These mines do not conform to the conditions 
of The Hague convention ; they do not become harmless after a certain 
number of hours ; they are not laid in connection with any definite 
military scheme, such as the closing of a military port or as a distinct 
operation against a fighting fleet, but appear to be scattered on the 
chance of catching individual British war or merchant vessels. In con- 
sequence of this policy neutral ships, no matter what their destination, 
are exposed to the gravest dangers. Two Danish vessels, the S. S. Mary- 
land and the S. S. Broberg, have, within the last 24 hours, been destroyed 
by these deadly engines in the North Sea while traveling on the ordinary 
trade routes at a considerable distance from the British coast. In addi- 
tion to this, it is reported that two Dutch steamers, clearing from Swedish 
ports, were yesterday blown up by German mines in the Baltic. In these 
circumstances the Admiralty desire to impress not only on British but 
on neutral shipping the vital importance of touching at British ports 
before entering the North Sea in order to ascertain, according to the latest 
information, the routes and channels which the Admiralty are keeping 
swept and along which these dangers to neutrals and merchantmen are 
reduced as far as possible. The Admiralty, while reserving to themselves 
the utmost liberty of retaliatory action against this new form of warfare, 
announce that they have not so far laid any mines during the present 
war and that they are endeavoring to keep the sea routes open for peace- 
ful commerce. 

British Embassy, 

Washington, August 23, 191//. 



122 British Notification of Mined Area. 

Notification of mined area, October 2, 191^. 
[Memorandum from the British Embassy. 1 ] 
Telegram from Sir Edward Grey to Sir Cecil Spring Rice, October 2, 1914. 

The German policy of mine laying combined with their sub- 
marine activities makes it necessary on military grounds for 
Admiralty to adopt countermeasures. His Majesty's Government 
have therefore authorized a mine-laying policy in certain areas and 
a system of mine fields has been established and is being de- 
veloped upon a considerable scale. In order to reduce risks to 
noncombatants the Admiralty announce that it is dangerous hence- 
forward for ships to cross area between latitude 51° 15' north and 
51° 40' north and longitude 1° 35' east and 3° east. In this con- 
nection it must be remembered that the southern limit of the 
German mine, field is latitude 52° north. Although these limits 
are assigned to the danger area, it must not be supposed that 
navigation is safe in any part of the southern waters of the North 
Sea. Instructions have been issued to His Majesty's ships to 
warn eastgoing vessels of the presence of this new mine field. 
You should inform government to which you are accredited with- 
out delay. 

1 The following notes modify the memorandum : 

British secretary of state for foreign affairs to United States Embassy, 

May 2, 1916. 

The secretary of state for foreign affairs presents his compliments to 
the United States ambassador and has the honor to acquaint him for the 
information of the United States Government that it has been found 
necessary to extend the eastern limit of the danger area of the British 
mine field off the Belgian coast, notified on October 2, 1914, so as to 
include the waters south of latitude. 51° 40' north, as far as the meridian 
of 3° 20' east, instead of 3° east as previously notified. 

Sir E. Grey would remind Dr. Page that the danger area as notified on 
Octtober 2, 1914, comprised that situated between latitude 51° 15' and 
51° 40' north and longitude 1° 35' east and 3° east. 

Mr. Page, United States ambassador to Great Britain, to the Secretary. 

of State, May 29, 1916. 

Respecting mine field off Belgian coast. 

Foreign office informs me under date May 27 that the eastern limit oi 
the danger area of the British mine field off the Belgian coast should be 
defined as the meridian of 3° 18' east instead of 3° 20' east as previously 
notified in error. 



Notice of Mined Area. Vz:\ 

The following notices to mariners indicate the nature of the British 
mine-laying policy : 

Notice to Mariners. 1 

No. 1026 of the year 1914. 

North Sea. 

Caution with regard to mined areas. 

In confirmation of the public notice, which has already been issued 
to the press, the following information is now promulgated. 

Caution. — H. M. Government have authorized a mine-laying policy in 
certain areas, and a system of mine fields has been established and is 
being developed upon a considerable scale. 

It is dangerous henceforth for ships to cross the area between the 
parallels of 51° 15' and 51° 40' north latitude and the meridians of 
1° 35' and 3° 00' east longitude. 

The Southern limit of the area in the North Sea in which mines have 
been laid by the enemy is, so far as is known at present^ the fifty-second 
parallel of north latitude. 

Remarks. — ^Although these limits are assigned to the dangerous areas, 
it must not be' supposed that navigation is necessarly safe in any part of 
the southern waters of the North Sea. 

Authority. — The lords commissioners of the Admiralty. 
By. command of their lordships, 

J. F. Parry, Hydrographer. 

Hydrographic Department, Admiralty, 

London, October 9, 19V/. 

Notice to Mariners. 2 

No. 618 of the year 1916. 

North Sea. 

Caution with regard to mined areas. 

Former noti. e. — No. 541 of 1916 ; hereby canceled. 

Caution. — Mariners are warned that a system of mine fields has been 
established by H. M. Government upon a considerable scale. All vessels 
are strongly advised to obtain a London Trinity House pilot when navigat- 
ing between Great Yarmouth and the English Channel. 

It is dangerous for vessels to enter the following areas : 

(a) The area enclosed between the parallels of latitude 51° 15' north 
and 51° 40' north, and the meridians of longitude 1° 35' east and 3° 18' 
east. 

(6) The area enclosed between the parallels of latitude 51° 40' north 
and 52° north, and the meridians of longitude 1° 55' east and 2° 32' east. 

Remarks. — Although these limits are assigned to the danger areas, it 
must not be supposed that navigation is necessarily safe in any portion 
of the southern waters of the North Sea. 

Note. — This notice is a repetition of notice No. 541, of 1916, with addi- 
tion of the danger area specified in paragraph (6). 

1 London Gazette, Oct. 13, 1914, p. 8158. See also notices to mariners, 
No. 1706 of 1914, London Gazette, Nov. 6, 1914, p. 9034 ; No. 149 of 1915, 
London Gazette, Mar. 5, 1915, Man. Em. Leg., Supp. No. 3, 351. 

2 London Gazette, June 13, 1916, p. 5835. 



124 British Admiralty Cautions. 

(Notice No. 618 of 1916.) 

Authority. — The lords commissioners of the Admiralty. (H. 3512/16.) 
By command of their lordships, 

J. F. Parry, Hydrographer. 
Hydrographic Department, Admiralty, 
London, June d, 1916. 

Notice to Mariners. 1 

No. 700 of the year 1915, August 16, 1915. 

Caution when approaching British ports. 

Part I. — Closing of ports. 

Former notice. — No. 274 of 1915, hereby canceled. 

(1) My lords commissioners of the Admiralty, having taken into con- 
sideration [the fact]' 2 that [local or other circumstances may arise in 
which] it may be necessary, [on account of periodical exercises, manoeu- 
vers or otherwise], to forbid all entrance to certain ports of the Empire this 
is to give notice that on approaching the shores of the United Kingdom, or 
any of the ports or localities of the British Empire, referred to in Part III 
of this notice, a sharp lookout should be kept for the signals described in 
the following paragraph, and for the vessels mentioned in paragraph (5), 
Part II, of this notice, and the distinguishing and other signals made by 
them. In the event of such signals being displayed, the port or locality 
should be approached with great caution, as it may be apprehended that 
obstructions may exist. 

(2) If entrance to a port is prohibited, three red vertical, lights by 
night, or three red vertical balls by day, will be exhibited in some con- 
spicuous position, 'in or near to its approach, which signals will also be 
shown by the vessels indicated in paragraph (5), Part II, of this notice. 

If these signals are displayed, vessels must either proceed to the position 
marked " Examination anchorage " on the Admiralty charts and anchor 
there, or keep the sea. 

(3) At all the ports or localities at home or abroad referred to in 
Part III of this notice, searchlights are occasionally exhibited for exercise. 

Instructions have been given to avoid directing moveable searchlights 
during practice onto vessels under way, but mariners are warned that 
great care should be taken to keep a sharp lookout for the signals indicated 
in paragraph (2) above, when searchlights are observed to be working. 

Part II. — Examination service. 

(4) In [Under] certain circumstances it is also [may become] necessary 
to take special measures to examine vessels desiring to enter the ports 
or localities at home or abroad, referred to in Part III of this notice. 

(5) In such case, vessels carrying the distinguishing flags or lights 
mentioned in paragraph (7) will be charged with the duty of examining 
ships which desire to enter the ports and of allotting positions in which 
they shall anchor. If Government vessels, or vessels belonging to the 

1 London Gazette, Aug. 20, 1915, p. 8304 ; Man. Em. Leg., Supp. No. 4, 
p. 158. With slight alteration this is a repetition of Notices to Mariners, 
Nos. 1 and 1805, of 1914, Nos. 1, 101, and 274, of 1915. (See Man. Em. 
Leg., Supp. No. 3, p. 357.) 

2 The words included in brackets [ ] appeared in the Notices of 1914 
but were later omitted. 



Admiralty Cautions. 125 

local port authority, are found patrolling in the offing, merchant vessels 
are advised to communicate with such vessels with a view to obtaining 
information as to the course on which they should approach the exami- 
nation anchorage. Such communication will not be necessary in cases 
where the pilot on board has already received this information from the 
local authorities. 

(G) As the institution of the examination service at any port will 
never be publicly advertised, especial care should be taken in approaching 
the ports, by day or night, to keep a sharp lookout for any vessel carrying 
the flags or lights mentioned in paragraph (7), and to be ready to "bring 
to" at once when hailed by her or warned by the firing of a gun or 
sound rocket. 

In entering by night any of the ports mentioned in Part III, serious 
delay and risk will be avoided if four efficient all round lamps, two red 
and two white, are kept available for use. 

(7) By day the distinguishing flags of the examination steamer will be 
a special flag (white and red horizontal surrounded by a blue border) and 
a blue ensign. 

Also, three red vertical balls if the port is closed. 
By night the steamer will carry- — - 
(a) Three red vertical lights if the port is closed. 
(6) Three white vertical lights if the port is open. 

The above lights will be carried in addition to the ordinary navigation 
lights, and will show an unbroken light around the horizon. 

(8) Masters are warned that, when approaching a British port where 
the examination service is in force, they must have the distinguishing sig- 
nal of their vessel ready to hoist immediately the examination steamer 
makes the signal. 1 

(9) Masters are warned that, before attempting to enter any of these 
ports when the examination service is in force, they must in their own 
interests strictly obey all instructions given to them by the examination 
steamer. In the absence of any instructions from the examination steamer 
they must proceed to the position marked " examination anchorage " on 
the Admiralty charts and anchor there, or keep the sea. 

Whilst at anchor in the examination anchorage masters are warned 
that they must not lower any boats (except to avoid accident), com- 
municate with the shore, work cables, move the ship, or allow anyone 
to leave the ship without permission from the examination steamer. 

(10) In case of fog, masters [of vessels] are enjoined to use the utmost 
care, and the examination anchorage itself should be approached with 
caution. 

(11) Merchant vessels when approaching ports are specially cautioned 
against making use of private signals of any description, either by day 
or night : the use of them will render a vessel liable to be fired on. 

(12) The pilots attached to the ports will be acquainted with the 
regulations to be followed. 

Part III. Ports or localities referred to. 

United Kingdom. — Alderney, Barrow, Barry, Belfast, Berehaven, 
Blyth, 2 [Cardiff], Clyde, Cromarty, Dover, Falmouth, Firth of Forth, 
Guernsey, Hartlepool, C 2 Harwich, Jersey, Lough Swilly, Milford Haven, 
Newhaven, Plymouth, Portland, Portsmouth, Queenstown, River Humber, 
River Mersey, River Tay, River Tees, River Thames, River Tyne, Scapa 
Flow, Sheerness, Sunderland. 2 

Canada — Esquimalt, Halifax, Quebec. 

Mediterranean. — Gibraltar, Malta. 

• ■ ■ 

1 This section did not appear in the notices of 1914. 

2 Not in notices of 1914. 



126 British Notice of German Mine Laying. 

Indian Ocean. — Aden, Bombay, Calcutta, Colombo, Karachi, Madras, 
Mauritius, Rangoon. 

China Sea. — Hongkong, Singapore. 

Africa. — Durban, Sierra Leone, Simons Bay, Table Bay. 

Australia. — Adelaide, Brisbane, Premantle, Melbourne, 1 Newcastle, Syd- 
ney, Thursday Island. 

Tasmania. — Hobart. 

New Zealand. — Auckland, Otago, Port Lyttelton, Wellington. 

West Indies.- — Bermuda, Port Royal, Jamaica. 

Part IV. Sweeping operations. 

H. M. vessels are constantly engaged in sweeping operations off ports in 
the United Kingdom. 

Whilst so engaged, they work in pairs, connected by a wire hawser, 
and are consequently hampered to a very considerable extent in their 
maneuvering powers. 

With a view to indicating the nature of the work on which these 
vessels are engaged, they will show the following signals : 

A black ball at the foremast head and a similar ball at the yardarm, 
or where it can best be seen, on that side on which it is dangerous for 
vessels to pass. 

For the public safety, all other vessels, whether steamers or sailing 
craft, must keep out of the way of vessels flying this signal, and should 
especially remember that it is dangerous to pass between the vessels of 
a pair. 

" This notice is a repetition of Notice No. 274 of 1915, with the addition 
of Sunderland to the list of ports mentioned in Part III. 

Authority. — The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 

By command of their lordships, 

J. F. Parry, 
Hydrographer. 

Hydrographic Department, Admiralty, 

London, August 16, 1915. 

Announcement of Mine-laying, November 3, 1914- 

Announcement of the Admiralty. 

[London Times, Nov. 3, 1914, page 6.] 

During the last week the Germans have scattered mines in indis- 
criminately in the open sea on the main trade route from America 
to Liverpool via the north of Ireland. Peaceful merchant ships 
have already been blown up with loss of life by this agency. The 
White Star Liner Olympic escaped disaster by pure good luck. But 
for the warnings given by the British cruisers, other British and 
neutral merchant and passenger vessels would have been destroyed. 
These mines can not have been laid by any German ship of war. 
They have been laid by some merchant vessel flying a neutral flag 
which has come along the trade route as if for the purposes of 
peaceful commerce, and, while profiting to the full by the immunity 
enjoyed by neutral merchant ships, has wantonly and recklessly en- 
dangered the lives of all who travel on the sea, regardless of 
whether they are friend or foe, civilian or military in character. 

1 Not in notices of 1914. 



Navigation of Mined Areas. \ c 2a 

Mrne laying under a neutral flag and reconnaissance conducted 
by trawlers, hospital ships, and neutral vessels are the ordinary 
features of German naval warfare. In these circumstances, hav- 
ing regard to the great interests intrusted to the British Navy, to 
the safety of peaceful commerce on the high seas, and to the main- 
tenance within the limits of international law of trade between 
neutral countries, the Admiralty feel it necessary to adopt excep- 
tional measures appropriate to the novel conditions under which 
this war is being waged. 

They therefore give notice that the whole of the North Sea must 
be considered a military area. Within this area merchant shipping 
of all kinds, traders of all countries, fishing craft, and all other ves- 
sels will be exposed to the gravest dangers from mines which it has 
been necessary to lay, and from warships searching vigilantly by 
night and day for suspicious craft. All merchant and fishing ves- 
sels of every description are hereby warned of the dangers they en- 
counter by entering this area except in strict accordance with Ad- 
miralty directions. Every effort will be made .to convey this warn- 
ing to neutral countries and to vessels on the sea, but from the 5th 
of November onward the Admiralty announces that all ships pass- 
ing a line drawn from the northern point of the Hebrides through 
the Faroe Islands to Iceland do so at their own peril. 

Ships of all countries wishing to trade to and from Norway, the 
Baltic, Denmark, and Holland are advised to come, if inward 
bound, by the English Channel and the Straits of Dover. There 
they will be given sailing directions which will pass them safely, so 
far as Great Britain is concerned, up the east coast of England to 
Farn Island, whence a safe route will, if possible, be given to Lin- 
desnaes Lighthouse. From this point they should turn north or 
south according to their destination, keeping as near the coast as 
possible. The converse applies to vessels outward bound. By 
strict adherence to these routes the commerce of all countries will 
be able to reach its destination in safety, so far as Great Britain is 
concerned, but any straying, even for a few miles from the course 
thus indicated, may be followed by fatal consequences. 1 

Bnections for Navigation in Mined Areas November 30, 191Jf. 

Navigation in the North Sea and English Channel. 

It is requested that shipowners on receiving these instructions 
will use their utmost endeavor to communicate them as confi- 
dentially as possible to the masters of their vessels, impressing 
upon them the necessity for preventing the information from reach- 
ing the enemy. These instructions should not be allowed to come 
into the hands of any persons who are not directly affected by 
them. 

1 The same in essentials in U. S. Hydrographic Office, Notice to Mariners, 
No. 48 (3948), 1914. 



128 British Directions, Nov. 30, 1914. 

The previous Notice on Navigation in the North Sea (dated Oc- 
tober 14, 1914) is canceled. 

A. GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS. 

1. Local naval or military authorities may, at any time when 
they consider it necessary, close a port during certain hours with- 
out previous warning. 

2. Attention is called to the notice on the inside cover of all 
Admiralty Sailing Directions and their Supplements, and to the 
following Admiralty Notices to Mariners of 1914 : 

No. 1 of January 1. 

No. 1528 of September 14 ; Thames approaches. 

No. 1690 of October 28 ; River Thames. 

No. 1706 of November 3 ; mined areas. 

No. 1727 of November 7 ; River Mersey. 

No. 1730 of November 10 ; Orkney Islands. 

No. 1752 of November 16 ; East coast ports. 

In the Notice to Mariners No. 1752 of November 16, the position 
of the pilotage station of the River Humber to be established by 
November 27 should read " 7 miles E. S. E. (magnetic) from Spurn 
Point." 

3. All lights may be extinguished and other aids to navigation 
removed or altered at any time without previous warning. 

B. MINES. 

4. So far as is known at present there are, in addition to the 
mine fields mentioned in Admiralty Notice to Mariners, No. 1752, 
of 1914, the following principal mined areas : 

(a) Off the Tyne. 

(&) Off Flamborough Head. 

(c) Off Southwold (southern limit 51° 54' north). 

(d) British mine field within latitude 51° 15' north and 51° 40' 
north, longitude 1° 35' east and 3° east. 

C. SPECIAL INFORMATION AS TO ENGLISH CHANNEL AND DOWNS. 

5. .On and after December 10 lights, buoys, and fog signals in the 
English Channel and the Downs eastward of a line joining Selsey 
Bill and Cape Barfleur and south of the parallel 51° 20' north will 
be liable to extinction or alteration without further notice. 

Trinity House pilot stations will be established as follows by 
December 10 : 

St. Helens, Isle of Wight: Where ships proceeding up Channel 
can obtain pilots capable of piloting as far as Great Yarmouth. 

Great Yarmouth : Where ships from the North Sea bound for the 
English Channel or intermediate ports can obtain pilots capable of 
piloting as far as the Isle of Wight. 



General and Particular Passages. 129 

Dover : Where ships from French channel ports, but no other, 
can obtain pilots for the North Sea. 

The Sunk Light Vessel : Where ships crossing the North Sea 
between the parallels 51° 40' north and 51° 54' north, but no 
others, can obtain pilots for the English Channel. 

Pilots also can be obtained at London for the Channel and the 
North Sea. 

6. Loth before and after the above date (Dec. 10, .1914) all 
vessels entering the North Sea from the Channel, or vice versa, 
must pass through the Downs, where they will be given directions 
as to their route. 

D. PASSAGES GENERAL. 

7. On and after December 10, 1914, vessels proceeding up or 
down Channel eastward of the Isle of Wight are very strongly 
advised to take pilots, as navigation will be exceedingly dangerous 
without their aid (see par. 5). 

8. Vessels proceeding up or down the east coast should keep 
within 3 miles of the coast when consistent with safe navigation. 
The only exception to this is when passing the mouth of the Tyne. 
Here all vessels should pass not less than 4 miles but not more 
than 8 miles from the coast between Sunderland and Blyth. 
Vessels bound to the Tyne must take a pilot off one of the above 
ports, as stated in Admiralty Notice to Mariners, No. 1752. of 1914. 

E. PARTICULAR PASSAGES. 

[Note. — In each case return voyages should be made on same routes.] 

9. East coast ports to French ports : See paragraphs 5, 6, and 8. 

10. East coast ports to Dutch ports : Proceed as directed in para- 
graphs 5 and 8. Leave the English coast between the parallels 

of 51° 40' north and 51° 45' north ; proceed between these parallels 
as far as longitude 3° east, shape course thence to destination. 

Vessels using this route (which passes between the British and 

German mine fields) must clearly understand that they do so 

entirely at their own risk. 

11. East coast ports to Scandinavian or Danish ports : Proceed 
as directed in paragraphs 5 and 8 as far as Farn Island ; then 
steer for the vicinity of Lindesnaes, and thence to destination, 
keeping in territorial waters. 

12. From Atlantic and Irish ports or ports on the south or west 
coasts of Great Britain to Scandinavian or Danish ports : Proceed 
via English Channel, being guided by paragraphs 5, 6, 7, 8, and 11. 

13. Sailing vessels bound to Scandinavian or Danish ports : 
Pass to westward of Ireland and of St. Kilda. Then make the 
Faroe Islands, and proceed from thence to destination, keeping 50 
miles to the north of the Shetland Islands. 

43760—18 9 



130 British Directions, May 15, 1915. 

14. All vessels bound from east coast ports to west coast ports 
in the United Kingdom, and vice versa, must pass through the 
English Channel, and not round the north of Scotland. 

Admiralty War Staff (Trade Division), 

November 30, 1914. 

Directions for navigation in mined areas, May 15, 1915. 

Navigation in the North Sea and British home waters. 1 

The previous Notice on Navigation in the North Sea and English 
Channel (dated Nov. 30, 1914), is canceled. 

A. GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS. 

1. Local naval or military authorities may, at any time when 
they consider it necessary, close a port during certain hours with- 
out previous warning. 

2. Before leaving ports in the United Kingdom masters of vessels 
should be careful to obtain the latest Admiralty Notices to Mar- 
iners. Attention is called to the notice on the inside cover of all 
Admiralty Sailing Directions and their supplements, and to the 

1 The following notes serve to explain these directions, especially 
article 11 : 

British foreign office to United States Embassy June 5, 1915. 

I did not fail to refer to the proper department of His Majesty's Gov- 
ernment the notes which your excellency was good enough to address 
to me on the 22d and 29th ultimo inquiring as to the Admiralty announce- 
ment canceling the notice on navigation in the North Sea of November 
30, 1914. 

I have the honor to state in reply that the notice on navigation in the 
North Sea dated May 15 introduced no new regulations with regard 
to the north-about route. The notice was merely intended to summarize 
existing practice which has been evolved with the object of insuring that 
trade passing north-about shall be limited in amount and reputable in 
character. 

Many applications for vessels to use the north-about route have been 
received through the legations of the Scandinavian powers in London 
and permission has been granted. 

I have the honor to add that any similar applications which may be 
made on behalf of United States vessels would, of course, receive equal 
treatment. 

British foreign office to United States Embassy July 22, 1915. 

I did not fail to refer to the proper department of His Majesty's Gov- 
ernment the note which your excellency was so good as to address 
to me on the 18th ultimo regarding the Admiralty announcement cancel- 
ing the notice on navigation in the North Sea on November 30, 1914. 

I have now the honor to inform your excellency that the action of 
His Majesty's Government in indicating routes to be followed by neu- 
tral merchant vessels in the vicinity of the British Isles and in the North 
Sea is based upon the fact that merchant vessels passing through the 
North Sea run very grave risk unless they act in strict accordance with 
the directions of the Admiralty. Before issuing such special directions to 



Mines. 131 

following Admiralty Notices to Mariners and any subsequent ones 
that may be issued : 

No. 1738 of November 13, 1914 ; River Medway. 

No. 1812 of December 10, 1914; Bristol Channel. 

No. 45 of January 15, 1915 ; Yarmouth Roads. 

No. 137 of February 22, 1915; Irish Channel, North Channel. 

No. 165 of March 8, 1915 ; River Humber pilotage. 

No. 228 of March 26, 1915 ; Dover Strait. Light vessels estab- 
lished. 

No. 239 of March 27, 1915; North Sea, River Thames, and 
English Channel. 

No. 258 of April 3, 1915 ; Portland Harbor. 

No. 274 of April 7, 1915 ; Caution when approaching British ports. 

No. 391 of May 5, 1915; Firth of Forth, Moray Firth, Scapa 
Flow. 

No. 408 of May 8, 1915 ; River Tyne boom defense. Entrance 
Signals and Traffic Regulations. 

3. Care must be taken at all times to ensure masters being in 
possession of the latest Notices to Mariners. 

4. Any lights may be extinguished and other aids to navigation 
removed or altered at any time without previous warning. (Ad- 
miralty Notice to Mariners No. 1627 of Oct. 9, 1914.) 

B. MINES. 

5. So far as is known at present there are, in addition to the 
mine-fields mentioned in Admiralty Notice to Mariners No. 391 
of May 5, 1915, the following principal mined areas: 

(a) Off the Tyne. 

a neutral vessel the Admiralty desires to be assured that the vessel's 
voyage is undertaken with the knowledge and consent of the govern- 
ment of the country whose flag she flies, and for this reason it is necessary 
that the application by a neutral vessel for advice as to special routes 
should be supported by the diplomatic representative of the government 
in question. 

If such support to the application is not given, neutral vessels will 
not receive the special instructions as to the north-about route and will 
be advised to go south-about where they can be supplied with the latest 
warnings and obtain the services of pilots where necessary. 

British foreign office to United States Embassy August 17, 1915. 

I have the honor to inform your excellency in reply that in principle 
His Majesty's Government would desire that neutral vessels passing 
north-about from one neutral port to another should sail with the knowl- 
edge and consent of the government of the country whose flag they fly 
and should follow a track similar as far as possible to that used by 
vessels sailing from British ports. The difficulty of insuring this is, 
however, so considerable and the responsibility of His Majesty's Gov- 
ernment in the matter is so slight that no endeavor is being made in prac- 
tice to secure any such limitation of sailings. 



132 British Directions, May 15, 1915. 

(&) Off Flamborough Head. 

<c) Off Southwold (southern limit 50° 54' north.) 
id) British mine field between latitude 51° 15' north and lati- 
tude 51° 40' north, and between longitude 1° 35' east and longitude 
3° east. 

C. PASSAGES GENERAL. 

6. All vessels entering the North Sea from the English Channel 
must pass between the two light vessels off Folkestone (see Ad- 
miralty Notice to Mariners No. 228 of 1915), and proceed to the 
Downs, keeping inshore of an imaginary line joining the southern- 
most of the two light vessels to the South Goodwin Light Vessel. 
Further instructions as to routes can be obtained in the Downs. 

7. Vessels proceeding up or down the east coast should keep 
within 3 miles of the coast when consistent with safe navigation. 

D. PARTICULAR PASSAGES. 

(Note. — In each case the return voyage should be made on the same 
route.) 

8. East coast ports to Channel and French ports. — Proceed to 
tbe Downs, following the directions in paragraph 7 and Admiralty 
Notice to Mariners, No. 239 of 1915. At the Downs further in- 
structions will be obtained. 

9. East coast ports to Dutch ports. — Proceed as directed in para- 
graph 7 and Admiralty Notice to Mariners No. 239 of 1915. Leave 
the English coast between the parallels 51° 40' north and 51° 54' 
north ; proceed between these parallels as far as longitude 3° east ; 
shape course thence to destination. Vessels using this route (which 
passes between the British and German mine fields) must clearly 
understand that they do so entirely at their own risk. 

10. East coast ports to Scandinavian ports. — Proceed as directed 
in paragraph 7 and Admiralty Notice to Mariners No. 239 of 1915, 
as far as Farn Island ; then steer for Lindesnaes and thence to 
destination, keeping in territorial waters. The route from St. 
Abbs' Head to Stavanger may be used as an alternative to the above 
route. 

11. British and allied vessels wishing to use the north-about 
route should apply to the customs for directions. 

Neutral vessels wishing to use the north-about route should be 
informed that application for permission to do so must be obtained 
through their diplomatic representatives and that, failing sucli 
permission, they must proceed south-about. 

In no circumstances are vessels allowed to pass through the 
Minches or through the Pentland Firth. 

12. -Sailing vessels from Atlantic to Scandinavian ports. — Pass 
to westward of Ireland and St. Kilda. Then make the Faroe 



Notifications, Jan. 25, 1917 ; Feb. IS, 1917. 



Ol) 



Islands and proceed thence to destination, passing to the north- 
ward of the Shetland Islands and keeping 50 miles from them. 
Admiralty War Staff (Trade Division), May 15, 1915. 

Notification of mined areas, January 25, 1911. 

In view of the unrestricted warfare carried on .by Germany at 
sea by means of mines and submarines not only against the allied 
powers but also against neutral shipping, and the fact that mer- 
chant ships are constantly sunk without regard to the ultimate 
safety of their crews, His Majesty's Government give notice that 
on and after the 7th proximo the undermentioned area in the 
North Sea will be rendered dangerous to all shipping by operations 
against the enemy, and it should therefore be avoided. 

Area comprising all the waters except Nefherland and Danish 
territorial waters lying to the southward and eastward of a line 
commencing 4 miles from the coast of Jutland in latitude 56° 
north, longitude 8° east from Greenwich and passing through the 
following positions : Latitude 56° north, longitude 6° east, lati- 
tude 54°45' east, thence to a position in latitude 53° 37' north, longi- 
tude 5° east, 7 miles off the coast of the Netherlands. 

To meet the needs of the Netherland coastal traffic which can 
not strictly confine itself to territorial waters owing to navigational 
difficulties a safe passage will be left to the southward of a line 
joining the following points : Latitude 53° 27' north, longitude 5° 
east, latitude 53° 31' north, longitude 5° 30' east, latitude 53° 34' 
north, longitude 6° east, latitude 53° 39' north, longitude 6° 23' 
east. 

Notification of mined areas, February 13, 1917. 

North Sea. — Caution with regard to dangerous area. 

Caution. — In view of the unrestricted warfare carried on by 
Germany at sea by means of mines and submarines not only 
against the allied powers, but also against neutral shipping, and 
the. fact that merchant ships are constantly sunk without regard 
to the ultimate safety of their crews, His Majesty's Government 
give notice that on and after February 7, 1917, the undermentioned 
area in the North Sea will be rendered dangerous to all shipping 
•by operations against the enemy, and it should therefore be 
avoided. 

Dangerous area. — The area comprising all the waters except 
Netherland and Danish territorial waters lying to the southward 
and eastward of a line commencing four miles from the coast of 
Jutland in latitude 56° north, longitude 8° east, and passing 
through the following positions : Latitude 56° north, longitude 6° 
east, and latitude 54° 45' north, longitude 4° 30' east, thence to a 
position in latitude 53° 27' north, longitude 5° east, 7 miles from 
the coast of The Netherlands. 



134 British Notifications, Mar. 21, 1917; Ayr. 27, 1917. 

To meet the needs of the coastal traffic which can not strictly 
confine itself to territorial waters owing to navigational difficulties, 
it will be safe to navigate between the coast of Jutland and a line 
passing through the following positions : Latitude 56° north, longi- 
tude 8° east, latitude 55° 40' north, longitude 8° east, latitude 
55° 36' north, longitude 7° 15' east, latitude 55° 32' north, longi- 
tude 7° 15' east, latitude 55° 22' north, longitude 7° 45' east, lati- 
tude 55° 19' north, longitude 8° 4' east, latitude 55° 22' north, 
longitude 8° 19' east, which is 3 miles from the coast of Fano 
Island. 

Also a safe passage will be left along the Netherland coast south- 
ward of a line joining the following positions: Latitude 53° 27' 
north, longitude 5° east, latitude 53° 31£' north, longitude 5° 30' 
east, latitude 53° 34' north, longitude 6° east, latitude 53° 39' 
north, longitude 6° 23' east. 

Notification of mined area, March 21, 1917. 

As from April 1, 1917, the dangerous area will comprise all the 
waters except Danish and Netherlands territorial waters lying to 
the southward and eastward of a line commencing 3 miles from 
the coast of Jutland on the parallel of latitude 56° north and pass- 
ing through the following positions : 

One. Latitude 56° north, longitude 6° east. 

Two. Latitude 54° 45' north, longitude 4° 30' east. 

Three. Latitude 53° 23' north, longitude 5° 1' east. 

Four. Latitude 53° 25' north, longitude 5° 5*' east, and thence 
to the eastward following the limit of Netherlands territorial 
waters. 

Notification of extension of mined area, April 27, 1917. 

Admiralty Notice 434, dated April 26, cancels No. 319, entitled 
caution with regard to dangerous area. New notice repeats former 
preamble and states that on and after May 3, 1917, will be further 
extended as undermentioned. 

Dangerous area. — The area comprising all the waters except 
Netherlands and Danish territorial waters lying to the southward 
and eastward of a line commencing 3 miles from the coast of Jut- 
land on the parallel of latitude 56° north, and passing through the 
following positions : First. Latitude 56° north, longitude 6° east. 
Second. Latitude 54° 45' north, longitude 4° 30' east. Third. Lati- 
tude 53° 15' north, longitude 4° 30' east. Fourth. Latitude 53° 23' 
north, longitude 4° 50' east. Fifth. Latitude 53° 23' north, longi- 
tude 5° 01' east. Sixth. Latitude 53° 25' north, longitude 5° 05V 
east, and from thence to the eastward, following the limit of 
Netherlands territorial waters. 



British Blockade Notification*. 135 

BLOCKADES AND COMMERCIAL RESTRICTIONS. 

Notification, blockade of the coast of German East Africa, Febru- 
ary 23, 1915. 

[London Gazette, Feb. 26, 1915, p. 1975 ; Manual of Emergency Legisla- 
tion, Supp. No. 3, p. 292 ; Journal Officiel, Mar. 5, 1915, p. 1159.] 

Foeeign Office, February 23, 1915. 

His Majesty's Government have decided to declare a blockade 
of the coast of German East Africa as from midnight, February 
28-March 1. The blockade will extend along the whole coast, 
including the islands, i. e., from latitude 4° 41' south to latitude 
10° 40' south. 

Four days' grace from the time of the commencement of the 
blockade will be given for the departure of neutral vessels from 
the blockaded area. 

'Notification, blockade of the coast of the Cameroons, Apr. 24, 

1915. 1 

[London Gazette, Apr. 27, 1915, p. 4060 ; Manual of Emergency Legisla- 
tion, Supp. No. 3, p. 293.] 

Foeeign Office, April 2k, 1915. 

His Majesty's Government have decided to declare a blockade 
of the coast of the Cameroons as from midnight April 23-24. 
The blockade will extend from the entrance of the Akwayafe 
River to Bimbia Creek, and from the Benge mouth of the Sanaga 
River to Campo. 

Forty-eight hours' grace from the time of the commencement 
of the blockade will be given for the departure of neutral vessels 
from the blockaded area. 

Notification, restriction of Cameroons blockade, January 11, 1916. 
[London Gazette, Jan. 11, 1916, p. 447.] 

With reference to the notification, dated April 24, 1915, which 
appeared in the London Gazette of April 27 last, His Majesty's 
Government give notice that the blockade of the coast of Came- 
roons has been raised so far as concerns the coast line from the 
Akwayafe River to Bimbia Creek. The blockade still remains in 
force from the Benge mouth of the Sanaga River to Campo. 

Foreign Office, January S, 2 1916. 

1 See French notifications, supra, p. 91. 

2 This appears to be an error for Jan. 11 ; see following notification. 



136 British Blockade Notifications. 

'Notification, raising of Cameroons blockade, February 29, 1916. 

[London Gazette, Feb. 29, 1916, p. 2238.] 

With reference to the notification dated January 11, 1916, which 
appeared in the London Gazette of that date, His Majesty's Gov- 
ernment give notice that the blockade of the coast of the Cam- 
eroons, which had been maintained in force from the Benge 
mouth of the Sanaga River to Campo, is completely raised as 
from midnight (Greenwich time), February 29-March 1. 

Notification, blockade of the coast of Asia Minor, including en- 
trance to Dardanelles, June 1, 1915. 

[London Gazette, June 4, 1915, p. 5386; Manual of Emergency Legisla- 
tion, Supp. No. 4, p. 102.] 

Foeeign Office, June 1, 1915. 
His Majesty's Government have decided to declare a blockade 
of the coast of Asia Minor, commencing at noon on June 2. The 
area of the blockade will extend from latitude 37° 35' north 
to latitude 40° 5' north, and will include the entrance to the 
Dardanelles. Seventy-two hours' grace from the moment of the 
commencement of the blockade will be given for the departure of 
neutral vessels from the blockaded area. 

Notification, blockade of coast of Bulgaria, October 16, 1915. 

[London Gazette, Oct. 19, 1915, p. 10261.] 

Foeeign Office, October 16, 1915. 
The vice admiral commanding the Eastern Mediterranean 
Squadron of the allied fleets has declared a blockade of the Bul- 
garian coasts in the Aegean Sea, commencing from 6 a. m. on the 
16th instant. Forty-eight hours grace from the moment of the 
commencement of the blockade has been assigned for the depar- 
ture of neutral vessels from the blockaded area. 

Notification, extension of blockade of coast of Aegean Sea, Sep- 
tember 20, 1916. 

[London Gazette, Sept. 22, 1916, p. 9208.] 

Foeeign Office, September 20, 1916. 
The limits of the blockade of the coast of the Aegean Sea, noti- 
fied in the London Gazette of October 19, 1915, have been extended 
westward as far as the mouth of the Struma River, in 40° 46' 
north latitude and 23° 53' east longitude. The blockade takes 
effect in the area thus added from the 16th instant. 



Retaliatory Measures against Germany. 137 

Neutral ships already in ports or at places on the newly block- 
aded coasts are being allowed until 8 a. m. on the 21st instant 
to leave the blockaded area. 

Declaration by Great Britain and France of retaliatory meastires 
against Germany, March 1, 1915. 

[Journal Officiel, Mar. 16, 1915, p. 1388.] 

Germany has declared the English Channel, the northern and 
western coasts of France, as well as the waters surrounding the 
British Isles to be a " war zone," and has officially proclaimed that 
" all enemy vessels found in this zone will be destroyed and that 
neutral vessels there might be in danger." This is in reality a claim 
to torpedo at sight, without regard for the safety of crew and 
passengers, any merchant vessel under any flag. As it is not in 
the power of the German Admiralty to maintain any vessel on the 
surface in these waters, this attack can only be carried out by 
submarine means. International law and the custom of nations 
regarding attack against commerce have always presumed that 
the first duty of the captor of a merchant vessel is to take it before 
a prize court where it can be~ judged, where the regularity of the 
capture can be determined, and where neutrals may recover their 
cargo. To sink a captured vessel is in itself a questionable act, 
to which recourse can be had only under extraordinary circum- 
stances and after measures have been taken to assure the safety 
of all the crew and the passengers, if there are passengers on 
board. The responsibility of distinguishing between neutral and 
enemy cargo, as well as between neutral and enemy vessels, is 
manifestly incumbent on the attacking vessel, whose duty it is to 
verify the status and the character of the vessel and its cargo, as 
well as to place all papers in safety, before sinking or even making 
a capture. Also the duty toward humanity consisting in assuring 
the safety of crews of merchant vessels, whether they are neutral 
or enemy, is an obligation for every belligerent. It is on this basis 
that all previous discussions of the law aiming at regulating the 
conduct of war at sea have been conducted. 

In fact, a German submarine is incapable of fulfilling any one of 
these obligations. It exercises no local power on the waters in 
which it operates. It does not bring its capture within the juris- 
diction of a prize court. It does not carry any prize crew which 
it can put aboard a prize. It employs no effective means of dis- 
tinguishing between a neutral and an enemy vessel. It does not, 
by taking them on board, assure the safety of the crew and 
passengers of the vessel which it sinks. Its methods of war are 
consequently entirely outside the observance of all international 
texts governing operations against commerce in time of war. 



138 British Retaliatory Order in Council. 

The German declaration . substitutes for regulated capture, blind 
destruction. 

Germany adopts these methods against peaceful merchants and 
noncombatant crews with the avowed intention of preventing 
merchandise of every kind (including provisions for feeding the 
civil population) from entering or leaving the British Isles and 
northern France. Her adversaries are consequently forced to 
have recourse to measures of retaliation, so as to prevent recipro- 
cally merchandise of all kinds from reaching or leaving Germany. 
However, these measures will be enforced by the French and 
British Governments without risk, either for the vessels or the 
lives of neutrals and of noncombatants, and in strict conformity 
with humane principles. 

Consequently, the French Government and the British Govern- 
ment consider themselves free to stop and conduct into their ports 
vessels carrying merchandise presumably destined for the enemy, 
property of the enemy, or coming from the enemy. These vessels 
will not be confiscated unless they shall be liable to be condemned 
for other reasons. The treatment of vessels and cargoes which 
have gone to sea before this date will not be modified. 

Order in council, retaliatory measures against trade of Germany, 

Marcli 11, 1915. 1 

[London Gazette, Mar. 15, 1915, p. 2605 ; Man. Em. Leg., Supp. No. 3, 

p. 513.] 

1915. No. 206. 

At the court at Buckingham Palace, the 11th day of March, 1915. 

Present, the King's Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

Whereas the German Government has issued certain orders, 
which, in violation of the usages of war, purport to declare the 
waters surrounding the United Kingdom a military area, in which 
all British and allied merchant vessels will be destroyed, irrespec- 
tive of the safety of the lives of passengers and crew, and in which 
neutral shipping will be exposed to similar danger in view of the 
uncertainties of naval warfare ; 

And whereas in a memorandum accompanying the said orders 
neutrals are warned against intrusting crews, passengers, or goods 
to British or allied ships ; 

And whereas such attempts on the part of the enemy give to 
His Majesty an unquestionable right of retaliation ; 

And whereas His Majesty has therefore decided to adopt further 
measures in order to prevent commodities of any kind from reach- 
ing or leaving Germany, though such measures will be enforced 
without risk to neutral ships or to neutral or noncombatant life, 
and in strict observance of the dictates of humanity. 



1 For similar French measures, see supra, p. 94. 



Regulation as to Vessels. 139 

And whereas the allies of His Majesty are associated with him 
in the steps now to be announced for restricting further the com- 
merce of Germany : 

His Majesty is therefore pleased, by and with the advice of his 
Privy Council, to order and it is hereby ordered as follows : 

I. No merchant vessel which sailed from her port of departure 
after March 1, 1915, shall be allowed to proceed on her voyage to 
any German port. 

Unless the vessel receives a pass enabling her to proceed to some 
neutral or allied port to be named in the pass, goods on board any 
such vessel must be discharged in a British port and placed in the 
custody of the marshal of the prize court. Goods so discharged, 
not being contraband of war, shall, if not requisitioned for the use 
of His Majesty, be restored by order of the court, upon such terms 
as the court may in the circumstances deem to be just, to the person 
entitled thereto. 

II. No merchant vessel which sailed from any German port after 
March 1, 1915, Shall be allowed to proceed on her voyage with any 
goods on board laden at such port. 

All goods laden at such port must be discharged in a British or 
allied port. Goods so discharged in a British port shall be placed 
in the custody of the marshal of the prize court, and, if not requisi- 
tioned for the use of His Majesty, shall be detained or sold under 
the direction of the prize court. The proceeds of goods so sold 
shall be paid into court and dealt with in such manner as the court 
may in the circumstances deem to be just. 

Provided, that no proceeds of the sale of such goods shall be 
paid out of court until the conclusion of peace, except on the appli- 
cation of the proper officer of the Crown, unless it be shown that 
the goods had become neutral property before the issue of this 
order. 

Provided also, That nothing herein shall prevent the release of 
neutral property laden at such enemy port on the application of 
the proper officer of the Crown. 

III. Every merchant vessel which sailed from her port of de 
parture after March 1, 1915, on her way to a port other than a 
German port, carrying goods with an enemy destination, or which 
are enemy property, may be required to discharge such goods in a 
British or allied port. Any goods so discharged in a British port 
shall be placed in the custody of the marshal of the prize court, 
and, unless they are contraband of war, shall, if not requisitioned 
for the use of His Majesty, be restored by order of the court, upon 
such terms as the court may in the circumstances deem to be just, 
to the person entitled thereto. 

Provided, That this article shall not apply in any case falling 
within Articles II or IV of this order. 



140 British Regulations as to Captured Property. 

IV. Every merchant vessel which sailed from a port other than a 
German port after March 1, 1915, having on board goods which are 
of enemy origin or are enemy property may be required to discharge 
such goods in a British or allied port. Goods so discharged in a 
British port shall be placed in the custody of the marshal of the 
prize court, and, if not requisitioned for the use of His Majesty, 
shall be detained or sold under the direction of the prize court. 
The proceeds of goods so sold shall be paid into court and dealt 
with in such manner as the court may in the circumstances deem 
to be just. 

Provided, That no proceeds of the sale of such goods shall be 
paid out of court until the conclusion of peace except on the appli- 
cation of the proper officer of the Crown, unless it be shown that 
the goods had become neutral property before the issue of this 
order. 

Provided also, That nothing herein shall prevent the release of 
neutral property of enemy origin on the application of the proper 
officer of the Crown. 

V. (1) Any person claiming to be interested in, or to have any 
claim in respect of, any goods (not being contraband of war) 
placed in the custody of the marshal of the prize court under this 
order, or in the proceeds of such goods, may forthwith issue a writ 
in the prize court against the proper officer of the Crown and ap- 
ply for an order that the goods should be restored to him, or that 
their- proceeds should be paid to him, or for such other order as 
the circumstances of the case may require. 

(2) The practice and procedure of the prize court shall, so far 
as applicable, be followed mutatis mutandis in any proceedings 
consequential upon this order. 

VI. A merchant vessel which has cleared for a neutral port from 
a British or allied port, or which has been allowed to pass having 
an ostensible destination to a neutral port, and proceeds to an 
enemy port, shall, if captured on any subsequent voyage, be liable 
to condemnation. 

VII. Nothing in this order shall be deemed to affect the liability 
of any vessel or goods to capture or condemnation independently 
of this order. 

VIII. Nothing in this order shall prevent the relaxation of the 
provisions of this order in respect of the merchant vessels of any 
country which declares that no commerce intended for or originat- 
ing in Germany or belonging to German subjects shall enjoy the 
protection of its flag. 

Almeric Fitzroy. 



Retaliatory Order against German Trade. 141 

Order in council, retaliatory measures ana hist German trade. 

January 10, 1017. 

[Loudon Gazette, Jan. 12, 1917, p. 489.] 

ORDER IN COUNCIL. 

At the court at Buckingham Palace, the 10th clay of January, 
1917. 

Present, the King's Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

Whereas, on the 11th clay of March, 1915, an order was issued 
by His Majesty in council directing that all ships which sailed 
from their ports of departure after the 1st day of March, 1915, 
might be required to discharge in a British or allied port goods 
which were of enemy origin or of enemy destination or which 
were enemy property ; 

And whereas such order in council was consequent upon certain 
orders issued by the German Government purporting to declare, 
in violation of the usages of war, the waters surrounding the 
United Kingdom a military area, in which all British and allied 
merchant vessels would be destroyed, irrespective of the lives 
of passengers and crew, and in which neutral shipping would be 
exposed to similar danger, in view of the uncertainties of naval 
warfare ; 

And whereas the sinking of British, allied, and neutral merchant 
ships, irrespective of the lives of passengers and crews, and in 
violation of the usages of war, has not been confined to the waters 
surrounding the United Kingdom, but has taken place in a large 
portion of the area of naval operations ; 

And whereas such illegal acts have been committed not only 
by German warships but by warships flying the flag of each of 
the enemy countries ; 

And whereas on account of the extension of the scope of the 
illegal operations carried out under the said German orders, and 
in retaliation therefor, vessels have been required under the pro- 
visions of the order in council aforementioned to discharge in 
a British or allied port goods which were of enemy origin or of 
enemy destination or which were enemy property, irrespective 
of the enemy country from or to which such goods were going 
or of the enemy country in which was domiciled the persons whose 
property they were ; 

And whereas doubts have arisen as to whether the term 
" enemy " in articles 3 and 4 of the said order in council includes 
enemy countries other than Germany ; 

Now, therefore, His Majesty is pleased, by and with the advice 
of his privy council, to order, and it is hereby ordered, as follows : 

1. In articles 3 and 4 of the said ojrder in council of March 11, 
1915, nforementionecl, the terms " enemy destination " and " enemy 
origin " shall be deemed to apply and shall apply to goods destined 



142 British Retaliatory Order. 

for or originating in any enemy country, and the term " enemy 
property " shall be deemed to apply and shall apply to goods 
belonging to any person domiciled in any enemy country. 

2. Effect shall be given to this order in the application of the 
said order in council of March 11, 1915, to goods which previous 
to the date of this order have been discharged at a British or 
allied port, being goods of destination or origin or property which 
was enemy though not German, and all such goods shall be de- 
tained and dealt with in all respects as is provided in the said 
order in council of March 11, 1915. 

J. 0. Ledlie. 

Order in council, retaliatory measures against German trade, 

February 16, 1917. 

[London Gazette, Feb. 21, 1917, p. 1845.] 
ORDER IN COUNCIL. 

At the Court at Buckingham Palace, the 16th day of February, 
1917. 

Present, the King's Most Excellent Majesty in council. 

Whereas, by an order in council dated the 11th day of March, 
1915, His Majesty was pleased to direct certain measures to be 
taken against the commerce of the enemy ; 

And whereas the German Government has now issued a memo- 
randum declaring that from the 1st February, 1917, all sea traffic 
will be prevented in certain zones therein described adjacent to 
Great Britain and France and Italy, and that neutral ships will 
navigate the said zones at their own risk : 

And whereas similar directions have been given by other enemy 
powers ; 

And whereas the orders embodied in the said memorandum are 
in flagrant contradiction with the rules of international law, the 
dictates of humanity, and the treaty obligations of the enemy; 

And whereas such proceedings on the part of the enemy render 
it necessary for His Majesty to adopt further measures in order 
to maintain the efficiency of those previously taken to prevent 
commodities of any kind from reaching or leaving the enemy 
countries, and for this purpose to subject to capture and condem- 
nation vessels carrying goods with an enemy destination or of 
enemy origin unless they afford unto the forces of His Majesty 
and his allies ample opportunities of examining their cargoes, 
and also to subject such goods to condemnation ; 

His Majesty is therefore pleased, by and with the advice of 
his privy council, to order, and it is hereby ordered, that the fol- 
lowing directions shall be observed in respect of all vessels which 
sail from their port of departure after the date of this order : 

1. A vessel which is encountered at sea on her way to or from a 
port in any neutral country affording means of access to the 
enemy territory without calling at a port in British or allied terri- 



Franco-British Prize Convention. 143 

tory shall, until the contrary is established be deemed to be carry- 
ing goods with an enemy destination, or of enemy origin and shall 
be brought in for examination, and if necessary, for adjudication 
before the prize court. 

2. Any vessel carrying goods with an enemy destination, or of 
enemy origin shall be liable to capture and condemnation in respect 
of the carriage of such goods ; provided that, in the case of any 
vessel which calls at an appointed British or allied port for the 
examination of her cargo, no sentence of condemnation shall be 
pronounced in respect only of the carriage of goods of enemy 
origin or destination, and no such presumption as is laid down in 
article 1 shall arise. 

3. Goods which are found on the examination of any vessel to 
be goods of enemy origin or of enemy destination shall be liable 
to condemnation. 

4. Nothing in this order shall be deemed to affect the liability 
of any vessel or goods to capture or condemnation independently 
of this order. 

5. This order is supplemental to the orders in council of the 11th 
day of March, 1915, and the 10th day of January, 1917, for re- 
stricting the commerce of the enemy. 

Almeric Fitzroy. 

MISCELLANEOUS WAR MEASURES. 

Convention with France relating to prizes captured during the 
present European war. 1 

[Signed at London, Nov. 9, 1914. Ratifications exchanged Dec. 21, 1914.] 

[With the omission of art. 1, art. 2, par. 1, and art. 9, this convention with 
its annex is identical with those of May 10, 1854 (Holland, Manual of 
Naval Prize Law, pp. 76, 121), and of 1860 (Martens, N. R. G., 19: 
460) between the same powers.] 

His Majesty the King of the SaMajesteleRoiduRoyaume- 

United Kingdom of Great Britain Uni de Grande - Bretagne et 

and Ireland and of the British d'Irlande et des Territoires bri- 

Dominions beyond the Seas, Em- tanniques i:u clcla des Mers, 

1 ACCESSION OF ITALY TO CONVENTION OF NOVEMBER 9, 1914. 

[Great Britain, Treaty Series, 1917, No. 6.] 

(1) 
The Italian Ambassador to His Majesty's Secretary of State for Foreign 

Affairs. 

(Translation.) 

London, January 15, 1917. 
Sir : With reference to Viscount Grey of Fallodon's note of the 24th 
July, 1915, I have the honor to inform Your Excellency that the Italian 
Government have decided to accede to the convention concluded between 
Great Britain and France on the 9th November, 1914, relating to naval 
prizes during the present European war, notwithstanding the interpreta- 



Franco-British Prize Convention, 19H. 



peror of India, and the President 
of the French Republic, being 
desirous to determine the juris- 
diction to which the adjudication 
of joint captures which may be 
made during the course of the 
present war by the naval forces 
of the allied countries shall 
belong, or of captures which may 
be made of merchant vessels be- 
longing to nationals of one of the 
countries by the cruisers of the 
other ; and being desirous to 
regulate at the same time the 
mode of distribution of the pro- 
ceeds of joint captures, have 
named as their Plenipotentiaries 
for that purpose, that is to say : 



Empereur des Indes, et le Presi- 
dent de la Republique frangaise, 
voulant determiner la juridiction 
a. laquelle devra appartenir le 
jugement des prises qui, dans le 
cours de la guerre actuelle, pour- 
ront etre operees par les forces 
navales des pays allies, ou des 
prises qui pourront etre faites 
surdesnaviresmarchands appar- 
tenant aux nationaux de l'un des 
pays par les croiseurs de 1'au.tre 
et voulant regler en raeme temps 
le mode de repartition des pro- 
duits des prises effectuees en 
commun, ont nomme pour leurs 
Plgnipotentiaires k cet effet, sa- 
voir : 



His Majesty the King of the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Ireland and of the British 
Dominions beyond the Seas, Em- 
peror of India : The Right 
Honourable Sir Edward Grey, a 
Baronet of the United Kingdom, 
a Member of Parliament, His 



Sa Majeste le Roi de Grande- 
Bretagne et d'Irlande et des Ter- 
ritoires britanniques au dela. des 
Mers, Empereur des Indes : Le 
Tres Honorable Sir Edward 
Grey, Baronnet du Royaume-' 
Uni, Membre du Parlement, 
Principal Secretaire d'Etat de 



tion which has been given by the British and French Governments to 
article 2 of the convention referred to in paragraphs 2 and 3 of the 
above-mentioned note. 

In requesting Your Excellency to take note, in the name of the British 
Government, of the present declaration, I have the honor, etc. 

Imperiali. 

(2) 

His Majesty's Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to the Italian 

Ambassador. 

Foreign Office^ January 26 1911. 
"Your Excellency : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of 
Your Excellency's note of the 15th instant, in which you are good enough 
to inform me of the accession of Italy to the convention between the 
United Kingdom and France of the 9th November, 1914, relative to 
prizes captured during the present war, as modified by the extended in- 
terpretation which has since been assigned by the contracting parties to 
article 2 thereof. 

His Majesty's Government have taken due note of this communica- 
tion, a certified copy of which will, in view of article 9 of the conven- 
tion, be forwarded to the French and Russian Governments. 
I have the honor, etc. 

A. J. Balfour. 



Jurisdiction over Prize. 



145 



Majesty's Principal Secretary of 
State for Foreign Affairs ; and 

The President of the French 
Republic : His Excellency M. Paul 
Paul Cambon, Ambassador of 
the French Republic at London ; 



Sa Majeste ail Departement des 
Affaires Ftrangeres ; et 

Le President de la Republique 
frangaise: Son Excellence M. 
Cambon, Ambassadeur de France 
& Londres; 



Who, having reciprocally com- 
municated their full powers, 
found in good and due form, 
have agreed upon the following 
articles : — 



Lesquels, apr§s s'etre com- 
munique leurs pleins pouvoirs, 
trouves en bonne et due forme, 
sont convenus des articles sui- 
vants : 



Article 1. 



Article l nr . 



The adjudication of neutral or 
enemy prizes shall belong to the 
jurisdiction of the country of 
the capturing vessel, without 
distinguishing whether that ves- 
sel was placed under the orders 
of the naval authorities of one 
or other of the allied countries. 



Le jugement des prises en- 
nemies ou neutres appartiendra 
a la juridiction du pays du b&ti- 
ment capteur, sans qu'il y ait a 
distinguer selon que celui-ci 
§tait place sous les ordres des 
autorit&s navales de l'un ou de 
1'autre des pays allies. 



Article 2. 1 



Article 2. 



In case of the capture of a En cas de capture d'un bati- 
merchant vessel of one of the ment de la marine marchande de 
allied countries, the adjudica- l'un des pays allies, le jugement 

1 By exchange of notes (15th February-27th April, 1915) between 
His Majesty's Government and the French Government it has been 
agreed that, where both vessel and cargo are proceeded against under 
article 2 of the convention of the 9th November, 1914, the provisions of 
paragraph 1 of that article shall be held to apply in all cases. "Where 
only the cargo of the vessel is concerned, however, it has been agreed 
that, in addition to the specific case provided for by article 2, para- 
graph 2 — viz, where the original destination of the vessel was an enemy 
port — the principles laid down in that paragraph shall apply also to 
cases of contraband consigned to a neutral port and to cases of enemy 
property where the original destination was not a hostile port. 

By exchange of notes (31st May, 1915-26th October, 1916) between 
His Majesty's Government and the Russian Government it has been 
agreed that a similar interpretation of article 2 of the convention shall 
be held to apply in the cases referred to.* 

(Official footnote :) 

* By the Imperial Russian ukase of the 10th/23d August, 1915, it is 
decreed that enemy cargo found in Russian vessels, and equally in allied 
vessels, which have been overtaken by the war in Russian ports or 
littoral waters, or which have entered therein during the war, is liable 
to confiscation on the order of the nearest prize court. (Great Britain. 
Treaty Series, 1916, No. 5.) 
43760—18 10 



146 



Franco-British Prize Convention, 1914. 



tion of such capture shall al- en appartiendra tou jours k la 
ways belong to the jurisdiction juridiction du pays du batiment 



of the .country of the captured 
vessel. In such case the cargo 
shall be dealt with, as to the 
jurisdiction, in the same manner 
as the vessel. 

When a merchant vessel of 
one of the allied countries, 
whose original destination was 
an enemy port, and which is 
carrying an enemy or neutral 
cargo liable to capture, has en- 
tered a port of one of the allied 
countries, the prize jurisdiction 
of that country is competent to 
pronounce the condemnation of 
the cargo. In such case the 
value of the goods, after deduct- 
ing the necessary expenses, shall 
be placed to the credit of the 
Government of the allied coun- 
try whose flag the merchant ves- 
sel flies. 



capture ; la cargaison suivra, en 
ce pas, quant a la juridiction, le 
sort du batiment. 



Lorsqu'un navire de commerce 
allie, originairement destine 1 a 
un port ennemi, et portant une 
cargaison ennemie ou neutre su- 
jette a capture, est entre dans le 
port d'un des pays allies, la juri- 
diction des prises de ce pays est 
compgtente pour en prononcer la 
condamnation. En ce cas la 
valeur des merchandises, deduc- 
tion faite des depenses neces- 
saires, sera placee au credit du 
Gouvernement du pays allie\ 
sous le pavilion duquel le navire 
de commerce naviguait. 



Article 3. 



Article 3. 



When a joint capture shall be 
made by the naval forces of the 
allied countries, the adjudica- 
tion thereof shall belong to the 
jurisdiction of the country 
whose flag shall have been borne 
by the officer having the supe- 
rior command in the action. 



Lorsqu'une prise sera faite en 
commun par les forces navales 
des pays allies, le jugement en 
appartiendra k la juridiction du 
pays dont le pavilion aura ete" 
port6 par l'ofncier qui aura eu le 
commandement superieur dans 
Taction. 



Article 4. 



Article 4. 



When a capture shall be made 
by a cruiser of one of the allied 
nations in the presence and in 
the sight of a cruiser of the 
other, such cruiser having thus 
contributed to the intimidation 
of die enemy and encouragement 
of vhe captor, the adjudication 
thereof shall belong to the juris- 
diction of the actual captor. 



Lorsqu'une prise sera faite par 
un croiseur de l'une des nations 
alliees en presence et en vue d'un 
croiseur de 1' autre, qui aura 
ainsi contribue k intimider l'en- 
nemi et a encourager le capteur, 
le jugement en appartiendra a la 
juridiction du capteur effectif. 



Disposition of Prize. 
Article 5. Article 5. 



In case cf condemnation un- 
der the circumstances described 
in the preceding articles: 

1. If the capture shall have 
been made by vessels of the 
allied nations whilst acting in 
conjunction, the net proceeds of 
the prize, after deducting the 
necessary expenses, shall be di- 
vided into as many shares as 
there were men on board the 
capturing vessels, without ref- 
erence to rank, and the shares 
of each ally as so ascertained 
shall be paid and delivered to 
such person as may be duly au- 
thorised on behalf of the allied 
Government to receive the same ; 
and the allocation of the amount 
belonging to each vessel shall be 
made by each Government ac- 
cording to the laws and regula- 
tions of the country. 

2. If the capture shall have 
been made by cruisers of one of 
the allied nations in the presence 
and in sight of a cruiser of the 
other, the division, the payment, 
and the allocation of the net 
proceeds of the prize, after de- 
ducting the' necessary expenses, 
shall likewise be made in the 
manner above mentioned. 

3. If, in accordance with 
article 2, paragraph 1, a capture, 
made by a cruiser of one of the 
allied countries, shall have been 
adjudicated by the Courts of the 
other, the net proceeds of the 
prize, after deducting the neces- 
sary expenses, shall be made 
over in the same manner to the 
Government of the captor, to be 
distributed according to its laws 
and regulations. 



En cas de condamnati-on dans 
les circonstances prevues par les 
articles" precedents : 

1. Si la capture a ete faite par 
des batiments des nations alliees 
agissant en commun, le produit 
net de la prise, deduction faite 
des depenses necessaires, sera 
divise en autant de parts qu'il y 
aura d'hommes embarques sur 
les batiments capteurs, sans 
tenir compte des grades, et les 
parts revenant ainsi a cnacune 
des nations alliees seront payees 
et delivrees a la personne qui 
sera d Anient autorisee par le 
Gouvernement allie il • les re- 
cevoir ; et la repartition des 
sommes revenant aux batiments 
respectifs sera faite par les 
soins de chaque Gouvernement 
suivant les lois et les reglements 
du pays. 

2. Si la prise a e'te faite par 
les eroiseurs de l'une des nations 
allies en presence et en vue d'un 
croiseur de 1'autre, le partage, le 
paiement et la repartition du 
produit net de la prise, deduction 
faite des depenses necessaires, 
auront ' lieu egalement de la 
maniere indiquee ci-dessus. 

3. Si, conformement & l'ar- 
ticle 2, alinea 1, la prise, faite 
par un croiseur de l'un des pays 
allies, a ete jugee par les Tribu- 
naux de 1'autre, le produit net 
de la prise, deduction faite des 
depenses necessaires, sera remis 
de la meme maniere au Gou- 
vernement du capteur, pour etre 
distribue conformement & ses 
lois et reglements. 



Franco- British Prize Convention, 191!^. 
Article. 6. Article 6. 



The commanders of the ves- 
sels of war of the allied coun- 
tries shall, with regard to the 
sending in and delivering up of 
prizes, conform to the instruc- 
tions which are annexed to the 
present Convention, and which 
the two Governments reserve to 
themselves the right to modify 
by common consent, if it should 
become necessary. 



Les commandants des bati- 
ments de guerre des pays allies 
se conformeront, pour la con- 
duite et la remise des prises, aux 
instructions jointes k la pre- 
sente Convention, et que les 
deux Gouvernements se reserv- 
ent de modifier, s'il y a lieu, 
d'un commun accord. 



Article 7. 



Article 7. 



When, with a view to the exe- 
cution of the present Conven- 
tion, it shall become necessary 
to proceed to the valuation of a 
captured vessel of war, the cal- 
culation shall be according to 
the real value of the same; and 
the allied Government shall be 
entitled to delegate one or more 
competent officers to assist in 
the valuation. In case of dis- 
agreement, it shall be decided 
by lot which officer shall have 
the casting voice. 



Lorsque, pour l'execution de 
la presente Convention, il y aura 
lieu de proc§der & l'estimation 
d'un batiment de guerre capture, 
cette estimation portera sur sa 
valeur effective ; et le Gouverne- 
ment allie aura la faculty de 
deleguer un ou plusieurs officiers 
competents pour concourir a 
l'estimation. En cas de disac- 
cord, le sort decidera quel offi- 
cier devra avoir la voix prepon- 
derante. 



Article 8. 



Article 8. 



The present Convention shall 
be ratified, and the ratifications 
shall be exchanged in London as 
soon as possible. 



La presente Convention sera 
ratifiee, et les ratifications en 
seront echangees a Londres 
aussitot que faire se pourra. 



Article 9. 

The non-signatory allied Pow- 
ers shall be invited to accede to 
the present Convention. 



Article 9. 

Les Puissances alliees non sig- 
nataires seront invitees a ad- 
herer a la presente Convention. 



A Power which desires to L a Puissance qui desirera ad- 
iccede shall notify its intention herer notifiera par ecrit son. 



Instructions to Commanders. 



U9 



in writing to the Government of 
His Britannic Majesty, who 
shall immediately forward to 
the Government of the French 
Republic a duly certified copy of 
the notification. 



intention au Gouvernement de 
Sa Majeste britannique, lequel 
transmettra immediatement au 
Gouvernement de la Republique 
franoaise une copie certifiee con- 
forme cle cette notification. 



In witness whereof the re- 
spective Plenipotentiaries have 
signed the present Convention, 
and have affixed thereto the 
seals of their arms. 



En foi de quoi les Plenipoten- 
tiaires respectifs ont signe" la 
presente Convention, et y ont 
appose le cachet de leurs armes. 



Done at London, in duplicate, 
the 9th day of November, 1914. 



Fait k Londres, en double ex- 
emplaire, le 9 novembre, 1914. 



Annex. 



(L.S.) 


E. Grey. 


(L. S.) 


Paul Cambon. 




Annexe. 



Instructions to the Commanders 
of Ships of War of His Ma- 
jesty the King of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Ireland and of the French 
Republic. 



Instructions pour les Comman- 
dants des Bdtiments de Guerre 
de Sa Majeste le Roi du Roy- 
aume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne 
et d'Irlande et de la Repub- 
lique francaise. 



You will find enclosed a copy 
of a Convention which was 
signed on the 9th November, 
1914, between His Majesty the 
King of the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Ireland and 
the President of the French Re- 
public, regulating the jurisdic- 
tion to which shall belong the 
adjudication of the captures 
made by the allied naval forces, 
or of the captures of merchant 
vessels belonging to the nation- 
als of either of the two countries 
which shall be made by the 
cruisers of the other, as likewise 
the mode of distribution of the 
proceeds of such joint captures. 



Vous trouverez ci-joint copie 
d'une Convention signee le 9 no- 
vembre, 1914, entre Sa Majeste 
le Roi du Royaume - Uni de 
Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande et 
le President de la Republique 
franchise, pour regler la juridic- 
tion a laquelle devra appartenir 
le jugement des prises operees 
par les forces navales alliees, on 
f aites sur des navires marchands 
appartenant aux nationaux de 
Tun des deux Etats par les 
croiseurs de l'autre, ainsi que le 
mode de repartition du produit 
des prises eff ectuees en commun. 



150 Franco- British Instructions to Commanders. 



In order to ensure the execu- 
tion of this Convention, you will 
conform yourself to the follow- 
ing instructions : — 



Pour assurer l'execution de 
cette Convention', vous aurez & 
vous conf ormer aux instructions 
suivantes : 



, - Aeticle 1. 

Whenever, in consequence of 
a joint action, you are required 
to draw up the report or proces- 
verbal of a capture, you will 
take care to specify, with exact- 
ness, the names of the ships of 
war present during the action, 
as well as the names of their 
commanding officers, and, as far 
as possible, the number of men 
embarked on board those ships 
at the commencement of the ac- 
tion, without distinction of rank. 

You will deliver a copy of that 
report or proces-verbal to the 
officer of the allied Power who 
shall have had the superior com- 
mand during the action, and you 
will conform yourself to the in- 
structions of that officer, as far 
as relates to the measures to be 
taken for the conduct and the 
adjudication of the joint cap- 
tures so made under his com- 
mand. 

If the action has been com- 
manded by an officer of your 
nation, you will conform your- 
self to the regulations of your 
own country, and you will con- 
fine yourself to handing over to 
the highest officer in rank of the 
allied Power who was present 
during the action, a certified 
copy of the report or of the 
process-verbal which you shall 
have drawn up. 



Aeticle l er . 

Lorsque, par suite d'une action 
commune, vous serez dans le cas 
de rediger le rapport ou le pro- 
ces-verbal d'une capture, vous 
aurez soin d'indiquer avec exac- 
titude les noms des batiments de 
guerre presents a Taction, ainsi 
que de leurs commandants, et, 
autant que possible, le nombre 
d'hommes embarques & bord de 
ces batiments au commence- 
ment de Faction, sans distinc- 
tion de grades. 

Vous remettrez une copie de 
ce rapport ou proces-verbal a. 
l'officier de la Puissance alliee 
qui aura eu le commandement 
superieur dans Taction, et vous 
vous conformerez aux instruc- 
tions de cet officier en ce qui 
concerne les mesures a prendre 
pour la conduite et le jugement 
des prises ainsi faites en com- 
mun sous son commandement. 

Si Taction a ete commandee 
par un officier de votre nation, 
vous vous conformerez aux re- 
glements de votre propre pays, 
et vous vous bornerez a remettre 
k l'officier le plus eleve en grade 
de la Puissance alliee, present & 
Taction, une copie certifiee du 
rapport ou du proces-verbal que 
vous aurez rgdig§. 



Procedure in Case of Capture. 151 

Article 2. Article 2. 



When you shall have effected 
a capture in presence and in 
sight of an allied ship of war, 
you will mention exactly, in the 
report which you will draw up 
when the capture is a ship of 
war, and in the report or proces- 
verbal of the capture when the 
prize is a merchant vessel, the 
number of men on board your 
ship at the commencement of 
the action, without distinction 
of rank, as well as the name of 
the allied ship of war which 
was in sight, and, if possible, 
the number of men embarked on 
board that ship, likewise with- 
out distinction of rank. You 
will deliver a certified copy of 
your report, or proces-verbal, to 
the commander of that ship. 



Lorsque vous aurez effectue 
une capture en presence et en 
vue d'un batiment de guerre 
allied vous mentionnerez exacte- 
ment dans le rapport que vous 
redigerez, s'il s'agit d'un bati- 
ment de guerre, et dans le pro- 
ces-verbal de capture, s'il s'agit 
d'un batiment de commerce, le 
nombre d'hommes que vous 
aviez a.bord au commencement 
de Faction, sans distinction de 
grade, ainsi que le nom du bati- 
ment de guerre alliee qui se 
trouvait en vue, et, s'il est pos- 
sible, le nombre d'hommes em- 
barques a borcl, egalement sans 
distinction de grades. Vous re- 
mettrez une copie certified de 
votre rapport ou proces-verbal 
au commandant de ce bati- 
ment. 



Article 3. 



Article 3. 



Whenever, in the case of a 
violation of a blockade, of the 
transport of contraband arti- 
cles, of land or sea troops of the 
enemy, or of official despatches 
from or for the enemy, you will 
find yourself under the neces- 
sity of stopping and seizing a 
merchant vessel of the allied 
nation, you will take care — 

1. To draw up a report (or 
proces-verbal) , stating the place, 
the date, and the motive of the 
arrest, the name of the vessel, 
that of the captain, the number 
of the crew ; and containing 
besides an exact description of 
the state of the vessel and her 
cargo ; 



Lorsqu'en cas de violation de 
blocus, de transport d'objets de 
contrebande, de troupes de terre 
ou de mer ennemies, ou de 
dep£clies officielles de ou pour 
I'ennemi, vous serez dans le cas 
d'arreter et saisir un batiment 
de la marine marchande du pays 
alli§, vous devrez : 



1. Rediger un proces-verbal, 
enongant le lieu, la date et le 
motif de l'arrestation, le nom du 
batiment, celui du capitaine, le 
nombre cles homines de l'equi- 
page; et contenant en outre la 
description exacte de l'etat du 
navire et de sa cargaison; 



152 Franco -British Instructions to Commanders. 



2. To collect and place in a 
sealed packet, after having made 
an inventory of 'them, all the 
ship's papers, such as registers, 
passports, charter-parties, bills 
of lading, invoices, and other 
documents calculated to prove 
the nature and the ownership of 
the vessel and of her cargo; 

3. To place seals upon the 
hatches ; 

4. To place on board an offi- 
cer, with such number of men as 
you may deem advisable, to take 
charge of the vessel, and to en- 
sure its safe conduct; 

5. To send the vessel to the 
nearest port belonging to the 
Power whose flag it carried; 

6. To deliver up the vessel to 
the authorities of the port to 
which you shall have taken her, 
together with a duplicate of the 
report (or proces-verbal), and 
of the inventory above men- 
tioned, and with the sealed 
packet containing the ship's 
papers. 



2. Reunir en un paquet ca- 
chete, apres en avoir fait l'in- 
ventaire tous les papiers de 
bord, tels que: actes de natio- 
nality ou de propriete, passe- 
ports, charte-parties, connaisse- 
ments, factures et autres docu- 
ments propres & constater la 
nature et la propriete" du bati- 
ment et de la cargaison ; 

3. Mettre les scelles sur les 
gcoutilles ; 

4. Placer a bord un officier, 
avec tel nombre d'hommes que 
vous jugerez convenable, pour 

- prendre le batiment en charge, 
et en assurer la conduite ; 

5. Envoyer le batiment au 
port le plus voisin de la Puis- 
sance dont il portait le pavilion ; 

6. Faire remettre le batiment 
aux autorit§s du port ou vous 
l'aurez fait conduire, avec une 
expedition du proces-verbal et 
de l'inventaire ci-dessus men- 
tionnes, et avec le paquet 
cachete, contenant les papiers 
de bord. 



Article 4. 



Article 4. 



The officer who conducts the 
captured vessel will procure a 
receipt proving his having de- 
livered her up, as well as his 
having delivered the sealed 
packet and the duplicate of the 
report (or proces-verbal) and of 
the inventory above mentioned. 



L'officier conducteur d'un bati- 
ment capture se fera delivrer un 
recu constatant la remise qu'il 
en aura faite, ainsi que la deliv- 
rance qu'il aura faite du paquet 
cachete et de l'expgdition du 
proces-verbal et de l'inventaire 
ci-dessus mentionngs. 



Article 5. 



Article 5. 



In case of distress, if the cap- En cas de d£tresse, si le bati- 

tured vessel is not in a fit state ment capture" est hors d'etat de 

to continue its voyage, or in continuer sa route, ou en cas de 

case the distance should be too trop grand eloignement, l'officier 



Status of Armed Merchant Vessels. 153 

great, the officer charged to con- charge de conduire dans un port 
duct to a port of the allied de la Puissance alliee une prise 
Power a prize made on the mer- faite sur la marine marchande 
chant service of that Power, may de cette Puissance, pourra en- 
enter a port of his own country, trer dans un port de son propre 
and he will deliver his prize to pays, et il remettra sa prise ft, 
the local authority without prej- 1'autorite" locale, sans prejudice 
udice to the ulterior measures des mesures ulterieures ft, pren- 
to be taken for the adjudication dre pour le jugement de la prise, 
of the prize. He will take care, II veillera, dans ce cas, ft ce que 
in that case, that the report or le rapport ou proces-verbal et 
proces-verbal, and the inventory l'inventaire qu'il aura r6dig§s, 
which he shall have drawn up, ainsi que le paquet cachete con- 
as well as the sealed packet tenant les papiers de bord, 
containing the ship's papers, be soient envoyes exactement a la 
sent exactly to the proper court juridiction chargee du jugement. 
of adjudication. 

E. Gkey. 

Paul Cambon. 

Instructions for the conduct of armed merchantmen October 20, 
1915, made public March 2, 1916. 

In view of the recent issue by the German Government of a 
memorandum on the treatment of armed merchant ships the 
Admiralty has decided to make public the instructions actually 
governing the actions of British merchant vessels armed for self- 
defense : 

INSTRUCTIONS, DATED OCTOBER 20, 1915, IN RE THE STATUS OF ARMED 

MERCHANT SHIPS. 

( 1 ) The right of the crew of a merchant vessel to forcibly resist 
visit and search and fight in self-defense is well recognized in in- 
ternational law and expressly admitted by the German prize 
regulations in an addendum issued June, 1914, at a time when it 
was known that numerous merchant vessels were being armed for 
self-defense. 

(2) Armament is supplied solely for the purpose of resisting at- 
tack by an armed enemy vessel and 'must not be used for any other 
purpose whatsoever. 

(3) An armed merchant vessel, therefore, must not in any cir- 
cumstances interfere with or obstruct the free passage of other 
merchant vessels or fishing craft, whether these are friendly, 
neutral, or hostile. 



154 Status British Armed Merchant Vessels. 

(4) The status of a British armed merchant vessel can not be 
changed upon the high seas. 

Rules to be observed in the exercise of the right of self-defense: 

(1) The master or officer in command is responsible for opening 
and ceasing fire. 

(2) Participation in armed resistance must be confined to per- 
sons acting under the orders of the master or the officer in com- 
mand. 

(3) Before opening fire the British colors must be hoisted. 

(4) Fire must not be opened or continued from a vessel which 
has stopped, hauled down her flag, or otherwise indicated her in- 
tention to surrender. 

(5) The expression "armament" includes not only cannon, but 
also rifles and machine guns in cases where these have been 
supplied. 

(6) The ammunition used in rifles and machine guns must 
conform to article 23, Hague Convention, 1907 ; that is, bullets 
must be cased in nickel or other hard substance and must not be 
split or cut in such a way as to cause them to expand or set up on 
striking a man. The use of explosive bullets is forbidden. 

CIRCUMSTANCES UNDER WHICH ARMAMENT ■- SHOULD BE EMPLOYED. 

(1) The armament is supplied for the purpose of defense only. 
The object of the master should be to avoid action whenever pos- 
sible. 

(2) Experience has shown that hostile submarines and aircraft 
have frequently attacked merchant vessels without warning. It is 
important, therefore, that craft of this description should not be 
allowed to approach to short range, at which a torpedo or bomb 
launched without notice would almost certainly be effective. Brit- 
ish and allied submarines and aircraft have orders not to approach 
merchant vessels ; consequently, it may be presumed that any sub- 
marine or aircraft which deliberately approaches or pursues a 
merchant vessel does so with hostile intention. In such cases fire 
may be opened in self-defense in order to prevent the hostile craft 
from closing to a range at which resistance to - a sudden attack 
with bomb or torpedo would be impossible. 

(3) An armed merchant .vessel proceeding to render assistance 
to the crew of a vessel in distress must not seek action with any 
hostile craft, though if she herself is attacked while doing so fire 
may be opened in self-defense. 

(4) It should be remembered that the flag is no guide to na- 
tionality. German submarines and armed merchant vessels have 
frequently employed the British, allied, or neutral colors to ap- 
proach undetected. Though, however, the use of disguise and 
false colors to escape capture is a legitimate ruse de guerre, its 



Admiralty C ornament on Instructions, 155 

adoption by defensively armed merchant ships may easily lead to 
misconception. Such vessels, therefore, are forbidden to adopt any 
form of disguise which might cause them to be mistaken for 
neutral ships. 

ADMIEALTY COMMENT. 

These instructions, which are those at present in -force, are the 
latest issued. Successive issues have been made, not by reason of 
a change in policy — the policy throughout has remained un- 
altered — but by improvement in wording and greater clearness 
of expression, to emphasize the purely defensive character of 
the armament of merchant vessels. 

It is because of the distorted interpretation given these instruc- 
tions as a whole and the very forced character of the interpre- 
tation given by the German Government to portions which they 
quote from an earlier issue of the instructions that the Admiralty 
felt it desirable, with a view to allaying neutral anxiety, to publish 
these in extenso. 

Order in council relating to the requisition of prizes, April 29, 

1915. 1 

[Manual of Emergency Legislation, Supp. No. 3, p. 508.] 
No. 387. — At the court of Buckingham Palace, the 29th day of April, 1915. 

Present, the King's Most Excellent Majesty in council. 

Whereas by section 3 of tho prize courts act, 1S94, 2 His Majesty 
in council is authorized to make rules of court for regulating, sub- 
ject to the provisions of the naval prize act, 1864, 3 and the said act, 
the procedure and practice of prize courts within the meaning of 
the naval prize act, 1864, and the duties and conduct of the officers 
of the courts and of the practitioners therein, and for regulating 
the fees to be taken by the officers thereof, and the costs, charges, 
and expenses to be allowed to the practitioners therein: 

And whereas in pursuance of the prize courts act, 1894, certain 
rules were made by the order of His Majesty in council, dated 
the 5th day of August, 1914, and amended by the orders of His 
Majesty in council of the 30th day of September, 1914, and the 
28th day of November, 1914, respectively, which said rules and 
amended rules were by the said orders in council directed to take 
effect provisionally in accordance with the provisions of section 2 

1 This establishes the provisional order in council of Mar. 23, 1915, 
notice of which was given in the London Gazette, Mar. 19, 1915, p. 2735, 

as " Statutory Rules." 

2 57 and 58 Vict., c. 3D. 

3 27 and 2S Vict., c. 25. 



156 British Order on Requisition of Prizes, 1915. 

of the rules publication act, 1893, 1 from the dates of the said 
orders in council, respectively : 

And whereas the provisions of section 1 of the rules publication 
act, 1893, were duly complied with in respect of the said rules and 
amended rules, and the same were finally made by the orders of 
His Majesty in council, dated, respectively, the 17th day of Septem- 
ber, 1914, the 28th day of November, 1914, and the 3d day of Feb- 
ruary, 1915. 

And whereas it is expedient that the said rules and amended 
rules should be further amended. 

And whereas on account of urgency this order should come into 
immediate operation. 

Now, therefore, His Majesty, by virtue of the powers in this be- 
half by the said act or otherwise in him vested, is pleased, by and 
with the advice of his privy council, to order, and it is hereby 
ordered, as follows : 

1. That in Order IX (discovery, inspection, and admission of 
documents and facts ) of the said rules : 

In rule 1, the words " upon filing an affidavit " shall be omitted. 

In rule 1, instead of the words " any other party " there shall 
be substituted the words " any party other than the proper officer 
of the Crown." 

2. That in Order XI (sale, appraisement, safe custody, and in- 
spection of prize) of the said rules, in rule 1, the following words 
shall be omitted : " on account of the condition of a ship, or on 
application of a claimant, and on or after condemnation." 

3. That in Order XV (evidence and hearing) of the said rules, 
the following rules shall be added : 

" 21. Notwithstanding anything contained in these rules the 
proper officer of the Crown may apply to the judge for leave to 
administer interrogatories for the examination of any person 
whether a party to the cause or not." 

4. That Order XXIX (requisition by Admiralty) of the said 
rules, as amended by His Majesty's order in council dated the 28th 
day of November, 1914, shall be, and the same is hereby, revoked, 
and in lieu thereof the following order shall have effect : 

" ORDER XXIX REQUISITION. 2 

" 1. Where it is made to appear to the judge on the application 
of the proper officer of the Crown that it is desired to requisition 

*56 and 57 Vict., c. 66. 

2 The judicial committee of the privy council held in the case of the 
Zamora [1916] 2 A. C. 77, " Order 29, rule 1, of the Prize Court Rules, 
construed as an imperative direction to the court, is not binding. Under 
these circumstances the rule must, if possible, be construed merely as a 
direction to the court in cases in which it may be determined that, 
according to international law, the Crown has a right to requisition the 
vessel or goods of enemies or neutrals." 



Procedure in Case of Requisition. 157 

on behalf of His Majesty a ship in respect of which no finai decree 
of condemnation has been made, he shall order that the ship shall 
be appraised, and that upon an undertaking being given in ac- 
cordance with rule 5 of this order, the ship shall be released and 
delivered to the Crown. 

" 2. Where a decree for the detention of a ship has been made 
in accordance with Order XXVIII, the proper officer of the Crown 
may file a notice (Appendix A, Form No. 55) that the Crown de- 
sires to requisition the same, and thereupon a commission (Ap- 
pendix A, Form No. 56) to the marshal directing him to appraise 
the ship shall issue. Upon an undertaking being given in accord- 
ance with rule 5 of this order the ship shall be released, and de- 
livered to the Crown. Service of this notice shall not be required 
before filing, but copies thereof shall be served upon the parties 
by the proper officer of the Crown as soon thereafter as possible. 

" 3. Where in any case of requisition under this order it is made 
to appear to the judge on behalf of the Crown that the ship is re- 
quired for the service of His Majesty forthwith, the judge may 
order the same to be forthwith released and delivered to the Crown 
without appraisement. 

" 4. In any case where a ship has been requisitioned under the 
provisions of this order and whether or not an appraisement has 
been made, the court may, on the application of any party, fix the 
amount to be paid by the Crown in respect of the value of the ship. 

" 5. In every case of requisition under this order an undertaking 
in writing shall be filed by the proper officer of the Crown for 
payment into court, on behalf of the Crown of the appraised value 
of the ship, or of the amount fixed under rule 4 of this order, as 
the case may be, at such time or times as the court shall declare 
by order that the same or any part thereof is required for the 
purpose of payment out of court. 

" 6. Where in any case of requisition under this order it is made 
to appear to the judge on behalf of the Crown that the Crown 
desires to requisition the ship temporarily, the court may, in lieu 
of an order of release, make an order for the temporary delivery 
of the ship to the Crown, and subject as aforesaid the provisions 
of this order shall apply to such a requisition ; provided that, 
in the event of the return of the ship to the custody of the court, 
the court may make such order as it thinks fit for the release of 
the undertaking given on behalf of the Crown or the reduction 
of the amount undertaken to be paid thereby, as the case may be ; 
and provided also that, where the ship so requisitioned • is sub- 
ject to the provisions of Order XXVIII, rule 1, relating to de- 
tention, the amount for which the Crown shall be considered 
liable in respect of such requisition shall be the amount of the 
damage, if any, which the ship has suffered by reason of such 
temporary delivery as aforesaid. 



158 British Blacklisting Act, 1915. 

" 7. The proceedings in respect of a ship requisitioned under 
this order shall continue notwithstanding the requisition. 

"8. In any case of requisition of a ship in respect of which no 
cause has been instituted, any person interested -in such ship may, 
without issuing a writ, provided he does not intend to make a 
claim for restitution or damages, apply by summons for an order 
that the amount to be paid in respect of such ship be fixed by the 
court, and the judge may, on the hearing of such summons, order 
the ship to be appraised or to be valued, or give such other direc- 
tions for fixing the amount as he may think fit." 

5. That in Form 4 in Appendix A to the said rules there shall 
be omitted the words " commander of our ship of war " and the 
words " taken and seized as prize by our said ship of war." 

6. This order shall take effect provisionally in accordance with 
the provisions of section 2 of the rules publication act, 1893, from 
the date hereof. 

Almekic Fitzroy. 

Act of Parliament permitting the blacklisting of firms in neutral 
territory, having any association with the enemy, December 23, 
1915. 

. * [5 and 6 Geo., 5, c. 98.] 

Be it enacted by the King's Most Excellent Majesty, by and 
with the advice and consent of the Lords spiritual and temporal 
and commons in this present Parliament assembled, and by the 
authority of the same, as follows : 

1/ (1) His Majesty may by proclamation prohibit all persons 
or bodies Of persons, incorporated or unincorporated, resident, 
carrying on business, or being in the United Kingdom, from 
trading with any persons or bodies of persons not resident or 
carrying on business in enemy territory or in territory in the oc- 
cupation of the enemy (other than persons or bodies of persons, 
incorporated or unincorporated, residing or carrying on business 
solely within His Majesty's dominions), wherever by reason of 
the enemy nationality or enemy association of such persons or 
bodies of persons, incorporated or unincorporated, it appears to 
His Majesty expedient so to do ; and if any person acts in con- 
travention of any such proclamation he shall be guilty of a mis- 
demeanor, triable and punishable in like manner as the offense of 
trading with the enemy; (2) any list of persons and bodies of 
persons, incorporated or unincorporated, with whom such trad- 
ing is prohibited by a proclamation under this act, may be varied 
or added to by an order made by the Lords of the Council on the 
recommendation of a secretary of state; (3) the provisions of 
the trading with the enemy acts, 1914 and 1915, and of the cus- 
toms (war powers) (No. 2) act, 1915, and all other enactments 
relating to trading with the enemy shall, subject to such excep- 
tions and adaptations as may be prescribed by order in council, 



Greek Declaration of War, Nov. ?J^ 1916. L59 

apply in respect of such persons and bodies of persons as afore- 
said, as if for references therein to trading with the enemy there 
were substituted references to trading with such persons and 
bodies of persons as aforesaid, and for references to enemies 
there were substituted references -to such persons and bodies of 
persons as aforesaid, and for references to offenses under the 
trading with the enemy acts, 1914 and 1915, or any of those acts 
there were substituted references to offenses under this act; (4) 
for the purpose of this act a person shall be deemed to have 
traded with a person or body of persons to whom a proclamation 
issued under this act applies if he enters into any transaction or 
does any act with, to, on behalf of, or for the benefit of such 
a person or body of persons, which, if entered into or done with, 
to, on behalf of, or for the benefit of an enemy, would be trading 
with the enemy. 

2. This act may be cited as the trading with the enemy (ex- 
tension of powers) act, 1915. 



GREECE. 

Provisional government, declaration of war against Germany and 
Bulgaria, November 24, 1916. 

There is no country in existence which, in its desire for peace, 
has done more than Greece in the course of the present war to 
repress its feelings, even to the extent of forgetting its aspira- 
tions, or shown so much patience toward rivals who have sought 
to benefit by the ruin of its interests. The spectacle of Belgium, 
a little country like Greece, being made the victim of a most inso- 
lent violation of solemn treaties, and the fact that that viola- 
tion was the basis of the war, inclined Greece from the very 
first to take part in this war of nations. But in the interest 
of Serbia and in that of the Greek cause generally, Greece deemed 
it a duty to decide in favor of neutrality. Profiting by past 
experience of Bulgarian duplicity, however, and having from an 
early period reasons to suspect that treacherous designs were 
being entertained, Greece at the same time kept her forces ab- 
solutely in reserve in case her efforts should not succeed in pre- 
venting a Bulgarian aggression, with a view T to going to the as- 
sistance of her heroic Serbian ally. 

When this eventuality actually occurred, Greece, which at that 
time was still controlled by her legal Government, was ready loy- 
ally to fulfill the obligations of the alliance. But she was deterred 
by the pernicious effects of a disgraceful campaign which had long 
been undertaken against the moral unity of the country. As early 
as February, 1915, the Liberal Cabinet then in power, strong in 
the almost unanimous support of the representatives of the peo- 



160 Reasons for Greek Declaration. 

pie, decided in principle to secure at once by means of war the 
fullest aspirations of Hellenism, and to cooperate with the pro- 
tecting powers in the Dardanelles expedition. The agents of Ger- 
man propaganda succeeded in preventing this by bringing about 
between the Crown and the responsible Government a sudden con- 
flict, which, according to the constitutional laws confirmed by 
parliamentary traditions, appeared to be out of the question. Sur- 
prised by this unforeseen crisis, the Greek people deferred mani- 
festing their opinion until the general election of May 31, 1915, 
when they again expressed their confidence in the Liberal Party, 
which was ready, the moment Bulgarian aggression manifested 
itself, to lead the country in the path of honor and glory. 

But the pro-German party, emboldened by their success in Feb- 
ruary and fortified by the encouragement they had received, 
were on the alert. In spite of the recent appeal to the country, 
it was able to provoke between the Crown and the responsible 
Government a far more serious conflict than the preceding one. 
Again the people were patient. If they could no longer count on 
their parliamentary institutions, they thought that their rulers, 
who were unconscious dupes of German perfidy, would be com- 
pelled sooner or later by the logic of events to recognize their mis- 
take and to attempt to safeguard the already compromised in- 
terests of the country. 

Alas ! this hope was vain. For a whole year they were con- 
demned to drink deeper and deeper of the cup of national humili- 
ation. By means of a measure of demobilization their army was 
reduced to inactivity. Heroic Serbia was invaded by our heredi- 
tary enemy, Bulgaria, whose forces were stationed in a menacing 
way on our frontier, and soon afterwards, in spite of the promises 
given, they seized a portion of our territory, which the criminal 
policy of the Greek Government basely delivered over to them, 
together with some of our forts and war material and an entire 
army. 

Meanwhile another enemy of our race, Germany, has been 
carrying on, by means of a swarm of official and secret agents, the 
work of degradation by means of which she reckoned on depriv- 
ing the country of its fleet and preparing it for the loss of its 
political liberties and national independence. Happily, before 
succumbing to the repeated efforts of its enemies from with- 
out and within, the Greek people took courage and, in a supreme 
demonstration of the national conscience, resolved not to allow 
themselves to become enslaved. 

Being unable to break the shackles of force and corruption, 
which precluded all national initiative within the limits of the 
established institutions, the more determined of the patriots fled 
and joined the populations which, far from the center, preserve 
more liberty of opinion and action. These patriots undertook to 
utilize the living forces of Hellenism in order to form an army 



Greek Note Breaking Diplomatic Relations. 161 

destined to liberate the occupied parts of the national territory 
^ind, while rehabilitating the compromised national honor, to 
show that Hellenism was still alive to its duties and its destinies. 
The civilized world has given a sympathetic welcome to this 
revolt of the Greek soul. 

The Government established at Saloniki, recognized as a power 
de facto, set resolutely about its task, and, with the material and 
moral aid of the protecting powers, Greece began the realization 
of her military plan. At a moment when the first units of her 
army which have been sent to the front are about to enter into a 
contest with the enemies of Hellenism, the Provisional Govern- 
ment thinks it right to bring to the knowledge of the belligerent 
States, of which it has become the ally, and of the neutral States, 
whose sympathy it desires, the fact that from this day it con- 
siders itself in a state of war w T ith Bulgaria for having attacked 
Serbia, Greece's ally, and invaded, in spite of her promises, the 
national territory ; and with Germany for' having incited and 
aided Bulgaria to fight against Serbia, and to act against Greece ; 
for having violated tlie guarantees she gave to the Greek Govern- 
ment with regard to the towns of Seres, Drama, and Kavalla ; 
for having extended to Greek maritime commerce in Greek terri- 
torial waters, without plausible reason or previous warning, the 
criminal attempts of submarines, and for having cynically de- 
clared that she intended to persevere in these acts of destruction 
of defenseless vessels, and the cowardly murder of innocent pas- 
sengers ; and for having, finally, undertaken to demoralize, humil- 
iate, and divide the Greek people to the detriment of their honor 
and their national interests. 

Not being able to send a direct notification of the present 
declaration of war to the Governments of the Kingdom of Bul- 
garia and the German Empire, the Provisional Government asks 
the allied Governments to be good enough to communicate it to 
them in its name by any means at their disposal. 

Note breaking diplomatic relations with Germany, June SO, 1917? 

[London Times, July 3, 1917, p. 7d.] 

Greek charge d'affaires t© German foreign office. 

In consequence of the happily effected union of the two parties 
in Greece which had hitherto been separated, and in view of the 

1 " Kin? Alexander called upon Venezelos to assume the premiership, 
and on June 29 it was announced that diplomatic relations had been 
covered with Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey. No 
rlerlarntion of war was issued, but it was announced on July 2 that the 
Govornmfnt considered that it had assumed the declarations of the pro- 
visional government of Saloniki and that therefore a state of war with 
Germany and Bulgaria already existed." (American Year Book, 1917, 
p. 03. > 

4?>7f>0— IS — -11 



162 Action of Guatemala and Haiti. 

fact that several Greek regiments are taking part in the hostili- 
ties on the Balkan front, the Greek Government considers that 
it is no longer possible to maintain official relations with the- 
German Government. (Same mutatis mutandi to Austro-Hun- 
garian Government. ) 

GUATEMALA. 

Notification of breaking diplomatic relations with Germany, April 

28, 1917. 1 

Foreign office to M. Mendez, Guatemalan Minister to the United States. 

The Government of Guatemala to-day broke off relations with 
the German Empire, handing passports to Minister Lehmann and 
canceling the exequaturs of the German consuls accredited to 
Guatemala. Advise the American Government. 

Minister Mendez accompanied the dispatch from his Govern- 
ment by the following: 

"In communicating the action of my Government to your ex- 
cellency, I take pleasure in reiterating that Guatemala from the- 
first has adhered to and supported the attitude of the United 
States in the defense of the rights of nations, the liberty of the 
seas and of international justice, and that it has always con- 
sidered itself in unity with your great Nation in the lofty prin- 
ciples which it has so wisely proclaimed for the good of human- 
ity. 

" Therefore, Guatemala takes the greatest pleasure in offering 
to the United States of America her territorial waters, her ports 
raid railways, for the use in common defense, as also all elements 
which may be available for the same purposes." 



HAITI. 

Neutrality regulations, October 3, 191^. 

Secretary of State for Foreign Relations. 

By reason of the declaration of neutrality 2 published in the 
Moniteur of August 12 last, it is recalled that all those who re- 
side in the territory of the Republic, functionaries, employees or 
others, are obliged to observe the greatest moderation in reference 
to the European war, to emit in public no opinion and to do no 
act in favor of or against any of the belligerent powers. 

1 " Guatemala City, April 22, 1918. 

The National Assembly, at its session to-day, declared the Republic of 
Guatemala to occupy the same position toward the European belligerents- 
as does the United States." (Associated Press dispatch.) 

2 International Law Topics, 191G, p. 58. 



Italian Declaration, 1915. 163 

The Government of the Republic will not tolerate any departure 
from the principles flowing from neutrality. 
Port-au-Prince, October 3, lOUj. 



ITALY. 

WAR DECLARATIONS. 

Declaration of war against Austria-Hungary, May 23, 1915. 1 
[2nd Austro-Hungarian Red Book.] 

No. 204. — Baron Burian to Baron Macchio. 

[Telegram.] 

Vienna, May 23, 1915. 

The Duke of Avarna this afternoon handed to me the follow- 
ing declaration of war : 

[Translation from the French.] 

In compliance with the orders of his noble Sovereign the King, 
the undersigned Royal Italian ambassador has the honor to com- 
municate the following to his excellency the Austro-Hungarian 
minister of foreign affairs : 

On the 4th of this month the Austro-Hungarian Government 
was informed of the grave reasons for which Italy, confident of 
being in the right, declared that her alliance with Austria- 
Hungary was null and void, and without effect in future, since 
this alliance had been violated by the Austro-Hungarian Govern- 
ment, and that Italy resumed her full freedom of action. Fully 
determined to protect Italian rights and interests with all the 
means at its disposal, the Italian Government can not evade its 
duty to take such measures as events may impose upon it against 
all present and future menaces to the fulfillment of Italy's na- 
tional aspirations. His Majesty the King declares that from to- 
morrow he will consider himself in a state of war with Austria- 
Hungary. 

The undersigned has the honor at the same time to inform his 
excellency the minister of foreign affairs that to-day the Austro- 
Hungarian ambassador in Rome will receive his passports, and he 
would be grateful if his execellency would hand him likewise his 
own passports. 



1 San Marino is reported to have declared war upon Austria-Hungary 
June 3, 1915. (American Year Book, 1915, p. 813 ; Am. Jour. Int. Law,. 
9: 27.) 



104 Italian Notification, 1915. 

Notification of war with Austria-Hungary, May 23, 1915. 1 

[Italian Green Book.] 

No. 77, Annex 2. — Note of Baron Sonnino, Italian Foreign Minister. 

[Communicated to Italian representatives abroad and to foreign Govern- 
ments on May 23, 1915.] 

• Rome, May 23, 1915. 

A clear proof of the eminently conservative and defensive char- 
acter of the triple alliance is to be found in the letter and spirit of 
the treaty, and in the policy clearly manifested and confirmed by 
the official acts of the ministers who created the alliance and who 
were responsible for its renewals. 

Italian policy has ever been inspired with the ideals of peace. 
Austria-Hungary, in provoking a European war, in refusing to 
accept Serbia's reply which gave Austria-Hungary all the satis- 
faction which she could legitimately demand, in refusing to listen 
to the conciliatory proposals which Italy had made in conjunction 
with other powers in order to preserve Europe from an immense 
conflict, which would drench it in blood and pile up ruins on a 
scale hitherto unknown and undreamed of — Austria-Hungary tore 
up with her own hands the treaty of alliance with Italy, which, 
so long as it was loyally interpreted other than as an instrument 
of aggression against others, had been a valuable factor in 
eliminating and settling disputes, and in securing for many years 
to come the inestimable benefits of peace. 

The first article of the treaty reaffirmed the logical and general 
principle of every treaty of alliance, namely, the obligation to 
exchange views on political -and economic questions of a general 
nature which might arise. It followed that neither contracting 
party was at liberty to undertake, without previous mutual agree- 
ment, action by which the other contracting parties might incur 
any obligation under the treaty of alliance, and in any way affect 
their most important interests. Austria-Hungary, by sending 
her note of July 23, 1914, to Serbia without previously consulting- 
Italy failed in this duty; Austria-Hungary thus violated unques- 
tionably one of the fundamental clauses of the treaty. Austria- 
Hungary was all the more under the obligation to consult Italy 
first, inasmuch as her uncompromising action against Serbia had 
created a situation directly tending to provoke a European war, 
and as early as the beginning of- July, 1914, the Royal Govern- 
ment, who were anxious in regard to the way things were shaping 
at Vienna, had repeatedly counseled moderation, and had warned 
the Imperial and Royal Government of the possible danger of a 
general European crisis. 

1 See also Journal Officiel, May 27, 1915, p. 3335. 



Reasons for Italian Action. 165 

The action taken by Austria-Hungary against Serbia was, more- 
over, directly in opposition to Italian general political and eco- 
nomic interests in the Balkan Peninsula. It is not possible that 
Austria could have thought that Italy would remain indifferent to 
any diminution of Serbian independence. Our warnings had not 
been lacking on this point. For many years Italy had from time 
to time warned Austria, in friendly but unequivocal terms, that 
she considered the independence of Serbia an essential factor in 
the balance of power in the Balkans, which Italy herself could 
never allow to be disturbed to her detriment. And this spirit was 
not only expressed in the private conversations of her diplomats, 
but her statesmen proclaimed it loudly and publicly in her Parlia- 
ment. 

When, in delivering an ultimatum to Serbia, Austria not only 
failed — in defiance of all custom — to consult us beforehand, but 
used every effort to conceal it from us, so that we only heard of 
it simultaneously with the public through the telegraphic agencies 
before we were informed diplomatically, she not only placed her- 
self outside the alliance with Italy but showed herself an enemy 
of Italian interests. 

It became clear to the Royal Government, from trustworthy 
information in their possession, that the whole trend of Austro- 
Hungarian action in the Balkans would lead to a very serious 
impairment of the political and economic position of Italy, be- 
cause it aimed directly or indirectly at the subjugation of Serbia, 
the political and territorial isolation of Montenegro, and the 
isolation of Rumania and the diminution of her political im- 
portance. This impairment of Italy's position in the Balkans 
would have been brought about even if Austria-Hungary had had 
no idea of territorial aggrandizement. It is sufficient to remark 
that the Austro-Hungarian Government were under an express 
obligation to take Italy into consultation by virtue of a special 
article of the treaty of the triple alliance, which established the 
bond of a defensive agreement and the right to compensation 
among the allies in the case of the temporary or permanent 
occupation of any part of the Balkans. The Royal Government 
began conversations on the subject with the Imperial and Royal 
Government immediately at the beginning of hostile action by 
Austria-Hungary against Serbia, receiving, after some reluctance, 
an adhesion in principle. 

Those conversations were begun immediately after July 23, 
with a view to giving to the treaty, which had been violated and 
therefore annulled by the' action of Austria-Hungary, a new ele- 
ment of life, which could only be effected by the conclusion of 
new agreements. 

Conversations were . reopened on a rather more definite basis 
in the month of December, 1914. The royal ambassador at 



166 Italian Notification, 1915. 

Vienna then received instructions to inform Count Berchtold that 
the Italian Government considered it necessary to proceed with- 
out any delay to an exchange of ideas, with a view to negotiating 
with the Government on concrete points in order to clear up the 
whole situation arising out of the conflict provoked by Austria- 
Hungary. Count Berchtold refused at first, on the. ground that 
he did not think it was necessary, in the present circumstances, 
to enter into negotiations. But in consequence of our reply, with 
which the German Government associated themselves, Count 
Berchtold subsequently informed us that he was ready to enter 
into the exchange of ideas which we had proposed. 

We accordingly immediately set out the fundamental broad 
lines of our point of view, that is to say, we declared that the 
compensation that we had in mind as affording the basis of a 
possible agreement must envisage territories now under the domi- 
nation of Austria-Hungary. 

The discussions continued from month to month from the be- 
ginning of December until March, and it was not until the end 
of March that Baron Burian made us an offer of a zone of ter- 
ritory extending slightly to the north of the town of Trent. In 
return for this cession Austria-Hungary demanded from us in 
her turn numerous reciprocal engagements, including full and 
complete freedom of action in the Balkans. 

It should be noted that the Austro-Hungarian Government did 
not contemplate that the cession of territory in the Trentino 
should be effected immediately, as we had demanded, but only at 
the end of the present war. We replied that we could not possibly 
accept the offer, and we formulated the minimum concessions 
that would be in any way consistent both with our national as- 
pirations and with the improvement of our strategical position on 
the Adriatic. Such requirements included a somewhat larger dis- 
trict of the Trentino, a new district on the Isonzo, the special 
treatment of Trieste, the cession of some islands of the Curzolari 
Archipelago, a declaration of Austria's disinterestedness in Alba- 
nia, and the recognition of our possession of Valona and the Dod- 
ekanese. 

All our requests met at first with a categorical refusal. It was 
only after another month of conversations that Austria-Hungary 
was induced to increase the zone of territory to be ceded in the 
Trentino, setting the limit at Mezzolombardo, but excluding 
Italian districts, as, for instance, the whole side of the Valley of 
Noce, the Val di Fassa, and the Val di Ampizzo, and leaving us 
a boundary which did not correspond in any way to strategical 
requirements. Moreover, the Austrian Government firmly ad- 
hered to their refusal to make any cession effective before the 
end of the war. The repeated refusals of Austria-Hungary were 
explicitly confirmed in a conversation between Baron Burian and 



Account of Austro- Italian Negotiations. 167 

the royal ambassador at Vienna on April 29 last, the upshot of 
which was that the Austro-Hungarian Government, while admit- 
ting the possibility of recognizing to a certain extent our prepon- 
derant interest at Valona and the aforesaid cession of territory 
in the Trentino, persisted in giving a negative reply to almost all 
our other demands, and especially to those regarding the line of 
the Isonzo, Trieste, and the islands. 

From the attitude adopted by Austria-Hungary from the begin- 
ning of December to the end of April it became quite clear that 
she was merely trying to temporize without achieving any definite 
results. In these circumstances Italy found herself face to face 
with the danger that all her aspirations, whether traditional or 
ethnical, and her desire for security on the Adriatic, would be 
lost forever, while on the other hand the European war menaced 
her highest interests in other seas. 

Owing to this fact it became at once a duty and a necessity for 
Italy to recover the liberty of action which was her right, and to 
seek to preserve her interests by other means than those employed 
in the negotiations fruitlessly pursued for five months; and by 
other means than through the treaty of alliance, which by the 
action of Austria-Hungary had virtually been at an end since 
July, 1914. 

It will not be inappropriate to observe that once the alliance 
had come to an end there was no longer any reason for the 
Italian people to maintain the attitude of acquiescence which had 
been dictated by their sincere desire for peace nor to repress any 
longer — as they had so long forced themselves to do— the indig- 
nation caused by the treatment to which the Italian population in 
Austria was subjected. It is true the treaty contained no formal 
provision for safeguarding the Italian language, traditions, or 
civilization in the regions inhabited by our compatriots in Austria- 
Hungary. 

But *since it was sought to give to the alliance an appearance of 
sincere peace and harmony, it is obvious that there was a moral 
obligation on the part of our ally to pay strict regard to and 
scrupulously to respect the vital interests involved for us in the 
racial distribution on the Adriatic coast. 

As a matter of fact, the constant policy of the Austro-Hungarian 
Government aimed for many years at the destruction of Italian 
nationality and civilization along the coast of the Adriatic. It 
will only be necessary to give a few short instances of facts and 
tendencies already too well known to everyone ; systematic substi- 
tution for officials of Italian nationality of officials of other nation- 
alities; the importation of hundreds of families of different na- 
tionality ; the creation at Trieste of cooperative societies of foreign 
workmen ; the Hohenlohe decrees which aimed at excluding all 
Italian officials from the public life of Trieste ; the denationaliza- 



168 Italian Notification, 1915. 

tion of the judicial administration ; the question of the university, 
whch formed the subject of diplomatic negotiations ; the denation- 
alization of the steamship companies ; the action of the police and 
political trials tending to favor other nationalities at the expense 
of the Italians ; the systematic expulsion of Italians, wholly unjus- 
tified and constantly increasing in number. 

The unchanging policy of the Imperial and Royal Government 
toward the subject Italian population was not solely inspired by 
internal motives due to the existence of contending nationalities 
within the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, but appears, on the con- 
trary, to have been caused in great part by a deep-rooted sentiment 
of hostility and aversion for Italy, which prevails in certain circles 
which are in close touch with the Austro-Hungarian Government, 
and which have a dominating influence on its decisions. From 
among many proofs of this which could be cited, it may suffice to 
mention that in 1911, while Italy was engaged in war with Turkey, 
the general staff at Vienna made preparations that grew more 
and more "obvious for an attack upon us, and the military party 
made most active attempts to win over to its views the other fac- 
tors responsible for the action of the monarchy. 

At the same time the armed preparations on our frontier as- 
sumed an openly offensive character. The crisis came to a pacific- 
solution, as far as can be judged, owing to the influence of exter- 
nal factors. But from that time onward we have remained under 
the impression that we might unexpectedly find ourselves exposed 
to armed menace whenever the party hostile to us might obtain 
predominance at Vienna. All this was known to Italy, but (as 
has been said before) a sincere desire for peace prevailed among 
the Italian people. 

When new conditions came into existence - Italy tried to see 
whether, even under such circumstances, it might be possible to 
find a more solid basis and a more durable guarantee for her 
treaty with Austria-Hungary. But her endeavors, conducted over 
a period of many months in constant accord with Germany, who 
agreed that negotiation was legitimate, were spent in vain. Hence 
Italy has found herself forced by the course of events to seek 
other solutions, and since the treaty of alliance with Austria- 
Hungary had already virtually ceased to exist, and now only 
served to cloak the real situation — one of continual suspicions 
and daily differences— the royal ambassador at Vienna was in- 
structed to declare to the Austro-Hungarian Government that the 
Italian Government considered itself freed from any binding 
power of the treaty of triple alliance as far as Austria-Hungary 
was concerned. This communication was made at Vienna on 
May 4. 

After this declaration on our, part, and after we had been forced 
to proceed to the legitimate protection of our own interests, the 



Notification of War with Turkey. 161) 

Imperial and Royal Government made new offers of inadequate 
concessions, which in no sense corresponded to the minimum de- 
mands of our former proposals. These offers could in no wise be 
accepted by us. The Royal Government, considering all that has 
been set forth above, strengthened by the votes of Parliament and 
by the solemn manifestations of the nation, has resolved to make 
an end of delays, and on this day has declared to the Austro- 
Hungarian ambassador at Rome, in the name of the King, that 
Italy considers herself in a state of war with Austria-Hungary 
from to-morrow, May 24. Instructions in the same sense were 
telegraphed yesterday to the royal ambassador at Vienna. 

Sonnino. 

Notification of war ivith Turkey, noon, August 21, 1915. 1 
File No. 763.72/2052. 

The Italian Ambassador to the Secretary of State of the United States. 

[Translation.] 

No. 2651.] Italian Embassy, 

Beverly Farms, Mass., August 21, 1915. 

Mr. Secretary of State : I have the honor by order of my Gov- 
ernment to bring the following to your excellency's knowledge. 

From the date of the signature of the treaty of peace of 
Lausanne, on October 18, 1912, the Ottoman Government has been 
violating that treaty and the violations have not ceased for an 
instant until now. 

As a matter of fact the Imperial Government never adopted 
in earnest any measure to bring about the immediate cessation 
of hostilities in Lybia, as it was bound to do under its covenants 
solemnly entered into ; and it did nothing toward the release 
of the Italian prisoners of war. The Ottoman soldiers remaining 
in Tripoli and Cyrenaica were kept there under command of their 
own officers, continuing to use the Ottoman flag, holding pos- 
session of their rifles and cannons. Enver Bey continued to 
direct in person the hostilities against the Italian Army until the 
end of November, 1912, and Aziz Bey did not leave those parts 
with 800 men of the regular forces until June, 1913. The way in 
which both these commanders were received on their return to 
Turkey is proof evident that their acts were fully assented to 
by the imperial authorities. After Aziz Bey's departure, on the 
other hand, officers of the Turkish Army continued to find their 

1 " The Royal Italian ambassador at Paris made known on the 29th 
August, 1915, that the Royal Italian Government declared war on Tur- 
key on the date of Aug. 20, 1915, at 12 o'clock noon." (Journ. Off., Aug. 
31, 1915, p. 6107.) 



170 Italian Demands on Turkey, 1915. 

way into Cyrenaica. On this very day there are more than a 
hundred there whose names are known to the Italian Government. 
In April last 35 young men from Benghazi . whom Enver Bey had 
taken to Constantinople against the will of the Royal Govern- 
ment and who were there admitted into the military academy 
were sent back to Cyrenaica without our knowledge. Again the 
King's Government positively knows, any declaration to the con- 
trary notwithstanding, that the holy war was also proclaimed 
against the Italians in Africa in 1914. And a mission of Turkish 
officers and soldiers bearing gifts to the Senussi chiefs in rebel- 
lion against the Italian authorities in Lybia were recently cap- 
tured by French warships. 

The relations of peace and friendship which the Italian Gov- 
ernment thought it could establish with the Ottoman Govern- 
ment after the treaty of Lausanne therefore never existed, through 
the latter's fault. And after every diplomatic representation 
against violations of the treaty had proved utterly useless there 
remained nothing for the Royal Government to do but to provide 
otherwise for the safeguard of the high interests of the State and 
the defense of its colonies against the persistent menace and the 
actual acts of hostility, on the part of the Ottoman Government. 

It became all the more necessary and urgent to reach a decision, 
as the Ottoman Government quite recently committed patent in- 
vasions of the rights, interests, and very freedom of Italian citi- 
zens in the Empire, the more energetic protests entered on this 
point by the King's ambassador at Constantinople being of no 
avail. In the presence of the tergiversations of the Ottoman 
Government on the specific point of letting Italian citizens freely 
depart from Asia Minor, these protests had, in these last few 
days, to assume the form of an ultimatum. On the 3d. of the 
month the royal ambassador at Constantinople addressed by 
order of the Royal Government a note to the Grand Vizier set- 
ting forth the following four demands: 

1. That the Italians be free to leave Beirut. 

2. That the Italians in Smyrna, the port of Vourla being un- 
available, be allowed to leave by way of Sigadjik. 

3. That the Ottoman Government let Italians embark unmo- 
lested from Mersina, Alexandretta, Caiffa, and Jaffa. 

4. That the local authorities in the interior stop opposing the 
departure of royal subjects proceeding to the coast, and, on the 
contrary, endeavor to facilitate their journey. 

On the 5th of August, before the expiration of the term of 48 
hours set in the Royal Government's ultimatum, the Ottoman 
Government, in a note signed by the Grand Vizier, accepted every 
point in the Italian demands. On the strength of such solemn 
declarations the King's Government arranged to send two ships 
to Rhodes with instructions to await orders to proceed and take 



Notification of War with Germany, Aug. 28, 1916. I7l 

on board the Italian citizens, who for some time had been staying 
in the above-named ports of Asia Minor, until they could return 
home. But now it appears from reports of the American consular 
officers whom the United States Government has graciously au- 
thorized to assume the protection of Italian interests at various 
posts that the Turkish military authority at Beirut canceled on 
the 9th instant the permit to leave granted but a short time 
before. It was likewise canceled at Mersina. It was further 
announced that the Ottoman military authorities had opposed 
the embarkation of other Italians residing in Syria. 

In the presence of this patent breach of categorial promises 
made by the Ottoman Government in consequence of the Italian 
Government's ultimatum the Royal Government has issued in- 
structions to His Majesty's ambassador at Constantinople to de- 
liver a declaration of war on Turkey. And the declaration of 
war was delivered this day at Constantinople to the Ottoman Gov- 
ernment by the King's ambassador. 

Accept, etc., 

V. Macchi di Cellere. 

Notification of a state of war tvith Bulgaria, October 19, 1915. 

[Rev. Gen., Doc. 23 : 150.] 

Bulgaria having opened hostilities against Serbia in allying 
itself with the enemies of Italy and in combating the allies, the 
Italian Government has, by order of the King, declared that a 
state of war exists between Italy and Bulgaria, October 19, 1915. 

Notification of ivar tvith Germany, August 28, 1916. 1 

The Italian Ambassador to the Secretary of State of the United States. 

[Translation.] 

Royal Italian Embassy, 
Beverly Farms, August 28, 1916. 

Mr. Secret aey of State : I have the honor to address the fol- 
lowing communication to your excellency in the name of the 
King's Government : 

Systematically hostile acts on the part of the German Govern- 
ment to the detriment of Italy have succeeded one another with 
increasing frequency, consisting in both an actual warlike par- 
ticipation and economic measures of every kind. 

With regard to the former, it will suffice to mention the reit- 
erated supplies of arms and of instruments of war, terrestrial 

1 See also Journal Offlciel, Aug. 31, 1916, p. 7831. 



172 Italian Navigation Restrictions. 

and maritime, furnished by Germany to Austria-Hungary, and 
the uninterrupted participation of German officers, soldiers, and 
seamen in the various operations of war directed against Italy. 1 
In fact, it is only thanks to the assistance afforded her by Ger- 
many in the most varied forms that Austria-Hungary has recently 
been able to concentrate her most extensive effort against Italy. 
It is also worth while to recall the transmission, by the German 
Government to Austria-Hungary, of the Italian prisoners who 
had escaped from the Austro-Hungarian concentration camps and 
taken refuge in German territory. 

Among the measures of an economic character which were 
hostile to Italy it will be sufficient to cite the invitation which, at 
the instance of the imperial department of foreign affairs, was 
directed to German credit institutions and bankers to consider 
every Italian citizen as a hostile foreigner and to suspend pay- 
ments due him ; also the suspension of payment to Italian laborers 
of the pensions due them by virtue of the formal provisions of 
the German law. 

The Government of His Majesty the King did not think that 
it could longer tolerate such a state of things, which aggravates, 
to the exclusive detriment of Italy, the sharp contrast between 
the de facto and the de jure situation already arising from the 
fact of the alliance of Italy and of Germany with two groups of 
nations at war among one another. 

For these reasons the Royal Government has, in the name of 
his Majesty the King, notified the German Government through 
the Swiss Government that, as from to-day, August 28, Italy 
considers herself in a state of war with Germany. 

Please accept, etc., 

Macchi di Celleee. 

4 

BLOCKADES AND NAVIGATION RESTRICTIONS. 

Notification of declaration of blockade of Austria-Hungary and 

Albania, May 26, 1915. 2 

LJournal Officiel, June 3, 1915, p. 3549.] 
The Royal Italian Government, in view of the state of war 
existing between Italy and Austria-Hungary, Considering that the 

1 In an opinion of the German Reichsgericht at Leipsic, shortly before 
the war, appears the statement : " Formally there is not a state of war 
between Germany and Italy, but it must be admitted nevertheless that 
Germany participates in the Austro-Italian War in consequence of the 
treaties existing between Austria and Germany. According to these 
treaties, in case Austria is obliged to send troops to other theaters of 
the war, Germany should fill the vacancies thus caused by means of 
proper forces." (Journal du droit international prive. (Clunet), 43: 
1701.) 

2 " A dispatch from Vienna says that Austria-Hungary sent on June 9, 
1915, to foreign powers a note protesting against the blockade of Albania 



Declaration of Blockades. 173 

Austro-Hungarian naval authorities make use of some ports of 
the Albanian coast for clandestinely supplying their navy, declare 
that, starting from May 26 : 

1. The Austro-Hungarian coast, extending from the Italian fron- 
tier at the north to the Montenegrin frontier at the south, with all 
its ports, isles, harbors, roadsteads, creeks ; 

2. The coast of Albania, extending from the Montenegrin fron- 
tier at the north to and including Cape Kiephali * at the south 
will be held in a state of effective blockade by the Italian naval 
forces. 

The geographical limits of the blockaded territory will be the 
following : 

For the Austro-Hungarian coast: Northern limit, 45° 42' 50" 
north latitude and 13° 15' 10" east longitude (Greenwich) ; 
southern limit, 42°" 6' 25" north latitude and 19° 5' 30" east longi- 
tude (Greenwich). 

Vessels of friendly or neutral powers will have a time, which 
will be fixed by the commander in chief of the Italian naval forces, ' 
after the date of the declaration of blockade to freely leave the 
blockaded zone. 

All vessels which, in violation of blockade, attempt to cross or 
have crossed the barred line, established between the Cape of 
Otrante and the Cape of Kiephali will be proceeded against ac- 
cording to the rules of international law and to treaties in force. 

Notification of declaration of bloclcade of Albania, May 30, 1915. 

[Rev. Gen., Doc. 22 : 215. See also London Gazette, June 4, 1915, 

p. 5386.] 

The Royal Government declares that the blockade of the coast 
of Albania which, by the declaration of May 26, was established 
from Montenegro at the north to Cape Kiephali at the south is 

by Italy and declaring that this blockade is contrary to the sovereign 
rights of a State whose neutrality Italy expressly recognized at the con- 
ference of ambassadors at London in 1913. The blockade is also con- 
trary to the first article of the Declaration of London of Feb. 26, 1909, 
since the Austrian Army and Navy do not occupy a part of Albania, 
nor do they use the Albanian ports as bases of supply for the Austrian 
Navy. Finally, the blockade is not valid because it is contrary to the 
Declaration of London that the Austro-Hungarian local authorities have 
not received notification of the blockade." (London, June 12, 1915, 
Clunet, 42:266.) 

1 " The blockade of the coast of Albania by Italy, south to the Cape 
of Kiephali, has been considered, in the midst of Greek politics, as being 
the result of an error. In effect it would result that all the coast of 
Chimara, which was made part of the Epire if tbe north, actually 
occupied by Greece with the assent of the powers, would be blockaded. 
The territory to the north of Epire enjoyed, by the very fact of its 
occupation by Greek troops, the same neutrality as the Hellenic king- 
dom nnd can not consequently be submitted to' any blockade." (Temps, 
May 30, 1915; Rev. Gen., Doc. 22:215.) See following text. 



174 Italian Navigation Restrictions. 

reduced from the 30th May, from the same (northern limits) to 
Aspri Ruga. 

Consequently the geographic limits of the blockade of Albanian 
territory are the following: Northern limit, 41° 52' north lati- 
tude and 19° 22' 40" east longitude (Greenwich) ; southern limit, 
40° 9' 36" north latitude, 19° 35' 45" east longitude (Greenwich). 
The new barred line, established between the Cape of Otrante and 
Aspri Ruga will form the line of blockade, with all the effects of 
the declaration of May 26, 1915. 

The period conceded to vessels of friendly and neutral powers 
to leave the blockade zone has been fixed by the commander in. 
chief of the Italian naval forces at 10 days from the date of the 
declaration of blockade. 

Notification relating to navigation of the Strait of Messina, May 

30, 1915. 

[Journal Officiel, June 1, 1915, p. 3518.] 

Navigation in the Strait of Messina is forbidden three-quarters 
of an hour after sunset until a half hour before sunrise. 

Navigation is permitted in the day in clear weather ; under 
reservation of the prescriptions in force in reference to war ves- 
sels, torpedo boats, and submarines of the national or allied navies, 
it is ordered that all national, allied, and neutral merchant vessels 
await authorization before navigating the strait, vessels coming 
from the north to stop on the meridian of Forte-Apuria, at least 
3 miles away, and to exchange signals with the semaphore ; those 
coming from the south to stop on the meridian of Cape Dell Armi 
and to observe the same prescriptions. 

Notification, olockade of the Adriatic, July 6, 191:5. 

[London Gazette, July 23, 1915, p. 7190; Journal Officiel, Julv 17, 1915. 

p. 4857.] 

The secretary of state for foreign affairs has received from His 
Majesty's ambassador at Rome the following translation of a 
Royal decree, dated July 4, and published in the Italian Official 
Gazette of the 8th : 

Article 1. The blockade declared by the Royal Government on 
the 26th and 30th May, is extended to the whole zone of the 
Adriatic Sea to the north of the Otrante- Aspri-Ruga (Strade 
Bianchi) line. 

Consequently, the navigation in the Adriatic Sea to the north 
of this line by merchant ships of any nationality is forbidden. 

Art. 2. The minister of marine or authorities delegated by him 
may, nevertheless, grant after necessary inquiries, special safe 
conduct to merchant ships desirous of proceeding to ports belong- 
ing to or occupied by Italy or Montenegro. 



Japanese Ultimatum to Germany. 175 

Vessels desirous of entering the Adriatic must proceed to Galli- 
poli (Apulia), where the safe conducts of entry must be obtained. 

For leaving the Adriatic, vessels after having received permis- 
sion at the port of departure must proceed to Bari, where they 
will be furnished with the safe conducts of departure. 

Vessels provided with safe conducts must cross the blockade 
line, Otrante-Aspri-Ruga (Strade Bianchi) during daytime only. 
They must stop on that line at a distance not greater than 5 
miles from the Italian shore, 'to be visited by the men of war 
destined for that purpose. 

Aet. 3. The rules laid down in our decree of June 13, 1915, No. 
899, as well as any special regulations which the naval authori- 
ties may think fit to enforce on vessels entering or leaving the 
Adriatic, must be observed by all merchant vessels of whatever 
nationality navigating in the Adriatic, in the circumstances 
provided for in Article 2. 

Aet. 4. Vessels contravening the rules laid down in the preced- 
ing articles will be considered guilty of violation of blockade and 
are liable to capture and confiscation, together with their cargo, 
according to the regulations in force. 

Aet. 5. The present decree will come into force on July 6, 1915. 



JAPAN. 

Ultimatum to Germany, August 15, ldlh- 

[Official Japanese Documents ; See also Austro-Hungarian Red Boole 

No. 66.] 

No. 3. — Telegram dispatched by the Imperial Japanese Government to the 
charge d'affaires ad interim at Berlin on August 15, 1914. 

You are hereby instructed to address to Herr von Jagow imme- 
diately on receipt of this telegram a signed note to the following- 
effect : 

The undersigned, charge" d'affaires ad interim of His Majesty 
the Emperor of Japan, has the honor in pursuance of instructions 
from his Government to communicate to his excellency, the minis- 
ter for foreign affairs of His Majesty, the German Emperor to the 
following effect : 

Considering it highly important and necessary in the present 
situation to take measures to remove all causes of disturbance to 
the peace of the, Far East and to safeguard the general interests 
contemplated by the agreement of alliance between Japan and 
Great Britian in order to secure a firm and enduring peace in 
ea stern Asia, which is the aim of the said agreement, the Imperial 
Japanese Government sincerely believe it their duty to give advice 



176 Ja/panese Proclamation of War y Aug. 23, 1911^. 

to the Imperial German Government to carry out the following 
two propositions : 

First.— To withdraw immediately from the Japanese and Chinese 
waters German men-of-war and armed vessels of all kinds and to 
disarm at once those which can not be so withdrawn ; 

Second. — To deliver on a date not later than September 15, 
1914, to the Imperial Japanese authorities without condition or 
compensation the entire leased territory of Kiaochou with a viev- 
to eventual restoration of the same to China. 

The Imperial Japanese Government announce at the same time 
that in the event of their not receiving by noon August 23, 1914, 
the answer of the Imperial German Government signifying un- 
conditional acceptance of the above advice offered by the Imperial 
Japanese Government they will be compelled to take such action 
as they may deem necessary to meet the situation. 

The undersigned, etc. 

Proclamation of war with Germany, noon, August 23, 1914- 1 

[Official Japanese documents.] 
No. 1. — The imperial rescript issued at Tokio, August 23, 1914, 6 p. m. 

We, by the grace of heaven, Emperor of Japan, seated on the 
throne occupied by the same dynasty from time immemorial, do 
hereby make the following proclamation to all our loyal and 
brave subjects : 

We hereby declare war against Germany, and we command our 
army and navy to carry on hostilities against that Empire with all 
their strength, and we also command all our competent authorities 
to make every effort, in pursuance of their respective duties to 
attain the national aim by all means within the limits of the law 
of nations. 

Since the outbreak of the present war in Europe, calamitous 
effect of which we view with grave concern, we on our part have 
entertained hopes of preserving peace of the Far East by the 
maintenance of strict neutrality, but the action of Germany has 
at length compelled Great Britain, our ally, to open hostilities 
against that country, and Germany is at Kiaochou, its leased 
territory in China, busy with warlike preparations, while its 
armed vessels cruising seas of eastern Asia are threatening our 
commerce and that of our ally. Peace of the Far East is thus in 

jeopardy. 

, , — , 

1 " The Imperial Government of Japan made known to the Government 
of the Republic, on August 23, 1914, that the council addressed by the 
Imperial Government to the German Government on the 15th of this 
month, having remained without reply, Japan is in a state of war with 
Germany from noon, August 23, 1914." Mourn. Off., Aug. 26, 1914, p. 
TG74.) 



Liberian Neutrality Proclamation. Ill 

Accordingly, our Government and that of His Britannic Maj- 
esty, after full and frank communication with each other, agreed 
to take such measures as may be necessary for the protection of 
the general interests, contemplated in the agreement of alliance, 
and we on our part being desirous to attain that object by peace- 
ful means commended our Government to offer with sincerity an 
advice to the Imperial German Government. By the last day 
appointed for the purpose, however, our Government failed to 
receive an answer accepting their advice. It is with profound 
regret that we, in spite of our ardent devotion to the cause of 
peace, are thus compelled to declare war, especially at this early 
period of our reign and while we are still in mourning for our 
lamented mother. 

It is our earnest wish that by the loyalty and valor of our 
faithful subjects peace may soon be restored and the glory of 
the Empire be enhanced. 

Notification, blockade of Kiao-Chau, August 27, 1914. 
[London Gazette, Sept. 1, 1914, p. 6895.] 

Foreign Office, August 29, 1914. 

The secretary of state for foreign affairs has received from 
his excellency the Japanese ambassador the text of a declaration 
issued on the 27th instant by the imperial Japanese naval authori- 
ties announcing the establishment on that date of a blockade of 
the whole of the littoral of the leased territory of Kiao-Chau. 

The coast line affected extends from a point 120° 10' east and 
35° 54' north to a point 120° 36' east and 36° 7' north. 

A period of 24 hours was allowed within which vessels of allied 
or neutral states might leave the blockaded area. 

Notification, raising of blockade of Tsing-Tao, November 10, 191J/. 

[Journal Officiel, Nov. 18, 1914, p. 8725 ; London Gazette, Nov. 17, 1914, 

p. 9397.] 

The Imperial Government of Japan has made known that, in 
view of the occupation of Tsing-Tao, the blockade declared August 
27, 1914, was raised on November 10, 1914. 

LIBERIA. 

Neutrality Proclamation, August 10, 1914- 

A PROCLAMATION 

By the President of the Republic of Liberia. 

Whereas the Government of the Republic of Liberia has been 
informed that a state of war' exists in Europe in which the fol- 
lowing powers are belligerents: Austria, Belgium, France, Ger- 
many, Great Britain, Russia, and Servia; and, 

43760—18 12 



178 Liberian Neutrality Proclamation. 

Whereas the duty and interests of the Republic of Liberia re- 
quire that it shall in all sincerity and good faith, adopt and main- 
tain, a neutral and impartial conduct toward the belligerent 
powers ; 

Now, therefore, I, Daniel Edward Howard, President of the 
Republic of Liberia, have seen fit to declare and by these presents 
do declare, the strict neutrality of the Republic of Liberia toward 
the aforesaid powers respectively, and I do hereby exhort and 
warn all citizens of the Republic of Liberia to carefully avoid all 
acts and proceedings whatever which may in any manner violate 
the neutrality above declared. 

And I do hereby further make known that any citizen or resi- 
dent whosoever within the jurisdiction of the Republic of Liberia 
shall render himself liable to punishment or forfeiture under the 
laws of nations by : 

1. Committing, aiding, or abetting hostilities against any of the 
said powers or by carrying to any of the articles which are deemed 
contraband by the laws of nations; 

2. Engaging or by aiding or abetting in the engagement of 
men on board the armed craft of any of such powers in Liberian 
waters ; 

3. Enlisting or entering upon any service whatsoever upon the 
armed craft of any such belligerent powers while in Liberian 
waters ; 

4. Retaining or assisting in retaining any person, or in contrib- 
uting means, for procuring assistance to any of such belligerent 
powers ; 

Or by committing any act whatsoever which under the laws of 
nations would be deemed a violation of the neutrality herein 
proclaimed. 

And I do further declare and order, in keeping with the laws 
of nations, that no person within the territory and jurisdiction 
of the Republic of Liberia shall take any part directly or indirectly 
in said war, but shall remain in peace with each of the subjects 
or citizens of said belligerent States, and shall observe a strict 
neutrality toward each and several of the subjects or citizens of 
said States and shall accord no privileges whatsoever to the one of 
such belligerents within the Republic of Liberia which in like 
manner may not be accorded to the other. 

And I do further warn all citizens of the Republic of Liberia 
and all persons residing within our territory or jurisdiction that 
the violation of any of the above provisions will subject them to 
peril ; and they can in no wise obtain any protection from the 
Government of the Republic of Liberia against the consequences 
of their actions. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused 
the seal of the Republic to be fixed. Done in the city of Monrovia 



Trade Prohibitions. 179 

this 10th day of August, A. D. 1914, and of the Independence of 
the Republic the Sixty-eighth. 

[l. s.] D. E. Howard, President. 

By the President: 
Joseph J. Sharp, 

Acting Secretary of State. 

Proclamation prohibiting traae with belligerent powers, June 

20, 1916. 

A PROCLAMATION 

By the President of Liberia. 

Whereas by proclamation dated August 10, A. D. 1914, the 
Government of Liberia did proclaim its neutrality in the great 
European war and did therein enumerate certains acts which 
being committed would constitute a breach of neutrality; and 

Whereas the Government of this Republic has endeavored by 
ev«ry means consistent with its honor and its international 
obligations to preserve inviolate and to observe strictly its said 
public declaration of neutrality ; and 

Whereas the course of events during the said war as they 
affect the Republic of Liberia has rendered necessary an addi- 
tion to the list of acts prohibited to citizens and residents within 
the Republic during the present European conflict, the commis- 
sion of which shall constitute a breach of neutrality. 

Therefore I, Daniel Edward Howard, President of the Republic 
of Liberia, by virtue of constitutional authority in me vested, 
do hereby notify to all persons interested in the premises that 
from and after the date of these presents — 

(a) It is prohibited to any citizen of Liberia for the duration 
of the European war to import or cause to be imported, export 
or cause to be exported, either directly or indirectly, personally 
or by another, any article or articles of commerce or merchan- 
dise whatever, for and in behalf of any citizen or subject of 
either of the belligerent States, or to authorize or permit the 
use of his name for the purpose and in the behalf hereinbefore 
mentioned. 

(b) It is further declared prohibited to any citizen of Liberia » 
for the period aforesaid to act as the commercial agent of any 
subject, firm, or business house of the nationality of any of the 
belligerent States. % 

(c) It is also prohibited to any citizen, subject, firm, or busi- 
ness house of any of the belligerent States, or to any agent of 
such firms or business houses resident in Liberia, for the said 
period, to import or cause to be imported, to export or cause to 



180 Liberian Note Breaking Diplomatic Relations. 

be exported, either directly or indirectly, personally or by another, 
any merchandise or article of commerce in the name of or under 
cover of the name of a Liberian citizen. 

And I do enjoin upon all citizens of the Republic of Liberia, and 
upon all other persons resident within the borders of the same, 
a strict observance of the provisions of this proclamation. Any 
person violating the provisions hereof shall be deemed guilty of 
a breach of neutrality and shall be subject to imprisonment for 
a period not exceeding two years or to a fine not exceeding 
$5,000 and to confiscation of the goods so imported Or sought to 
be exported. 

The bona fides of every claimant, shipper, importer or exporter, 
consignee or consigner, shall be established by affidavit, and no 
delivery order or shipping permit shall be issued by the customs 
officials until they have been fully satisfied by the oath or affidavit 
of a shipper, consignee, or claimant that goods claimed have not 
been imported nor attempted to be shipped in violation of pro- 
visions of this proclamation. 

Every false declaration in the premises shall subject the affiant 
to the penalty prescribed by this proclamation and in addition 
thereto to prosecution for perjury. 

Given under my hand and seal of this Republic at the city of 
Monrovia this 20th day of June, A. D. 1916, and of the Republic 
the sixty-ninth. 

[l. s.] D. E. Howard. 

By the President: 
C. D. B. King, 

Secretary of State. 

Note breaking diplomatic relations with Germany, May 5, 1917. 1 

[United States Official Bulletin, No. 51, p. 4.] 
Mr. King, Liberian Secretary of State, to the German Consul at Monrovia. 

May 5, 1917. 

Sir: As the policies of a nation must always be adjusted to 
meet new conditions affecting its vital interests, as they arise from 
time to time, so the transpiring of certain events, in connection 
with the great European war which has staggered humanity in 
its ruthless operations and stupendous financial output, have 
rendered necessary a change of Liberia's attitude of strict neu- 
trality, hitherto assumed and consistently maintained. I refer to 
the new German submarine progjram, drawn up by the Imperial 
German Government and put into execution on the 1st day of 



Liberia declared war upon Germany Aug. 4, 1917, United States Official 
Bulletin No. 76, p. 4. 



Reasons for Liberian Action. 181 

February of the present year, the .detailed operations of which 
you are very well conversant with and informed. 

While Liberia has endeavored to stand aloof from a conflict, 
the original causes of which were of purely European concern and 
interest, yet the method adopted by the Imperial German Govern- 
ment and its allies to vindicate what they conceive to be their 
national rights and honor and to bring to their arms a speedy 
and successful victory by such means as the sinking of unarmed 
ships of their enemies and neutrals without warning, the bom- 
bardment of undefended towns and villages, and the violation of 
the rights of small neutral States, are such flagrant violations of 
the rules of civilized warfare as to justly create on the part of 
Libera grave apprehensions and fears of the eventual permanent 
establishment of the doctrine of " might " over " right " in the 
realms of international relations, which doctrine, if allowed to 
obtain, can only result in the complete subjugation and elimina- 
tion from the sisterhood of nations of all small and weak States. 

Hence the Government and people of Liberia can not any longer, 
in their own interest, continue to view with indifference and un- 
concern the present world's cataclysm, especially since the new 
German submarine program seriously threatens the lives of Libe- 
rian citizens traveling on the high seas as passengers and crew on 
allied or neutral ships. 

Although Liberia is fully conscious of her utter inability to en- 
force upon any of the belligerent nations respect and due regard 
for the rights and safety of her citizens, yet that fact will not 
deter her from protesting, by the most effective means at her 
disposal, against any attempt to infringe upon her sacred inter- 
national rights— in spite of the veiled threats made by the acting 
Imperial German consul in his published statement of " war 
news," issued and circulated in this city, under the official seal of 
his Imperial Government on the 21st of April, to the effect that 
powers of the third and last importance will be held to strict 
accountability for all damage done to German interest, the bill 
for which will be presented and payment thereof enforced after 
the happy issues of the war. 

The Liberian Government is therefore constrained, as an earnest 
protest against the continued enforcement of the new German sub- 
marine program, which threatens the lives of Liberian citizens, 
as well as grave financial and economic embarrassments to the 
Republic, to sever relations with the Imperial German Govern- 
ment, and to revoke the exequatur granted to Germany's official 
representative at this capital. 

With assurances of my high esteem and profound respect, I 
have the honor to subscribe myself. 
Your obedient servant, 

C. D. B. King, 
Secretary of State. 



182 Action of Luxemburg, Mexico, Montenegro. 

LUXEMBURG. 

Notification of violation of neutrality by Germany, August 2, 1914- 

[French Yellow Book; see also British White Paper, No. 147.] 

No. 131. — M. Eyschen, Minister of State for Luxemburg, to M. Rene Viviani, 
President of the Council, Minister for Foreign Affairs. 

Luxemburg, August 2, 1914. 

I have the honor to bring to your excellency's notice the follow- 
ing facts : 

On Sunday, August 2, very early, German troops, according to 
the information which has up to now reached the Grand Ducal 
Government, penetrated into Luxemburg territory by the bridges 
of Wasserbillig and Remich, and proceeded especially toward the 
south and in the direction of Luxemburg, the capital of the Grand 
Duchy. A certain number of armored trains with troops and 
ammunition have been sent along the railway line from Wasser- 
billig to Luxemburg, where their arrival is immediately ex- 
pected. These occurrences constitute acts which are manifestly 
contrary to the neutrality of the Grand Duchy as guaranteed by 
the treaty of London of 1867. 1 The Luxemburg Government have 
not failed to address an energetic protest against this aggression 
to the representatives of His Majesty the German Emperor at 
Luxemburg. An identical protest will be sent by telegraph to the 
secretary of state for foreign affairs at Berlin. 

The Minister of State, President of the Government. 

Eyschen. 

MEXICO. 

Declaration of foreign office of neutral attitude toward war, March, 

17, 1917. 

In view of the answer of the United States to the note which 
the First Chief directed to the Governments of the neutral coun- 
tries in favor of peace, the Government of Mexico proposes to co- 
operate with its efforts to avoid that any of the countries of this 
continent take part in the European conflict, and will continue its 
efforts with neutral countries with the object of securing European 
peace. 

MONTENEGRO. 

Notice of declaration of war against Austria, August 7, 1914. 
[London Times, Aug. 10, 1914, p. 6, d.] 

Vienna, August 7, 191%. 
It is semiofficially announced that the Government of Monte- 
negro has informed the Austro-Huhgarian minister in Cettinje 
that they consider themselves in a state of war with Austria. 
The minister has left Cettinje. — Reuter. 

1 British and Foreign State Papers, 57 : 32. 



Declarations of Netherlands and Norway. 183 

Notice of breaking diplomatic relations with Germany and open- 
ing of hostilities ivith Austria-Hungary, August 9, 191^. 

[London Times, Aug. 12, 1914, p. 6, c] 

Nish, August 9, 1914. 
The Montenegrin Government has handed the German minister 
his passports, and hostilities with Austria began yesterday. The 
Austrian fleet has bombarded Antivari. 



NETHERLANDS. 

Declaration of neutrality, April 11, 1917. 

Royal Legation of the Netherlands, 

Washington, D. C, April 11, 1917. 
Mr. Secketaey of State: By order of the minister of foreign 
affairs at The Hague, I have the honor to inform your excellency 
that in view of the state of war existing between the United States 
of America and Germany, the Royal Government of the Nether- 
lands will observe strict neutrality. 

I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to your excellency 
the assurance of my highest consideration. 

W. L. F. C. De Rappaed. 



NORWAY. 

Declaration by Non.cay, Denmark, and Sweden in reference to 
neutrality rules, December 21, 1912. 

DECLAEATION. 

The Governments of Norway, Denmark, and Sweden ; 

Having in view the fixing of similar rules of neutrality in 
accord with the conventional provisions signed at The Hague, 
have undertaken negotiations which have resulted in an agree- 
ment on all the points of principle as is proved by the annexed 
texts of rules adopted separately by the three respective Gov- 
ernments ; 

And appreciating at its just value the importance that this 
agreement so happily existing should be maintained equally in the 
future ; 

Have agreed that none of the three Governments will make any 
changes in the approved rules by themselves, without having first 
advised the two others sufficiently early to permit an exchange of 
views in the matter. 



184 Scandinavian Neutrality Rules. 

In faith of which the undersigned duly authorized to this end' 
by their Governments have signed the present declaration and 
have attached their seals. 
Made in triplicate at Stockholm the 21st December, 1912. 

Betjnchoest. [l. s.] 
Otto Scavenitjs. - [l. s.] 
Albeet Ehkensvakd. [l. s.] 

Rules of neutrality, established by Royal Ordinance, December 

18, 1912. 

We, Haakon, Norwegian King, make it known that it has pleased 
us, . 

To order the following in order to protect Norway's neutrality 
in case of war between foreign powers : 

Chaptee I. 

War vessels of belligerent powers are permitted to enter ports 
and roadsteads as well as other territorial waters of the king- 
dom. At the same time admission is subject to the exceptions, 
restrictions, and conditions which follow : 

1. (a) It is forbidden belligerent war vessels to enter the ports 
and roadsteads of war, which have been proclaimed as such. 

(b) It is also forbidden such vessels to enter inner territorial 
waters whose entrances are closed by submarine mines or other 
means of defense. 

(c) The King reserves the right to forbid under the same con- 
ditions to the two belligerent parties, access to other Norwegian 
ports or roadsteads and other defined parts of the interior Nor- 
wegian waters, when special circumstances demand and for safe- 
guarding the sovereign rights of the kingdom and to maintain its 
neutrality. 

(d) The King also reserves the right to forbid access to ports 
and roadsteads of the kingdom to belligerent war vessels which 
have neglected to conform to rules and prescriptions promulgated 
by the competent authorities of the kingdom and which have 
violated its neutrality. 

2. (a) Belligerent war vessels are bound to respect the sov- 
ereign rights of the kingdom and to abstain from all acts which 
would be contrary to its neutrality. 

{b) All acts of hostility, -including capture and the right of 
visit in reference to neutral vessels as well as vessels under the 
enemy flag, are strictly forbidden in the territorial waters of the- 



Treatment of War Vessels. 185 

kingdom. If it happens that a vessel has been captured in the 
territorial waters of the kingdom the prize should be released 
with its officers, crew, and cargo. 

3. The simple passage of war vessels and of the prizes taken 
by belligerents through the territorial waters of the kingdom is 
permitted only to the extent to which access to these waters is 
accorded to them. (See section 1 above.) 

4. (a) It is forbidden belligerent war vessels to remain more 
than 24 hours in ports, roadsteads or other territorial waters of 
the kingdom, except in case of damage, rough weather, or in 
consequence of rules (c) and (cl) below. In these cases the ves- 
sels must leave as soon as circumstances permit. The rule in 
reference to the limitation of sojourn does not apply to war ves- 
sels exclusively intended for religious, scientific, or philanthropic 
purposes nor to military hospital ships. 

(b) The maximum number of war vessels belonging to one 
belligerent party which may be at the same time in a port or 
roadstead of the kingdom is three. 

(c) If war vessels of both belligerent parties are at the same 
time in a port or roadstead of the kingdom, there must elapse at 
least 24 hours between the departure of the war vessels belong- 
ing to one of the belligerent parties and those of the other, the 
order of departure being determined by the order of arrival, un- 
less the vessel which arrived first is in the position where the pro- 
longation of the duration of its sojourn is permitted. 

(d) It is forbidden a belligerent war vessel to leave a port or 
roadstead of the kingdom less than 24 hours after the departure 
of a merchant vessel flying the enemy flag. It is the duty of the 
authorities concerned to arrange the departure of the merchant 
vessel so that the war vessel is not unnecessarily detained. 

5. (a) In the ports or roadsteads of the kingdom, belligerent 
war vessels can repair their damages only to the extent necessary 
for the security of navigation, and they can not increase their 
military force in any manner whatsoever. The authorities of the 
kingdom will indicate the nature of the repairs to be made. The 
repairs should be completed as rapidly as possible. 

(&) It is forbidden belligerent war vessels to employ the ports, 
roadsteads, and territorial waters of the kingdom in order to re- 
new or increase their military equipment or armament or to com- 
plete their crews. 

(c) Belligerent war vessels can revictual in the ports or road- 
steads of the kingdom only sufficiently to complete their normal 
supplies in time of peace. 

(d) In the ports and roadsteads of the kingdom, belligerent 
war vessels are permitted to take on fuel only in quantities neces- 
sary to fill the real coal bunkers, including fuel tanks. Having 
taken on fuel in a port or roadstead of the kingdom they can not 



18G Scandinavian Neutrality Rules. 

renew their fuel supplies in its ports or roadsteads until after 
three months. 

0. (a) Belligerent war vessels must employ licensed pilots of 
the kingdom on entering and leaving ports and roadsteads, but 
they can not employ the said pilots further except in case of dis- 
tress, to escape an imminent danger of the sea. 

(&) Sanitary, pilotage, customs, port and police regulations of 
the kingdom must'be observed and respected by the belligerent 
war vessels. 

Chapter II. 

Privateers will be admitted neither in the ports and roadsteads 
nor in the territorial waters of the kingdom. 

Chapter III. 

1. It is forbidden to take prizes into ports or roadsteads of the 
kingdom except in the event of unseaworthiness, rough weather, 
oi* lack of fuel or provisions. A prize which has been brought 
into a port or roadstead of the kingdom for one of these causes 
must leave as soon as circumstances allow it. 

2. No prize court can be established by a belligerent either on 
the territory or on board a vessel in the territorial waters of the 
kingdom. It is also forbidden to sell prizes in any of the ports 
or roadsteads of the kingdom. 

Chapter IV. 

1. It is forbidden belligerent powers to use ports or waters of 
the kingdom as bases for naval operations against their enemies. 

It is especially forbidden to establish on the territory or in the 
territorial waters of the kingdom radio stations or any appa- 
ratus designed to serve as a means of communication with the 
belligerent forces whether on land or sea. 

2. It is forbidden belligerents to organize fuel depots on either 
the territory of the kingdom or on vessels stationed in its terri- 
torial waters. 

3. It is forbidden, within the jurisdiction of the kingdom, to 
equip or arm any vessel intended to cruise or to assist in belliger- 
ent operations against a power at peace with the kingdom. 
Equally forbidden is the departure from its jurisdiction of every 
vessel intended to cruise or to assist in belligerent operations 
and which have been adapted in whole or in part for war use 
within the said jurisdiction. 

Given at Kristiania, 18th December, 1912. 

Under our hand and confirmed by our seal, 

Haakon, [l. s.] 
Jens Bratlie. 
Hesselberg. 



Use of .Norwegian Ports and Waters. 187 

Regulations established by royal ordinances of January 20, 1913, 
August 21 and September 11, 1914, concerning the admission of 
foreign warships into Norwegian ports and waters. 

1. 

No foreign war vessels except those mentioned in article 4 can 
enter the Norwegian war ports or naval stations without having 
obtained the authorization of His Majesty the King or of the 
persons authorized by him to this effect. 

It is necessary to indicate in advance the types and names of 
war vessels for which the authorization to enter Norwegian war 
ports or naval stations is solicited, as well. as the date of arrival 
and duration of sojourn. 

Without special authorization in extraordinary cases the sojourn 
in a war port or naval station can not exceed eight days, and in 
general no more than three war vessels belonging to the same 
nation will be permitted to sojourn simultaneously in the same 
port. 

2. . 

The following ports of the Norwegian coast are at present con- 
sidered war ports or naval stations : 

The Kristiania Fjord with the waters inward from the line 
formed by Tonsberg Tonde, the Faerder beacon, the Torbjornskjaer 
beacon, Vikertangen to Asmalo, Askholm to the coast east of 
Skjebergkilen. 

The port of Kristiansand with the waters inward from Fred- 
riksholm, the Oxo beacon, the Gronningen beacon, the Torso 
beacon. 

The port of Bergen and the entries leading from it inward to 
the line formed by Fonnes (coast east of Lygrefjord) the 
Helliso beacon, Tekslen (coast north of Korsfjord), the church 
of Lysekloster. 

The Trondhjemsf jord inward to the Agdenaes beacon and from 
Hovdetaaen to Orlandet. 

The port of Vard0. 

S. 

Access to all the other ports and anchorage of the kingdom is 
free to foreign war vessels after preliminary warning unless a 
contrary decision is made in a special case. At the same time the 
number of such vessels belonging to the same nation and sojourn- 
ing in the same port should not exceed three and the duration of 
their sojourn should not exceed 14 days. 

There will be no departure from the prescriptions of this article 
unless following authorization obtained by means of diplomacy. 



188 Vessels in Norwegian Waters. 



The following are exempted from the general rules contained in 
articles 1 and 3 : 

(a) Every war vessel on which the Chief of State of a foreign 
nation is traveling and the vessels which convoy it. 

(&) War vessels which find themselves in immediate danger 
from the sea, which are always permitted to have recourse to the 
ports of the kingdom. 

(c) War vessels intended for or engaged in the surveillance of 
fisheries or of hydrographic work and other scientific objects. 



In every Norwegian port where a maritime authority is estab- 
lished, foreign war vessels coming in are bound to anchor at the 
place designated by the maritime authority in question (the cap- 
tain of the port). 

Every authorization accorded to foreign war vessels to sojourn 
in a Norwegian port or anchorage can be revoked at will. 

Every foreign war vessel finding itself in a Norwegian port or 
anchorage, even if according to precedents it would be authorized 
to remain, is bound, if there is a request, it matters not when, to 
raise anchor and leave the port before the expiration of six hours 
or to change its anchorage conformably to the directions given. 

6. 

It is forbidden persons belonging to foreign war vessels so- 
journing in Norwegian ports or territorial waters to be, without 
special permission, in places or near places where there are bat- 
teries, fortifications, or other military establishments as well as 
places inclosed by the military authorities. 

It is forbidden to carry on debarkation practice and practice 
of firing cannon, guns, or torpedoes. The crew in landing should 
be unarmed, although the officers, underofficers, and midshipmen 
can carry the arms which form part of their uniform. 

7. 

It is forbidden persons belonging to foreign war vessels to pre- 
pare, multiply, or publish plans or sketches of ports or territorial 
waters of the kingdom, even to proceed to measurements and 
soundings other than those recognized as necessary for assuring 
navigation in the ordinary route. 

Furthermore, it is forbidden them to prepare, multiply, or pub- 
lish plans, drawings, sketches, photographs, or descriptions of 
Norwegian fortifications or of establishments, etc., appurtenant 
thereto. (See art. 3 of the law on military secrets of Aug. 18, 
1914.) 



Scandinavian Action on Neutrality. 189 

8. 

The commander of all foreign war vessels is bound to conform 
to the sanitary, customs and pilotage and port rules promulgated 
by the competent authorities. 

9. 

The preceding rules will remain in force until a contrary de- 
cision by His Majesty the King. 

Royal proclamation of August 1, 1914, *w regard to the declaration 
of neutrality on the occasion of the ivar between Austria-Hun- 
gary and Serbia. 

War having broken out between Austria-Hungary and Serbia, 
it has been decided on behalf of Norway' to observe complete 
neutrality during the war. 

Royal proclamation of August 4, 1914, concerning the neutrality 

of Norway. 

It is decided on behalf of Norway that complete neutrality shall 
be observed during the existing war between foreign powers. 

NORWAY. 

Communique by Norway and Sweden concerning mutual action of 
the two countries for the maintenance of neutrality, August 8, 
1914. 

War having broken out among several foreign powers, the Nor- 
wegian and Swedish Governments have mutually declared their 
firm intention to maintain, during the state of war thus occurring, 
each for itself and to the final extremity, their neutrality in refer- 
ence-to all the belligerent powers. The two Governments have 
besides exchanged formal assurances with a view to rendering it 
impossible that the state of war existing in Europe should result 
in one of the kingdoms taking hostile measures in reference to 
the other. 

Law relative to defense secrets, August 18, 1914. 

We, Haakon, King of Norway, make known that the decision 
of the Storthing of August 18, 1914, has been laid before us, as 
follows : 

Section 1. The King, or anyone empowered by him, may, for 
purposes of defense, prohibit access — 

1. To fortresses, ships of war, ports, signal stations, or buildings 
or premises where objects connected with the defense of the realm 
are placed, being constructed, or stored. 



190 Norwegian Regulations. 



2. To determined areas. 

3. To be present at military exercises or experiments. 
Anyone who may violate such prohibition, or assist in doing so, 

shall be punished by fine or arrest or imprisonment hot exceeding 
one year in case a more severe punishment shall not apply to the 
act. 

Sec. 2. If anyone, by untrue statements as to name, nationality, 
position, or occupation, or by any other false representation, has 
secured, or has endeavored to secure, for himself or others, access 
to fortresses, ships of war, ports, signal stations, or buildings or 
premises where objects connected with the defense of the realm 
are placed, being constructed or stored, or to be present at mili- 
tary exercises or experiments, he shall be punished by fine or 
arrest or imprisonment not to exceed two years, in case a more 
severe punishment shall not apply to the act. 

Sec. 3. By fine or arrest or imprisonment not to exceed one 
year — in case a more severe punishment shall not apply to the 
act — shall be punished: 

1. Anyone who, without the permission of the King or some 
•one empowered by him, may take, copy, or publish maps, eye 
sketches, sketches, photographs, or descriptions of fortresses or 
areas pertaining thereto. * 

2. Anyone who may take, copy, or publish maps, eye sketches, 
sketches, photographs, or descriptions which may prove service- 
able to the enemies of the realm in case of war, where the cir- 
cumstances are such that there is no ground to believe that the 
act was done for a lawful object. 

3. Anyone who, without the permission of the King or of the 
interested department of government, may take, copy, or publish 
maps or sketches of the Kingdom's ports, fjords, or entrances or 
of any part of the Norwegian sea territory, or who undertakes 
measurements or other soundings than those which are necessary 
for the security of ordinary navigation. 

4. Anyone who may attempt or assist in the above acts. 

Sec 4. If anyone shall assist in the gaining of information 
which has for its object the espionage on behalf of a foreign 
State, he shall be punished with fine or arrest or imprisonment 
not to exceed one year. 

Sec 5. If anyone is found, under circumstances which arouse 
suspicion that he has acted, or intends to act, in a way punish- 
able under this law, under the criminal law, sections 90 or 91, 
or under the law in regard to the State monopoly of the trans- 
mission of information by the use of telegraph lines and the like 
means, of April 29, 1899, section 6, and the supplemental law 
of July 24, 1914, section 3, and if he, at the request of an official 
in the public service or a military official in the service, refuses 
to give his name, nationality, position, occupation, or residence, 



Telegraphic Communication. 191 

or if he gives false information on these matters either on his 
own behalf or on that of others, he shall be punished with fine 
or arrest or imprisonment not to exceed six months, in case a 
more severe punishment shall not apply to his act. 

Sec. 6. If anyone by agreement or in any other way endeavors 
to prepare an act punishable under sections 90 or -91 of the 
criminal law, or under sections 1, 2, 3, or 4 of the same law, or 
assists thereto, he shall be punishable with fine or with arrest 
or imprisonment not to exceed one year, in case a more severe 
punishment shall not apply to his act. 

Sec. 7. If anyone gives or assists in giving public informa- 
tion which he knows, or ought to know, will hinder the investiga- 
tion of a branch of this law or of public criminal law, sections 
90-94, he shall be punished by a fine or imprisonment not to ex- 
ceed six months, if a more severe punishment shall not apply to 
the act. 

Sec 8. Anyone who, on reasonable grounds, is believed to have 
violated section 5 of this law or the law in regard to the State 
monopoly of the transmission of information by the use of tele- 
graph lines and the like means of April 29, 1899, section 6, and 
the supplemental law of July 24, 1914, section 3, may be arrested 
and placed in custody not only under the conditions set forth in 
the law of criminal procedure, section 229 and section 240, but 
also under the conditions set forth in the same law, section 240, 
notwithstanding the punishment is less than there determined. 

Sec 9. This law goes into effect at once. , 

From the same time is repealed section 331 of the general 
criminal law and the law in regard to ports, etc., of July 10, 
1894, section 59. 

We have accepted and given force, as we hereby accept and 
give force, to the said law, under our hand and the seal of the 
realm. 

Given at Christiania Castle, August 18, 1914. 

Haakon, [l. s.] 
gunnar knudsen. 
Hesselberg. 

Royal resolution in regard to telegraph communication, Septem- 
ber 18, 1914. 

In accordance with article 8 of the Petrograd International 
Telegraph Convention, it is ordered that private telegrams to and 
from foreign countries shall be framed en clair in Norwegian, 
Danish, Swedish, German, English, French, or Russian, and in 
such a way that they convey a meaning which may be understood 
by the officials of the telegraph service. Telegrams which are 
not. signed, or contain no text, or only a text consisting of one 



192 Defense Regulations, Norway. 

word or a figure are not permitted ; nor those which contain in- 
formation about Norwegian military arrangements or anything 
which violates the neutral attitude of Norway. Private telegrams 
which violate these restrictions will be returned or stopped 
without advice to the place where they were deposited. These 
restrictions are not to be applied to Government telegrams or 
meteorological telegrams. 

Telephone conversations to and from foreign countries must be 
carried on in Norwegian, Swedish, or Danish, and must not 
touch upon the military relations above mentioned. Conversa- 
tions violating these restrictions shall be interrupted. 

Royal resolution relative to defense secrets, November 6, 1914. 

In regard to the law on defense secrets of August 18, 1914, the 
following provisions shall be in force. 

Sec. 1. Persons not concerned are forbidden access to the coun- 
try's fortresses, ships of war, harbors of fortresses or marine 
stations, signal stations, or buildings or premises where objects 
connected with the defense of the realm are placed, being con- 
structed, or stored. 

Norwegian officers will as a rule be able to obtain access in 
order to see the said establishments on application to the highest 
military authorities on the spot. 

These authorities may, after securing the approbation of the 
commanding general (admiral), permit individuals to enter; for 
example, the civil population of the place, when this is considered 
necessary. 

Sec. 2. Passing over Norwegian territory in airships without 
special permission of the department of defense is, until further 
notice, forbidden, except to the airships belonging to the State or 
acting for it. 

Sec 3. The general (admiral) commanding may determine 
areas in the neighborhood of fortified places, and other places 
where it may be necessary for the purposes of national defense, 
where it is forbidden to persons not entitled to be. present. 

Such prohibitions shall be brought to public knowledge at the 
place in question by notices, publications in the newspapers, or 
the like. 

Sec. 4. The commanding general (admiral), or, if his decision 
can not be obtained, the highest military authority present, may 
forbid persons not concerned to be present at military exercises 
or experiments or to remain near or to follow sections of the war 
forces or warships. 

Sec. 5. Aliens are forbidden access to the grounds on which 
military exercises or target practice takes place without special 
permission from the highest military officer at the spot. 



Surveillance of Vessels. • 193 

The latter may also forbid persons not entitled from access to 
the grounds on which military exercises or target practice takes 
place when this is necessary for reasons relating to the service. 

Law regarding the control of post and telegraph communications, 

June 24, 19.15. 

We, Haakon, Norway's King, cause to be known that the de- 
cision of the Storthing of June 22, 1915, has been laid before us, 
as follows: 

Section 1. The King, or anyone empowered by him, may carry 
out the examination and detention of communications by post and 
telegraph, when this is required by reason of the safety of the 
realm. 

Apart from time of war this control can' not be extended beyond 
communications to and from persons suspected of breaches of the 
law relative to defense secrets of August 18, 1914, or of the general 
criminal law, chapter 8 or 9. 

Sec. 2. Officials who execute or assist in the control are to 
preserve silence in regard to what they come to know in the execu- 
tion of their duty. 

Sec. 3. This law goes into force at once. 

We have accepted and given force, as we hereby accept and 
give force, to the said law under our hand and the seal of the 
realm. 

Given at Christiania Castle, June 24, 1915. 

Haakon, [l. s.] 

In the absence of the Minister of State, Ihlen. 

Hesselberg. 

Notification from the Department of National Defense in reference 
to the surveillance of vessels in Norwegian waters, October 1, 
1915. 

By royal resolution of October 1, 1915, it is ordered : 
Section 1. Vessels in Norwegian waters shall hoist the national 
flag on arrival at a place of anchorage, where Norwegian war 
or guard ships lie, and also when such ships are in sight. While 
in Norwegian waters they shall stop immediately when it is 
ordered by Norwegian war or guard ships, e. g., when a warn- 
ing signal is given by steam whistle, hoisting a signal, or a 
warning shot. 

Norwegian war or guard ships are entitled in Norwegian waters 
to visit vessels and their cargoes, as well as the passengers on 
board, and the persons in command of the visited ship shall coop- 
erate willingly at the visit as well as give, on demand, such in- 
formation interesting to the military authorities as they are able 

43760—18 13 



194 Rules as to Vessels of War, Norway. 

to give ; likewise they are in duty bound to follow the advice 
which may be given them in regard to their situation and their 
future voyage. 

Sec. 2. Violation of these regulations will be punished under 
the general criminal law, May 22, 1902, section 339, 2. 

Sec 3. The regulations in section 1 go into force at once. 

Royal resolution in regard to interned war vessels June 30, 1916. 

By royal resolution of June 30, 1916, the following orders are 
put in force in regard to belligerent warships interned in the 
ports of the realm under article 24 of the XIII Hague Conven- 
tion, October 18, 1907, regarding the rights and duties of neutral 
powers in maritime war. 

The ship shall be disarmed sufficiently and shall be rendered 
incapable of putting to sea so long as the war lasts, and its offi- 
cers and men shall be interned. 

The department of national defense shall determine how far 
the ship's officers and men may remain on board or shall be 
brought ashore. At all events so many of the crew as may be 
necessary to keep the ship in condition may remain on board. 
The ship's officers and men are to be placed under surveillance, 
and may not without special permission leave the place which is 
assigned to them. However, officers may retain their freedom 
if they give their parole not to leave the district limited to 
them. 

The national defense department is authorized to carry out 
such other restrictions as may be necessary by reason of the 
above. 

These orders go into force at once. 

Royal resolution in reference to belligerent submarines, October 

IS, 1916. 

Submarines, armed for Avar and belonging to belligerent pow- 
ers, may not travel in or remain in Norwegian sea territory. 
If they violate this prohibition they subject themselves to the 
possibility of seizure by armed force without warning. 

This prohibition does not prevent submarines by reason of 
adverse weather or damage from seeking Norwegian domain to 
save life. In such case the vessel shall, within the domain, re- 
main above the surface and shall fly the national flag and the 
international signal, indicating the reason of its approach. The 
vessel shall leave the domain as soon as the reason which brought 
about its arrival has ceased. 

Other submarines may not travel or remain in Norwegian sea 
territory, except in broad daylight in clear weather and above 
the surface with national flag flying. 



Panaman Neutrality. 195 

Foreign submarines, while traveling in Norwegian waters, 
must, because of the difficulties connected with distinguishing 
the different kinds of submarines, bear all risks of any damage, 
or even destruction, as the result of confusion of the ship's char- 
acter. 

This resolution goes into effect October 20, 1916. 

Royal ordinance, in reference to belligerent submarines January 

30, 1017. 

The royal ordinance dated October 13, 1916, respecting the move- 
ments or stay in Norwegian territorial waters, etc., of submarine 
craft equipped for use in war and belonging to a belligerent 
power has been so amended that on and after February 6, 1917, 
it shall read as follows : 

Submarines, equipped for use in war, and belonging to a bel- 
ligerent power, may not be navigated or remain in Norwegian 
territorial waters. Breach of this prohibition will render such 
vessels liable to attack by armed force without previous warning. 

This prohibition shall not prevent submarines from seeking 
Norwegian territorial waters on account of stress of weather, or 
damage, or in order to save human life ; when within territorial 
waters in such cases the vessel shall be kept at. the surface and 
shall fly her national flag and also the international signal indi- 
cating the reason of her presence. As soon as the reasons justi- 
fying the arrival of the vessel are no longer present, she shall 
depart from territorial waters. 

Submarines that are equipped for use in war and belong to a 
nonbelligerent foreign power, are also prohibited from navigating 
or remaining in Norwegian territorial waters, unless by daylight 
in clear weather, and in surface condition with their national 
flag displayed. 

PANAMA. 

Instructions from the Secretary of Foreign Affairs to port in- 
spectors relating to neutrality, October 24, 1914. 

No. S-4806.] 

Secretary of Foreign Affairs, 

Panama, October 24, 1914. 
Sir: On the 10th instant there was signed in Washington by 
the Secretary of State of the United States and the minister of 
Panama in said country the protocol, a copy of which I inclose to 
you. 1 

In order to carry it out in practice, it has been agreed with the 
authorities of the zone that the inspectors of the ports of the 

1 Naval War College, Int. Law Topics, 1916, p. 94. 



196 Action of Panama. 

Republic should inform directly the inspectors of the ports of the 
zone of any hospitality extended to the ships of belligerent na- 
tions, or of neutral nations used by belligerent nations for mili- 
tary purposes, reporting at the same time to the Government of 
Panama ; and that the inspectors of the ports of the zone should 
do the same to the inspectors of the ports of the Republic, re- 
porting at the same time to the government of the canal. 

All of which I take pleasure in informing you of for its proper 
fulfillment. 

I am, your attentive and sure servant, 

E. T. Lefevee. 
To the Inspector of the Poet, 

Chief of the National Preventive Service. 

Panama (also sent to same officials in Colon and Bocas del 
Toro ) . 

Proclamation of cooperation with the United States in war against 

Germany, April 7, 1917. 

Our indisputable duty in this tremendous hour of history is of a 
common ally, whose interests and existence as well are linked 
indissolubly with the United States. As the situation creates 
dangers for our country, it is the duty of the Panaman people 
to cooperate with all the energies and resources they can command 
for the protection of the canal and to safeguard national territory. 

The attitude of the people was foreseen and interpreted faith- 
fully in a resolution unanimously approved by the National Assem- 
bly on February 24, and confirmed by later laws, and the moment 
has arrived for the Executive to act in accordance with the decla- 
rations of the supreme body. I therefore declare that the Pana- 
man Nation will lend emphatic cooperation to the United States 
against enemies who execute or attempt to execute hostile acts 
against the territory of the canal, or in any manner affect or tend 
to affect the common interests. 

The Government will adopt adequate measures in accordance 
with the circumstances. I consider it the patriotic duty of all 
Panaman citizens to facilitate the military operations which the 
forces of the United States undertake within the limits of our 
country. Foreigners, resident or transient, will be obliged to 
submit to the conditions of this declaration. 

Ramon Valdez, President. 

Declaration of war against Austria-Hungary, December 10, 1917. 

The National Assembly of Panama : In view of the message of 
the President in which he advises the National Assembly of the 
declaration of war made by the Congress of the United States of 



Attitude of Peru. 197 

America on the Austro-Hungarian Empire and considering that 
the Republic of Panama has expressed before in its laws and 
resolutions its firm willingness to lend to the United States of 
America all the powers and cooperation it may be capable of in 
the present war, making common cause with the democratic na- 
tions which are fighting to impede the predominance of the world 
by the Teuton powers, be it 

Resolved, That the Republic of Panama be declared in a state 
of war from to-day, December 10, 1917, with the Austro-Hun- 
garian Empire. 

That the President be invested with the necessary powers to- 
cooperate with the United States of America in the prosecution 
of the war in accordance with the principles of international law.. 



PERU. 

Proclamation of attitude in war between United States and Ger- 
many, July 28, 1911. 

[U. S. Official Bulletin, No. 89, p. 1.] 
Address of M. Pardo, President of Peru, to Congress. 

President Wilson, in his message read before the American Con- 
gress on the 2d of last April, set forth the motives of intervention 
of his country in the European war and the plans pursued to save 
the principles of peace and justice in the world, declaring that the 
United States would be satisfied only when they have consolidated 
the faith in liberty which the nations can give, adding that they 
will fight for the triumph of democratic rights, for the liberty of 
those who are living under oppression and have no voice before 
their Governments, for the rights and liberties of the small 
nations, for the universal dominion of justice, and because the 
concert of all the people carry and assure peace and humanity, 
and may make the entire world positively free. 

Peru, which in all its acts of international life has endeavored 
to incorporate these principles of justice in the judicial and po- 
litical relations of the American people; Peru, which in a war 
not far back sacrificed for these ideals the blood of its sons, the 
richness of its treasuries, and the hope of its future, can not be 
indifferent to the words of President Wilson, and adheres once 
more to such noble purposes. 

The sufferings of humanity during these years of terrible war, 
which draws to her the more powerful and more peaceful democ- 
racy of the history, shall not have been sterile if with its effort 
there is raised the new building of international society upon the 
immovable foundation of justice and of respect to sovereignty. 



198 Breaking Diplomatic Relations, Peru. 

Brazil, Cuba, Bolivia, and Panama have suspended their diplo- 
matic relations with the central powers. 

Uruguay has taken the initiative that the South American 
States may receive in their ports American warships as brother 
nations and not belligerents, a concept compatible with terms of 
benevolent neutrality, to which act my Government has adhered 
to with sympathy. 

Notification of breaking diplomatic relations with Germany, Octo- 
ber 6, 1917. 

[U. S. Official Bulletin No. 131, p. 4] 

Francisco Tudela, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Peru, to the Secretary of 

State of the United States. 

Washington, October 6, 1917. 

Yotjk Excellency : From the beginning of the great war, in 
which the most powerful peoples of the world are involved, the 
Peruvian Government has strictly performed the duties imposed 
upon it by international law and has loyally maintained the neu- 
trality of the Republic, trusting that its neutral rights would in 
turn be respected by the belligerents. But when the conflagra- 
tion spread to the American continent, notwithstanding the efforts 
exerted for nearly three years by the United States Government 
to keep that great people out of the conflict, Peru was confronted 
by new duties springing from its passionate desire for the conti- 
nental solidarity that has ever been the goal of its foreign policy, 
and by the necessity of defending its rights from the new form of 
maritime warfare set up by Germany. 

That was the reason why, on receiving notice of the belliger- 
ency of the United States caused by the proceedings of the Berlin 
Government in violation of international law, the Peruvian Gov- 
ernment, far from declaring itself neutral, recognized the justice 
of the stand taken by the Washington Government. And for the 
same reason the President of Peru, in his message to Congress, 
and the minister for foreign affairs, in the Chamber of Deputies, 
with the express approval of the Parliament, solemnly affirmed 
the adhesion of our country to the principles of international jus- 
tice proclaimed by President Wilson. 

It was the Peruvian Government's wish that the policy of the 
whole continent be a concerted ratification of the attitude of the 
Washington Government, which took up the defense of neutral 
interests and insisted on the observance of international law. 
But the course of events did not result in joint action ; each coun- 
try shaped its course in defense of its own invaded rights as it 
was individually prompted in its adherence to the principles de- 
clared by the United States. 



Military Intervention, Portugal. 199 

Peru, for its part, while endeavoring to give prevalence to a 
uniform continental policy, maintained with the utmost firmness 
the integrity of its rights as a sovereign nation in the face of 
Germany's disregard of the principles of naval warfare. It was 
the defense of those rights which led it to sever its diplomatic 
relations with the Imperial Government as the result of an out- 
rage for which it duly but vainly claimed appropriate reparation : 
the sinking of the vessel Lorton by o. German submarine on the 
coast of Spain while the ship was plying between neutral ports, 
engaged in lawful trade, without infringing even the German rules 
rc-specting closed zones — unknown to international law. 

The reluctance of the Imperial Government to meet our just 
demands according to the general principles of international law ; 
the very arbitrary rules laid down by that Government; and the 
unsuccessful presentation of a precedent in an analogous claim 
favorably entertained by it — these are the facts in which Peru 
reads the complete lack of justice that marks the course of the 
German Government's policy and the sound foundation there is 
for the effort to check that policy, so as to establish in the world 
a juridical standard that will forever cause justice to prevail in 
international relations. 

The contents of this message and the documents which I shall 
forward to your excellency will enable your Government to ac- 
quaint itself with the fundamental grounds upon which our atti- 
tude rests, and also with the negotiations with Germany above 
referred to, which the Government has now brought to an end by 
recalling the minister of the Republic at Berlin and delivering his 
passports to the representative of Germany at this capital, with 
the express approval of the Parliament. 

I avail myself of this opportunity to tender to your excellency 
the assurances of my high and distinguished consideration. 

Francisco Tudela. 



PORTUGAL. 

Law authorizing military intervention, November 24, 1914- 1 
[Colecgao Oficial de Legislagao Portuguesa, 1914, 2 : 591.] 

President of the Ministry. — Law No. 283. 

In the name of the nation, the congress of the Republic decrees 
and has promulgated the following law : 

Single Article. The executive power is authorized to intervene 
by military measures in the present international conflict at the 
time and in the manner it should judge necessary for our high 

1 By law No. 275, of Aug. 8, 1914, the Executive had been authorized, 
in view of the emergency, to take measures for " insuring order and 
safeguarding the national interests, as well as to meet any extraordinary 
emergency of an economic and financial character." This authority was 



200 Portuguese Action, 1916. 

interests and duties as a free nation and ally of England 1 and 
for the same end to take any extraordinary steps which the cir- 
cumstances of the moment may demand. 

Let the ministers of all departments have it printed, published, 
and circulated. 

Given at the seat of the government of the Republic and pub- 
lished November 24, 1914. 

Manuel de Arriaga. 

Bernardino Machado. 

Eduardo Augusta de Sousa Monteiro. 

Antonio dos Santos Lucas. 

Antonio Julio da Costa Pereira de E$a. 

Augusto Eduardo Neuparth. 

A. Freire de Andrade. 

Joao Maria de Almeida Lima. 

Alfredo Augusto Lisboa de Lima. 

Jose de Matos Sobral Cid. 
(D. do G. No. 220, Suppl. e No. 221.) 

Decree relating to the requisition of cargoes on enemy vessels, 

April 20, 1916. 2 

[London Gazette, May 30, 1916, p. 5320. 8 ] 

Foreign Office, May 21, 1916. 
With reference to the notification which was published in the 
London Gazette of the 25th ultimo, a translation is now appended 

continued by law No. 292, Jan. 15, 1915, law No. 317, June 5, 1915, 
and law No. 373, Sept. 2, 1915. 

By decree No. 2229, Feb. 23, 1916, authorized by law No. 480, Feb. 7, 
1916 (base 10), provision was made for requisitioning merchant vessels 
in Portuguese ports. In successive decrees, German vessels were requisi- 
tioned as follows : 

Feb. 24, 1916, decree No. 2236, 35 vessels at Lisbon. 

Feb. 25, 1916, decree No. 2240, 1 vessel on the Douro River at Oporto. 

Mar. 1, 1916, decree No. 2243, 3 vessels at Ponto Delgada, St. Miguel, 
and 3 vessels at Horta, Fayal, Azores. 

Mar. 3, 1916, decree No. 2251, 1 vessel at Setubal. 

Mar. 6, 1916, decree No. 2258, 3 vessels at Loando, Angola. 

Mar. 6, 1916, decree No. 2259, 8 vessels at St. Vincent, Cape Verde. 

Mar. 6, 1916, decree No. 2260, 4 vessels at Funchal, Madeira. 

Mar. 6, 1916, decree No. 2257, 5 vessels at Mormugao, India. 

Apr. 14, 1916, decree No. 2332, 7 vessels at Mozambique. 

Austrian vessels were requisitioned as follows : 

July 10, 1916, decree No. 2251, 1 vessel at Mormugao. 

Apr. 29, 1916, decree No. 2358, 1 vessel. 

These vessels were given Portuguese names by Portaria Nos. 616, 670, 
677, of Mar. 15, May 18, and May 26, 1916. 

1 For treaties of alliance between Portugal and Great Britain, 1373- 
1812, see British and Foreign State Papers, 1 : 462 et seq. 

2 For Italian decrees relating to treatment of goods found on seized 
German vessels May 11, 1916, see London Gazette, May 12, 1916, p. 
4692, and June 30, 1916, p. 6493. 

8 A preliminary notification of this decree appeared in the London 
Gazette. Apr. 25, 1916, p. 4192. 



Enemy Vessels and Cargoes. 201 

of the articles of the Portuguese decree of April 20, 1916, relating 
to the release of allied and neutral cargoes on German vessels 
seized by the Portuguese Government. 

His Majesty's minister at Lisbon reports that cargoes on Aus- 
trian vessels will be released in the same manner as those on 
German vessels, and that delivery orders formerly issued by the 
enemy shipowners to cargo owners, with a view to the latter 
taking possession of their goods, will be accepted by the Portu- 
guese authorities as evidence of title. 

(Translation.) 

Regulations with regard to enemy vessels and their cargoes. 1 

Aet. 32. Merchandise belonging to allies or to neutrals found 
on board these ships or discharged from them shall be delivered 
with or without guarantee, by the procurator of the Republic of 
the respective judicial districts, provided always that the Gov- 
ernment have the right to requisition it on payment of an indem- 
nity. Delivery shall be requested from that officer within a 
period of 30 days without prejudice of postponement authorized 
by the Minister of Finance in special cases. 

(1) The guarantee shall always be demanded when the owner 
is unable to present shipping documents in proper form, there 
being applicable to such a case the provisions of the second para- 
graph of article 478 of the decree of the 31st January, 1889. 

(2) The decision of the procurator of the Republic shall be 
communicated to the Ministry of Finance and the order for de- 
livery, should there be one, will be given to the interested party 
and for all purposes shall take the place of the ordinary bill of 
lading as regards the customshouse or other authorities. 

Art. 33. Should the neutral or friendly character of goods on 
board an enemy vessel or discharged therefrom not be clearly 
established or should the owner not be known, the goods shall be 
presumed to be enemy property. 

Art. 34. The prize court shall decide in accordance with estab- 
lished procedure all difficulties which may arise regarding the 
nationality or regarding the storage, care, or delivery of mer- 
chandise referred to in the previous articles. 

Art. 35. The tribunals of commerce shall be competent to try 
and judge prize cases in accordance with article 179 of the Com- 
mercial Code. 

(1) The judgment shall always be delivered by the Tribunal 
of Commerce of Lisbon even though the case may have been tried 
in the colonial tribunals of commerce. 

(2) The proceedings shall be in summary form in accordance 
with the terms of decree No. 3 of the 29th May, 1907, and the 

1 Decree No. 2350, chap. 4. 



202 Contraband^ Portuguese Declaration. 

judge, should he not be in Lisbon, should conclude the case within 
the 24 hours stipulated in article 10 of the same decree. 

(3) There shall be neither costs nor stamps in these proceed- 
ings. 

Aet. 36. The State shall be represented before the prize courts 
by the Public Ministry and the interested party, should he be an 
enemy or an assignee of one, by the agent appointed to take 
charge of the cargo, when the case relates to merchandise, or by 
a lawyer appointed by the judge when the case relates to a ship. 

Decree relating to contraband, August 14, 1916. 1 
[London Gazette, Sept. 8, 1916, p. 8805.] 

Foeeign Office, September 7, 1916. 

The Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs has received from 
His Majesty's Minister at Lisbon the following translation of a 
decree dated August 14, 1916, and published in the Portuguese 
Official Gazette of the same date, declaring certain goods to be 
contraband under certain conditions. 

Aeticle 1. The goods enumerated in the list annexed to this 
decree are declared to be contraband of war when they come 
under the conditions provided for in the following articles : 

Aet. 2. The goods mentioned in the preceding article are con- 
sidered contraband of war when they are destined either di- 
rectly or indirectly to enemy territory or their allies' territory. 

Aet. 3. Besides goods the enemy destination of which is clearly 
shown by documents, those which are carried by vessels bound to 
or calling at enemy ports or ports of their allies shall be con- 
sidered as directly destined to enemy territory. 

Aet. 4. Goods are considered as directly destined to enemy 
territory : 

(a) When they are destined to neutral ports, but consigned to 
the enemy or their allies, to their agents or recognized inter- 
mediaries, or to persons acting under their orders or directions 
or who may be under their influence. 

(b) When they are destined to neutral ports, not comprised 
in the preceding subclause, but whose final destination to enemy 
territory may be deduced from the evident deviation from their 
normal course of the conveying vessel or when it is proved by 
any other means. 

The conveyance of goods to a country adjacent to enemy terri- 
tory or from which it is notorious that the latter obtains sup- 
plies of merchandise which the importing country in question has 
already imported in quantities exceeding its highest imports for 
the last three years, shall be considered as a well-founded as- 
surance of the above enemy destination. 

1 Supplementary to decree No. 2, Sept. 27, 1894. 



Action of noumania, 203 

Art. 5. Besides any other goods which shall be considered as 
such, the following shall always be considered as legitimate 
prizes : 

(a) Ships carrying contraband of war the value, weight, size, 
or freight of which amounts to more than half the value, weight, 
size, or freight of her cargo ; 

(b) Ships on their return voyage after having carried con- 
traband in the manner described in the preceding subclause; 

(c) Ships not included in subclauses (a) and (&), habitually 
employed in contraband traffic or other traffic which may be 
qualified as that of rendering assistance to the enemy ; , 

(d) Ships of enemy ownership which by their build, arma- 
ment, or internal disposition and fittings may be converted into 
ships of war. 

Aet. 6. Goods not considered contraband of war, but being 
actually the property of the enemy or their allies, may be seized 
whilst on board neutral ships, whatever port they may be bound 
to, and shall be deposited and dealt with in accordance, with the 
terms of the decree No. 2350 of the 20th of April, 1916, and other 
enactments in force. 

Aet. 7. In other cases which have not been provided for in 
this decree or other national legislation in force, the provisions 
bearing on the subject contained in the legislation of the allied 
nations, as well as the general principles of public international 
law shall be applicable. 

Aet. 8. The present decree shall come into force immediately 
and all legislation contrary thereto is hereby revoked. 

Seat of the Government of the Republic, 

U/th August, 1916. 

(There follows a list containing 73 classes of articles regarded 
as contraband of war.) 

ROUMANIA. 

Declaration of war against Austria, 9 p. m,., August 27, 1916. 1 

[The Times (London) History of the War, 9:430; Rev. Gen., Doc., 

23:197.] 

Note Handed to the Austro-Hungarian Minister at Bucharest, August 27, 1916. 

The Alliance concluded between Germany, Austria-Hungary, 
and Italy had, according to the precise statements of the govern- 

1 "Amsterdam, August 28 y 1916. 
" A Vienna telegram states that last night the Roumanian Minister 
In Vienna visited the Austro-Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 
order to present a note according to which Roumania, as from August 27, 
at 9 o'clock in the evening, considered herself in a state of war with 
Austria-Hungary." (London Times, Aug. 29, 1916, p. 7, e. See also 
Journ. Off., Sept. 5, 1916, p. 7959.) 



204 War against Austria^ Roumania. 

merits themselves, only an essentially conservative and defensive 
character. Its principal object was to guarantee the allied coun- 
tries against any attack from outside and to consolidate the state 
of things created by previous treaties. It was with the desire to 
harmonize her policy with these pacific tendencies that Roumania 
joined that alliance. Devoted to the work of her internal consti- 
tution and faithful to her firm resolution to remain in the region 
of the lower Danube an element of order and equilibrium, Rou- 
mania has not ceased to contribute to the maintenance of peace 
in the Balkans. The last Balkan wars, by destroying the status 
quo, imposed upon her a new. line of conduct. Her intervention 
gave peace and reestablished the equilibrium. For herself she 
was satisfied with a rectification of the frontier which gave her 
greater security against aggression, and which, at the same time 
repaired the injustice committed to her detriment at the Congress 
of Berlin. But in the pursuit of this aim Roumania was disap- 
pointed to observe that she did not meet from the cabinet of 
Vienna the attitude that she was entitled to expect. 

When the present war broke out Roumania, like Italy, declined 
to associate herself with the declaration of war -by Austria-Hun- 
gary, of which she had not been notified by the cabinet of Vienna. 
In the spring of 1915 Italy declared war against Austria-Hungary. 
The Triple Alliance no longer existed. The reasons which deter- 
mined the adherence of Roumania to this political system disap- 
peared. At the same time, in place of a grouping of States seek- 
ing by common efforts to work in agreement in order to assure 
peace and the conservation of the situation de facto and de jure 
created by treaties, Roumania found herself in presence of powers 
making war on each other for the sole purpose of transforming 
from top to bottom the old arrangements which had served as a 
basis for their treaty of alliance. 

These profound changes were for Roumania an evident proof 
that the object that she had pursued in joining the Triple Alliance 
could no longer be attained, and that she must direct her views 
and her efforts toward new paths, the more so as the work under- 
taken by Austria-Hungary assumed a character threatening the 
essential interests of Roumania, as well as her most legitimate 
national aspirations. 

In the presence of so radical a modification of the situation 
between the Austro-Hungarian monarchy and Roumania the latter 
resumed her liberty of action. 

The neutrality which the Royal Government imposed upon itself 
in consequence of a declaration of war made independent of its 
will and contrary to its interests was adopted, in the first in- 
stance, as a result of assurances given at the outset by the Im- 
perial and Royal Government that the monarchy, in declaring war 
upon Serbia, was not inspired by a spirit of conquest, and that 



Reasons for Declaration. 205 

it had absolutely no territorial acquisitions in view. These assur- 
ances were not realized. To-day we are confronted by a situation 
de facto from which may arise great territorial transformations 
and political changes of a nature to constitute a grave menace to 
the security and future of Roumania. 

The work of peace which Roumania, faithful to the spirit of 
the triple alliance, had attempted to accomplish was thus rendered 
barren by those who themselves were called upon to support and 
defend it. 

In adhering, in 1883, to the group of central powers, Roumania, 
far from forgetting the ties of blood uniting the people of her 
kingdom to those Roumanians who are subject to the Austro-Hun- 
garian monarchy, saw in the relations of friendship and alliance 
which were established between the three great powers a precious 
pledge for her domestic tranquillity, as well as for the improve- 
ment of the lot of the Roumanians of Austria-Hungary. In effect, 
Germany and Italy, who had reconstituted their States on the 
basis of the principle of nationality, could not but recognize the 
legitimacy of the foundation on which their own existence reposed. 

As for Austria-Hungary, she found in friendly relations estab- 
lished between her and the Kingdom of Roumania assurances for 
her tranquillity both in her interior and on our common frontiers, 
for she was bound to know to what an extent the discontent of 
her Roumanian population found in an echo among us, threatening 
every moment to trouble the good relations between the two 
States. 

The hope that we based from this point of view upon our ad- 
hesion to the triple alliance remained unfulfilled during more 
than 30 years. The Roumanians of the monarchy not only never 
saw any reform introduced of a nature to give them even the sem- 
blance of satisfaction, but, on the contrary, they were treated 
as an inferior race, and condemned to suffer the oppression of a 
foreign element which constitutes only a minority in the. midst of 
the diverse nationalities constituting the Austro-Hungarian State. 
All the injustices which our brothers were thus made to suffer 
maintained between our country and the monarchy a continual 
state of animosity, which the Government of the kingdom only 
succeeded in appeasing- at the cost of great difficv .aes and numer- 
ous sacrifices. 

When the present war broke out it might have been hoped that 
the Austro-Hungarian Government, at least at the last moment, 
would end by convincing itself of the urgent necessity of putting 
an end to this injustice, which endangered not only our relations 
of friendship, but even the normal relations which ought to exist 
between neighboring States. Two years of war, during which 
Roumania has preserved her neutrality, proved that Austria- 
Hungary, hostile to all domestic reform that might ameliorate 



206 Russian Note on German Declaration. 

the life of the peoples she governs, showed herself as prompt to 
sacrifice them as she was powerless to defend them against ex- 
ternal attacks. The war, in which almost the whole of Europe 
is taking part, raises the gravest problems affecting the national 
development and the very existence of States. Roumania, from 
a desire to contribute in hastening the end of the conflict, and 
governed by the necessity of safeguarding her racial interests, 
finds herself forced, to enter into line by the side of those who 
are able to assure her the realization of her national unity. For 
these reasons she considers herself from this moment in a state 
of war with Austria-Hungary. 



RUSSIA. 

Note relating to declaration of war by Germany, August 2, 1914* 

[Russian Orange Book.] 

No. 78. — The Minster of Foreign Affairs to the Representatives of His 
Majesty the Emperor Abroad. 

[Telegram.] 

St. Peteesbtjeg, 20 July-2 August, 191J h 
It is absolutely clear that Germany is already endeavoring to 
throw upon us the responsibility of the rupture. Our mobiliza- 
tion was provoked by the enormous responsibility which we 
should have incurred if we had not taken all precautionary meas-^ 
ures at a moment when Austria, confining herself to pourparlers 
that were only meant to gain time, was bombarding Belgrade and 
proceeding to a general mobilization. 

His Majesty the Emperor had undertaken, by giving his per- 
sonal word to the Emperor of Germany, not to undertake any 
aggressive act so long as the pourparlers with Austria should 
continue. After such a guarantee, and after all the proofs of 
Russia's love for peace, Germany could not and had no right to 
doubt our declaration that we would accept with joy any pacific 
issue compatible with the dignity and independence of Serbia. 
Any other solution would be completely incompatible with our 
own dignity and would certainly have shaken European equilib- 
rium' by insuring the hegemony of Germany. This European, 
even world-wide, character of the conflict* is infinitely more im- 
portant than the pretext which created it. By its decision to de- 
clare war upon us at a moment when the negotiations between the 
powers were still being carried on, Germany has assumed a heavy 
responsibility. 

Sazonoff. 



Break of Russo-TurkisK Relations. 207 

Note breaking diplomatic relations with Turkey, October 29, 1914. 

[Second Russian Orange Book.] 

No. 91. Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs to Russian Ambassador at Con- 
stantinople. 

L Telegram.] 

Peteograd, October 16 (29), 19 U. 

The Turks opened hostilities against the unfortified port of 
Theodosia and the gunboat stationed at the port of Odessa. 

Consequently, you will please take steps for the departure of 
our consular officers, placing the protection of our interests in the 
hands of the Italian ambassador. 

In this connection you will inform the Porte that as a result 
of the said hostilities you have been ordered to leave Constanti- 
nople with all of your subordinate officers. 

Communicate to Bordeaux, London, Nish, Sofia, Bucharest, 
Rome, Athens, and Cettinje. 

Sazonoff. 

Notification of breaking diplomatic relations ivith Turkey, No- 
vember 2, 1914- 

[British Pari. Pap. Misc. No. 13 (1914). See also 2nd Russian Orange 

Book No. 97.] 

No. 182. — Telegram Communicated by Count Benckendorff on November 

2, 1914. 

[Translation.] 

M. Sazonof telegraphs on November 1, 1914, as follows : 
" The Turkish charge d'affaires has just read me the follow- 
ing telegram from the Grand Vizier : ' I request you to inform 
the minister for foreign affairs that we infinitely regret that an 
act of hostility, provoked by the Russian fleet, should have com- 
promised the friendly relations of the two countries. You can 
assure the Imperial Russian Government that the Sublime Porte 
will not fail to give the question such solution as it entails, and 
that they will adopt fitting measures to prevent a recurrence of 
similar acts. You can declare forthwith to the minister that 
we have resolved no more to allow the Imperial fleet to enter the 
Black Sea, and that we trust that the Russian fleet, on their 
side, will no longer cruise in our waters. I have the firm hope 
that the Imperial Russian Government will give proof, on this 
occurrence, of the same spirit of conciliation in the common in- 
terests of both countries.' 

11 1 replied to the Turkish charg§ d'affaires that I most cate- 
gorically denied what he had just said respecting the initiation 



208 Russian Ultimatum to Bulgaria. 

of hostilities by the Russian fleet ; I told him that I feared it 
was too late to negotiate ; that nevertheless, if the Sublime Porte 
decided upon the immediate dismissal of all the German military 
and naval officers and men it might be possible to consider the 
question, and that discussion might not be impossible to reach 
some basis of satisfaction to be given by Turkey for the illegal 
act of agression against our coasts and for the damage thereby 
inflicted. 

" I authorized Fahr-Eddin to send a cipher telegram in this 
sense, but pointed out to him at the same time that the repre- 
sentation he had made in no way altered the situation. Fahr- 
Eddin will receive his passports to-morrow, and the reply from 
the Turkish Government can be sent through the Italian Em- 
bassy." 

Note on the occasion of war with Turkey, November 8, 1914- 
[Rev. Gen., Doc. 22 : 6.] 

Germany and Austria, in their futile struggle against Russia 
have sought to incite Turkey against that power. Immediately 
after the perfidious attack by the Turkish fleet conducted by Ger- 
man officers, the Russian Ambassadors at Constantinople received 
orders to leave the Ottoman Empire with all the personnel of the 
embassy and of the Russian consulates. It is with a perfect and 
confident tranquillity, and invoking the aid of God, that Russia 
will meet this new aggression of the ancient persecutors of the 
Christian religion and all Slav peoples. It is not for the first 
time that the valiant armies of Russia will have triumphed over 
the Turkish hordes. They will know again how to chastise the 
reckless enemy of our fatherland. 

Ultimatum to Bulgaria, October 3, 1915. 

Foreign Office to Russian Minister in Bulgaria. 

The events which are taking place in Bulgaria at this moment 
give evidence of a definite decision of King Ferdinand's govern- 
ment to place the fate of its country in the hands of Germany. 

The presence of German and Austrian officers at the ministry 
of war and on the staff of the army, the concentration of troops in 
the zone bordering Serbia, and the extensive financial support ac- 
cepted from our enemies by the Sofia cabinet no longer leave any 
doubt as to the object of the military preparations of Bulgaria. 

The powers of the entente, who have at heart the realization of 
the aspirations of the Bulgarian people, have on many occasions 
warned M. Radoslavoff that any hostile act against Serbia would 
be considered as directed against themselves. The assurances 
given by the head of the Bulgarian cabinet in reply to these 
warnings are contradicted by the facts. 



Proclamation of War against Bulgaria. 209 

The representative of Russia, which is bound to Bulgaria by the 
imperishable memory of her liberation from the Turkish yoke, 
can not sanction by his presence preparations for fratricidal ag- 
gression against a Slav and allied people. The Russain minister 
has, therefore, received orders to leave Bulgaria with all the staffs 
of legation and consulates if the Bulgarian Government does not 
within 24 hours openly break with the enemies of the Slav cause 
and of Russia and does not at once proceed to send away officers 
belonging to armies of States which are at war with the powers 
of the entente. 

Notification of breaking diplomatic relations with Bulgaria, 

October 7, 1915. 

Bulgaria's reply to the Russian ultimatum is unsatisfactory. 
The Russian minister has notified Premier Radoslavoff of a rup- 
ture of diplomatic relations between the two countries. 

Russian interests in Bulgaria have been confided to the Dutch 
charge* d'affaires. 

Bulgaria's reply was delivered at 2.40 o'clock on the afternoon 
of October 5 (Tuesday). 

Proclamation of war against Bulgaria, October 19, 1915. 

We hereby make known to all our loyal subjects that the treason 
of Bulgaria to the Slav cause, prepared with perfidy since the 
beginning of the war, has now, although it seemed impossible, 
become an accomplished fact. Bulgarian troops have attacked 
our loyal ally, Serbia, already bleeding in the struggle against a 
stronger enemy. 

Russia and the great powers, our allies, tried to dissuade the 
Government of Ferdinand of Coburg from taking this fatal step. 
The realization of the ancient aspirations of the Bulgar people 
regarding the annexation of Macedonia was assured to Bulgaria 
by other means, in conformity with Slav interests, but underhand 
methods prompted by the Germans and fratricidal hatred of the 
Serbians triumphed. 

Bulgaria, our coreligionist, liberated but a short time ago from 
the Turkish yoke by the fraternal love of the Russian people, 
openly took sides with the enemies of the Christian faith, Slavism, 
and Russia. 

The Russian people regard with sorrow the treason of Bulgaria, 
which was so near to it until these last few days, and, with 
bleeding heart, it draws its sword against her, leaving the fate of 
the betrayer of the Slav cause to the just punishment of God. 
43760—18 14 



210 Attitude of Salvador, Serbia. 

Notification of mined area, November 5, 1914. 

Ambassador Marye to the Secretary of State. 

[Telegram.] 

American Embassy, 
Petrograd, November 5, 1914. 
Russian Government officially notifies embassy that it has placed- 
mines in zone from fifty-eight fifty north latitude and to east of 
twenty-first meridian also at entrance of Gulf of Riga and around 
Aland Islands and consequently entrance and exit of Finnish and 
Riga Gulfs forbidden. 

Marye. 

SALVADOR. 

Attitude on tvar between United States and Germany, October 6, 

1917. 

San Salvador, Salvador, October 6. 

The United States Government has made an inquiry in regard 
to the significance, of the declaration by the Government of Sal- 
vador of neutrality friendly to the United States. 

The foreign office has replied that Salvador considers herself 
associated with the United States by reason of her sentiments in 
favor of Pan-Americanism, in the World struggle. 



SERBIA. 

Notification of Austro-Hungarian breaking of diplomatic relations, 

July 25, 1914. 

[Serbian Blue Book.] 

No. 41. — M. Pashtich, Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs, to All 

the Royal Legations. 

Belgrade, July 12-25, 1914- 
To-day at 5.45 p. m. I delivered the answer to the Austro-Hun- 
garian note. 1 You will receive to-night the exact text. You will 
see that we have gone as far as we could go, even to the extreme 
limit. When he received the note, the minister of Austria-Hun- 
gary declared that he must compare it with the instructions and 
that he would give me the answer immediately. As. soon as I 
had returned to the ministry, the minister of Austria-Hungary in- 

1 Supra, p. 42. 



Serbian Note to Germany. 211 

formed me by letter that he was not satisfied with our answer, 
and that he would leave Belgrade this very evening with all the 
personnel of the legation. He intrusts to the minister of Germany 
the protection of the legation with all the furnishings and the 
archives, as well as the protection of the Austro-Hungarian sub- 
jects and interests in Serbia. Finally, he states that by the de- 
livery of his letter diplomatic relations between Serbia and 
Austria-Hungary are completely broken. 

The Royal Government has summoned the Skupshtina for the 
14-27 of July at Nish, whither are going to-night all the ministries 
with their officials. In the name of the King, the Hereditary 
Prince has signed the order of mobilization for the army ; to- 
morrow or the day following, a proclamation will be published in 
which citizens who are not soldiers are invited to remain quietly 
at home, and the soldiers to join the colors and to defend Serbia 
in the measure of their strength, in case she should be attacked. 

Note breaking diplomatic relations with Germain/, August 6, 191J,. 

[Serbian Blue Book.] 

No. 50. The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Serbia to the German Legation 

at Nish. 

Nish., July 24 (August 6), 191',. 
The royal ministry of foreign affairs has the honor to inform 
the imperial legation of Germany that, owing to the state of war 
existing between Serbia and Austria-Hungary, ally of Germany, as 
well as the state of war existing between Russia and Germany, 
ally of Austria-Hungary, the royal Government of Serbia, uniting 
itself with Russia and its allies, considers as ended the mission 
in Serbia of his excellency, Baron Griesiner, envoy extraordinary 
and minister plenipotentiary of Germany. The Government begs 
his excellency to leave, with the staff of the legation, the terri- 
tory of Serbia, and gives him herewith the necessary passports. 

Notice of breaking diplomatic relations with Bulgaria, October 

8, 1915. 

[London Times, Oct. 13, 1915, p. 9, f.] 

According to an official message which we have received from 
Nish, the Bulgarian minister to Serbia was handed his passports 
on Friday (October 8, 1915). 

Notification of a state of war with, Bulgaria, October 16, 19],',. 
[Rev, Gen., Doc, 23 : 150.] 

Serbia, having been attacked by the Bulgars without declara- 
tion of war on t lie pari of the Government at Sofia, is obliged to 
consider herself as being, by the force of circumstances, in a 



212 Spanish Decree on Submarines. 

state of war with Bulgaria. The official date of the state of war 
between Serbia and Bulgaria is October 14, 1915, at 8 o'clock in 
the morning. 

SIAM. 

Notification of declaration of war against Germany and Austria- 
Hungary, July 22, 1917. 1 

[IT. S. Official Bulletin, No. 62, p. 1.] 

A telegram to the Department of State from the American lega- 
tion at Bangkok, dated July 22, states that Siam declared war 
against Germany and Austria about 6 o'clock that day. German 
and Austrian subjects were being interned. The German and 
Austrian legations were protected by special guards. All German 
ships were interned at once. 



SPAIN. 

Exposition of decree relating to the treatment of submarine ves- 
sels in neutral jurisdiction. June 29, 1917. 2 

[Am. Jour. Int. Law, Supp. 11 : 175.] 
Office of the Prime Minister. 

exposition. 

Sir : Realizing the convenience of definitely fixing the rules to 
which Spain, as a neutral power, during the actual war conditions 
should adjust its conduct, it was declared by royal decree of 
November 23, 1914, that for the purpose of the neutrality pro- 
claimed by Spain in relation to the present war, all authorities 
and state officials should adjust their conduct and their order to 
the precept contained in the XIII Hague Convention of 1907, rela- 
tive to the rights and duties of neutral powers in case of mari- 
time war, which convention was provisionally accepted by Spain 
until the restoration of peace. 

By virtue of that decree, which has not been modified heretofore 
by any special provisions, the Spanish Government has been 
applying the rules established by The Hague convention both 
generally and, in many instances, subsidiarily, inasmuch as the 
application of the provisions of several of the articles of that 

1 A Reuter dispatch of July 23 1917, says the object of the declaration 
was " to uphold the sanctity of international rights against nations show- 
ing contempt for the principles of humanity and respect for small States." 

2 Annex to the royal circular order No. 601. 



Basis of Spanish Decree. 213 

pact is limited to the circumstance of there being no special pro- 
visions in the laws of the interested neutral power. 

This legal condition, in force within Spanish ports and jurisdic- 
tional waters, could not, however, assume an immutable char- 
acter. Aside from the sovereign powers of a state, especially in 
matters to which it did not bind itself by any international agree- 
ment, it is acknowledged in the preamble of the same Hague 
convention that each nation has the power to modify the pre- 
cepts contained therein in case actual experience should reveal 
the necessity to do so in order to safeguard its rights. 

This case, in the opinion of Your Majesty's Government, is at 
hand ; the Government has been able fully to realize that the 
rules set forth in XIII Hague Convention of 1907, relative to the 
rights and duties of neutral powers in case of maritime war, not- 
withstanding the fact that they were the outcome of carefully 
thought-out negotiations and compromise between opposite points 
of view brought into the discussion of the second peace confer- 
ence by the delegates of the powers, yet they do not fully answer 
any more the purpose which inspired them, due to the evolu- 
tion — more rapid in point of fact than in point of law — of the 
military elements used by the belligerent powers. Special atten- 
tion is called to the extremely general character of the principles- 
laid down in said convention, there being no provisions for cer- 
tain cases which either were not foreseen in 1907 or it was not 
presumed that they could assume the importance they have in 
later times acquired in practice. 

Such is the case with the employment of submarines in the 
present war. The means at the disposal of these vessels, and 
their use in destructive operations, to an extent and with a range 
which could not be foreseen by those legislators — a use which 
has been the subject of express reservations and protests of 
neutral nations, among them Spain — have changed, in the opinion 
of Your Majesty's Government, the legal bases on which some of 
the provisions of the Hague Convention found their existence. 

And if, while this convention has up to the present time been 
in force among us, the Government, following the example of 
other neutral nations, some of them already belligerents, has 
faithfully and loyally applied its principles, the experience re- 
peatedly acquired advises — having in view the national con- 
venience^ — the amendment of some of its articles, leaving in force 
all those which are not affected by such amendment, to serve as 
a doctrinal body and compilation of legal precepts which have 
been unexcelled until now. 

Your Majesty's Government does not pretend to set down as 
permanent and invariable any definition of principles. Happier 
days will arise, when the nations shall rise to establish those rules 
which shall better satisfy universal judicial conscience in regard 



214 Spanish Regulations on Submarines. 

to such important and transcendental matters of public inter- 
national law; but in the meantime the Government would not 
fulfill its most sacred mission if, conscious of its duty to Spain, it 
should not safeguard its rights and interests and forestall the 
dangers which an omission ^in its foresightedness might bring 
upon the nation which your majesty rules with such great love 
and high discernment of its needs. 

To this end, in accord with the members of the cabinet, and 
maintaining in force all those provisions of the aforesaid XIII 
Hague Convention which are not affected thereby I have the 
honor to submit to Your Majesty, as an addition thereto, and 
with the provisional and limited character determined by article 
1. of the royal decree of November 23, 1914, the following project 
of decree. 

Sir : At the royal feet of Your Majesty, 

Eduardo DaTo. 

Madrid, June 29, 1911. 

Royal decree relating to the treatment of submarine vessels in 
neutral jurisdiction, June 29, 1917. 

[Am. .Tour. Int. LaAV, Supp. 11 ; 177.] 
ROYAL DECREE. 

At the proposal of my cabinet of ministers, I hereby decree as 
follows : 

Article I. All submarine vessels of any kind whatsoever, of 
belligerent powers, are hereby forbidden to navigate in Spanish 
jurisdictional waters, or to enter the ports of this nation. 

Art. II. All submarine vessels referred to in the preceding 
article entering Spanish jurisdictional waters for any cause 
whatsoever shall be interned until the end of the war. 

Art. III. Neutral submarines entering Spanish waters shall 
do so navigating on the surface and displaying conspicuously 
their national flag. 

Art. IV. The royal decree of November 23, 1914, 1 shall remain 
in force as to all of its provisions not modified hereby. 

Given at the palace this 29th day of June, 1917. 

Alfonso. 

The Prime Minister, 

Eduardo Dato. 

1 This decree declared XIII Hague Convention, 1907, concerning the 
rights and duties of neutral powers in naval war, operative. [155 Boletin 
de Legislacion, 1914, 75.) 



Swedish Regulations* 215 

SWEDEN. 

Decree relating to mined area, July 14, 1916. 

[British Pari. Pap., Misc. No. 8 (1917).] 
By a decree dated the 14th July, Swedish Government gives no- 
tice that mine field laid down in Kogrundsrannan, which is new 
fairway round Falsterbo mine' field, situated between latitude 
north 55° 26', and north 55° 28', and between longitude east 
12° 47' 8", and east 12° 50' 5". Fairway may only be navigated 
by Swedish warships or any other ships in the service of Swedish 
State, Swedish merchant vessels engaged in regular coastwise 
traffic through sound, Swedish merchant ships bound to Swedish 
Baltic ports carrying cargo only to such port or in ballast and 
vice versa, finally, Swedish boats, including vessels less than 20 
tons register, going from one Swedish port to another. All mer- 
chant vessels desiring to pass through mine field must anchor be- 
fore arriving mine field, in order to obtain permission to pass. 
Notice comes in force to-morrow. There are several other provi- 
sions of less importance connected with pilotage, etc. 

Decree relating to the sojourn of war submarine vessels, amenda- 
tory to decree of December 20, 1912, 1 July 19, 1916. . 

[British Pari. Pap., Misc. No. 8 (1917).] 

We, Gustaf, etc., 

Submarines belonging to foreign powers and equipped for use 
in warfare 2 may not navigate or lie in Swedish territorial waters 
within 3 nautical minutes (5,556 meters) from land or from ex- 
treme outlying skerries, which are not continuously washed over 
by the sea, under peril of being attacked by armed force without 
previous warning ; exception is, however, made for the passage 
through Oresund between parallels of latitude drawn in the north, 
through Viking Light (latitude, north 56° 8' 7"), and, in the 
south, through Klagshamm Light (latitude, north 55° 31' 2"). 

In the event of a submarine being compelled through bad 
weather or shipwreck to enter the forbidden area, the above regu- 
lation is not applicable, always provided that the vessel while 
within the mentioned area, shall remain above the surface and 

1 Similar to Danish decree, Dec. 20, 19t2 (International Law Topics, 
1910, p. 49), and Norwegian decree, Dec. 18, 1912, supra, p. 184. 

2 Replying to a British protest of Aug. 30, 1916, which questioned 
whether " the periscope or even the conning tower of a commercial sub- 
marine can be distinguished from those of a belligerent submarine," the 
Swedish minister of foreign affairs said in a note of Sept. 9, 1916 : " In 
accordance with the regulations issued in connection with the decree on 
the treatment of submarines, every submarine is treated as a belligerent 
submarine unless its employment for commercial purposes is definitely 

•proved by known facts." (British Pari. Pap., Misc. No. 8 (1917).) 



216 Siviss Neutrality Declaration. 

fly its national flag as well as the international signal indicating 
the cause of its presence. The vessel shall leave the area as soon 
as possible after the reason for its presence there has ceased to 
exist. 

This decree shall come into force on the 28th July, 1916. 

Saro, July 19, 1916. 

GlJSTAF. 

SWITZERLAND. 

Declaration of neutrality, December 12, 1917. 

[Official Bulletin, No. 186, p. 2.] 

Swiss Minister of Foreign Affairs to United States Charge Affaires. 

December 12, 1917. 

Mr. Charge d'affaires : In a note of the 3d instant * you were 
kind enough to inform the political department that you had 
been charged by the Department of State to inform the Federal 
Council that the presence of American troops in Europe, taking 
part in the war against the Imperial German Government, had 
led the Government of the union to inform the Swiss Confedera- 
tion that, the same as its cobelligerents in Europe, the United 
States will not fail to observe toward Switzerland the principle 
of neutrality and inviolability of its territory as long as this 
neutrality is maintained by the confederation and respected by 
the enemy. 

In the name of the Federal Council I have the honor, in 
acknowledging this declaration, to beg you to transmit to your 
Government the thanks of the Federal Council for this new proof 
of -the sentiments of friendship that the United States has always 
manifested toward Switzerland. 

The Federal Council can only renew the declaration of neu- 
trality that it had the honor to notify to Washington April 20, 
1917, insisting particularly on its firm and unwavering determina- 
tion to maintain and defend its neutrality and inviolability of its 
territory by all means at its disposal against any person. 

At the same time the Federal Council has the honor to declare 
that by virtue of its sovereignty and in accordance with the 
declaration of the powers who signed the treaties of Vienna and 
Paris of 1815, in particular that of the 20th of November, the 
Swiss Confederation, to whom it appertains to take the necessary 
measures for the defense of its territory, will maintain its neu- 
trality by its own forces and will repel a violation of its frontier 
if this occurs. 

Referring to these acts and to its declaration of neutrality of 
August 4, 1914, 2 as well as to later declarations, especially the 

, , , , » 

1 Infra p. 23.3. 

2 International Law Topics, 1916, p. 70. 



Turkish Neutrality Declaration. 217 

notification made at Washington by the Swiss minister on April 
20, 1917, the Federal Council believes that it appertains only to 
it to decide in what conditions it might appear opportune to ap- 
peal to the assistance of foreign powers. Receive, etc. 

Adoe. 

TURKEY. 

Notification of neutrality, August 18, 1914. 
[Journ. Off., Aug. 18, 1914, p. 7479.] 

The Imperial Ottoman Government has made known to the 
Government of the Republic through its ambassador at Paris 
that the Sublime Porte is resolved to maintain a strict neutrality 
in the present war. 

Neutrality regulations, September 28, 191 4. 

[British Pari. Pap., Misc. No. 13 (1914).] 
[Inclosure No. 1, in No. 147. — Translation.] 

The ministry of foreign affairs, with a view to the observance 
of their duties of neutrality throughout the hostilities, brings the 
following regulations to the notice of the British Embassy : 

1. Entry to Turkish ports, roadsteads, and territorial waters, 
is forbidden to warships belonging to belligerent powers, except 
in the case of damage, or by reason of the state of the sea. In 
these cases they may only remain strictly the length of time 
actually necessary for the repair of the said damage, or to wait 
until the state of the sea has improved. 

2. Every belligerent vessel, which shall ask permission to enter 
a Turkish port or roadstead for purposes of refueling or re- 
victualing, may be authorized to do so, on condition that the 
authorization of the local Turkish authority is obtained, after 
having declared the reasons for her arrival ; that she does not 
remain more than 24 hours in the said port or roadstead ; and 
that there be not more than three vessels under the same flag 
simultaneously in the same port or roadstead. 

3. The ports of Smyrna and Beirut are prohibited to the said 
ships, as are the inland waters, access to which is barred either 
by submarine mines or by other defensive means. 

4. If the warship does not leave Turkish waters within the 
period provided for above, the Turkish Government will take such 
steps as they may deem necessary to render the vessel incapable 
of putting to sea during the war. 

5. Warships are expected to respect the sovereign rights of the 
Turkish Empire, to refrain from all acts prejudicial to Turkish 



218 Turkish Neutrality Regulations. 

neutrality, and not to commit any hostile acts in Turkish terri- 
torial waters, including capture and the right of search. 

6. If enemy belligerent warships happen to' be simultaneously 
iii the same Turkish port or roadstead, at least 24 hours must 
eiapse between the departure of one belligerent warship and that 
of the other enemy belligerent warship, the order of departure 
being decided by that of arrival, unless the vessel which arrived 
first be obliged to remain for reasons foreseen above in No. 1. 
Similarly a belligerent warship may only leave a Turkish port or 
roadstead 24 hours after the departure of a merchant vessel under 
an enemy flag. 

7. In nonprohibited Turkish ports and roadsteads belligerent war- 
ships may only repair damages to such an extent as is consonant 
with the safety of navigation, and may not increase their military 
strength in any manner whatsoever. The Turkish authorities will 
verify the nature of the repairs to be made ; these must be carried 
out as quickly as possible. 

8. The said vessels may only revictual up to their normal supply 
in peace time. Nevertheless, in the exceptional circumstances of 
the present war, the Turkish authorities may, in the first instance, 
reduce this supply, according to the requirements of the districts, 
to what is strictly necessary to reach the nearest neutral foreign 
port, and may refuse all supplies in the case of a second return 
by vessels of a like belligerent nation. 

9. Such vessels may only take in sufficient fuel to reach the 
nearest harbor in their own country, or of a country the adminis- 
tration of which is intrusted to their Government, or of an allied 
country, at the discretion of the local Turkish authority. The 
preceding restrictions concerning supplies will be applicable to 
fuel. 

10. The Turkish sanitary, pilotage, customs, port, and lighthouse 
regulations must be observed and respected by belligerent war 
ships. 

11. It is forbidden to bring prizes into any of the (nonpro- 
hibited) Turkish ports or roadsteads, save in the case of impossi- 
bility of navigation of roughness of the sea, lack of fuel or pro- 
visions, in which case permission must be asked from the local 
Turkish authorities ; the latter will grant it after verification of 
the aforesaid cause. The prize shall be required to leave as soon 
i\& the said cause shall have ceased to exist; the taking in of fuel 
and provisions shall be carried out in accordance with the condi- 
tions laid down for warships. 

No prize court may be established by a belligerent either on 
Turkish territory or on a vessel in Turkish territorial waters. 

12. Belligerents are forbidden to make Turkish harbors and 
roadsteads a base for naval operations against their adversaries; 
to erect on land or in territorial waters any wireless telegraphy 



Turkish War Declarations. '2\D 

station or installation destined to serve as a means of communica- 
tion with belligerent forces by land or sea; to establish depots of 
fuel either on Turkish territory or on ships stationed in Turkish 
territorial waters. 

13. The above provisions in no way supersede the regulations 
governing the Straits, which remain as established by interna- 
tional treaty. 

14. General international law is applicable in all questions not 
provided for in the above regulations. 

Constantinople, September 28, 1914. 

Proclamation of war against Great Britain, Russia, and France, 

November 14, 1914. 1 

[Translated from the Corriere della Sera, Nov. 16, 1914.] 

Official Note Issued by the Turkish Government in Reply to the Circular 
Addressed by Sir Edward Grey to the Powers. 

England complains that Turkey, without any preliminary no- 
tice, bought two warships from Germany. It should be borne 
in mind, however, that before war was declared the English Gov- 
ernment ordered the seizure of two dreadnaughts that were being 
built for Turkey in British yards, and that one of these dread- 
noughts, the Sultan Osman, was seized half an hour before the 
appointed time when the Turkish flag was to have been raised 
over the ship : and that finally no indemnity was paid for these 
confiscations. 

It is natural, therefore, that Turkey, finding itself deprived of 
the two warships that were considered indispensable for the de- 
fense of the Empire, hastened to remedy the loss by acquiring the 
two ships offered in a friendly spirit by the German Government. 

England complains of the closing of the Dardanelles. But the 
responsibility for this act falls on the British Government, as 
will appear from the following reasons, which determined the 
Turkish Government to take the final decision : In spite of the 
neutrality of Turkey, England, under the pretext that German 
officers were serving on Turkish ships, declared officially that 
Turkish war vessels would be considered as hostile craft, and 
would be attacked by the British fleet anchored at the entrance 
of the Straits. 

In view of this hostile declaration Turkey found itself com- 
pelled to close the Dardanelles in order to insure the safety of 
the capital. And as to the claims of England, it is evident that 



^"Amsterdam, November 1%, 191J/. 
A telegram from Constantinople received here via Berlin states that 
the Porte has published an trade* containing Turkey's declaration of war 
against the allied powers — Reuter." (London Times, Nov. 14, 1914, 
p. 7, c.) 



220 Turkish War Declarations. 

the presence of German officers on the Turkish warships was a 
question of internal politics and should not, therefore, have given 
rise to any protest on the part of a foreign power. 

(The note goes on to say that England, though asked to inter- 
vene in behalf of Turkey during the Balkan war, did everything 
that was in its power to bring about the downfall of the Turkish 
Empire. And when Adrianople was recaptured by the Turkish 
Army, the British prime minister did not hesitate to threaten 
Turkey with collective punishment on the part of the great powers 
if the city were not evacuated by the Turkish forces. The note 
continues as follows : ) 

The designs of the British are not limited to the countries of 
Europe ; they extend to the Gulf of Persia. England has carried 
out its plan of impairing the sovereign rights of Turkey and of 
opening up a way of access into Arabia, for a long time coveted 
by the English. 
. Faithful to its policy of hostility England has ever opposed the 
attempts at reforms in Turkey. It exerted all its influence to pre- 
vent the powers from furnishing expert technical help to the 
Turkish Government. The Kaiser alone, disregarding the in- 
trigues of Great Britain, authorized S. E. Liman von Sanders, 
Pasha, to reorganize the Turkish Army, that army which is 
challenging the British forces. 

(After having recalled the Franco-British convention of 1904, 
which " passed a sentence of death on Morocco and on Egypt," 
and the agreement with Russia in reference to Persia, the note 
concludes : ) 

England for more than a century has been striving to destroy 
the freedom of the Moslem so as to open up their countries to the 
greedy exploitation of the British merchants. The English Gov- 
ernment, pursuing its program of hatred against the Moslem 
States, has succeeded in giving to its policy a religious color which 
insures to it the support and the adhesion of the English 
people, puritanic and fanatical. 

Let us be grateful to God who has given us the opportunity of 
victoriously defending the welfare of Islam against its three 
ruthless enemies, England, Russia, and France. 

Proclamation of a Holy War, the " Fetva," November 15, 191/f. 1 

[Translated from the Corriere della Sera, Nov. 16, 1914.] 

Constantinople, November 15, 191/f. 
Sixty thousand persons or thereabouts participated to-day in a 
mass meeting organized by several patriotic associations. The 

1 " Turkey, having declared a holy war on Serbia and its allies, 
treaties, conventions, and agreements concluded between Turkey and 
Serbia cease to have effect, thus the treaty of Mar. 1, 1914, terminates 
from the 1st of December." (Serbian Official Journal, Jan. 8, 1915; Rev. 
Gen., Doc. 22 : 103.) 



Proclamation of "Holy War." 221 

different corporations that took part in the event marched to 
Fatickh Square, in the old Stamboul, where an immense crowd 
had assembled. In the mosque of Fatickh the " Fetva " pro- 
claiming the Holy War was read by a special delegation of the 
Sheik ul Islam. The text of the " Fetva " drawn in the form of 
answers and questions as required by the rules of Islam is as 
follows : 

" If several enemies unite against Islam, if the countries of 
Islam are sacked, if the Moslem populations are massacred or 
made captive, and if in this case the Padishah in conformity 
with the sacred words of the Koran proclaims the Holy War, is a 
participation in this war a duty for all Moslems, old and young, 
cavalry and infantry? Must the Mohammedans of all countries 
of Islam hasten with their bodies and possessions to the Djat? " 
(Jehad) (Holy War). 

Answer. " Yes." 

" The Moslem subjects of Russia, of France, of England, and 
of all the countries that side with them in their land and sea 
attacks dealt against the Caliphate for the purpose of annihilat- 
ing Islam, must these subjects, too, "take part in the Holy War 
against the respective governments from which the depend? " 

Answer. " Yes." 

" Those who at a time when all Moslems are summoned to 
fight, avoid the struggle and refuse to join in the Holy War, are 
they exposed to the wrath of God, to great misfortunes, and to the 
deserved punishment?" 

Answer. " Yes." 

•' If the Moslem subjects of the said countries should take up 
arms against the Government of Islam, would they commit an 
unpardonable sin, even if they have been driven to the war by 
threats of extermination uttered against themselves and their 
families?" 

Answer. " Yes." 

" The Moslems who in the present war are under England, 
France, Russia, Servia, Montenegro, and those who give aid to 
these countries by waging war against Germany and Austria, 
allies of Turkey, do they deserve to be punished by the wrath 
of God as being the cause of harm and damage to the Caliphate 
and to Islam? 

Answer, " Yes." 

Circular relating to hostilities in Egypt and the Suez Canal, 

May, 1915. 

[Rev. Gen., Doc. 22:214.] 

Considering that the British Government not only has failed 
to observe, in reference to the powers, the engagements to which 
it is bound by the convention of 1888, stipulating that no war 
vessel can remain in the Suez Canal, but also it is now fortifying 



222 United States, Breaking Relations. 

the canal, while, on the other hand, the French Government, in 
view of hostile action against the Ottoman Empire, has landed 
troops in Egypt, the Imperial Ottoman Government, by reason of 
these facts, considers itself under the imperious necessity of tak- 
ing military measures for the protection of the imperial territory, 
of which Egypt forms a part, and of extending hostilities to the 
Suez Canal. If such measures cause any injury whatever to 
neutral vessels, it is thus evident that the responsibility will be 
upon the French and British Governments. 

Notification of declaration of tear against Roumania, 8 p. m., 

August 31, 1916. 1 

[Rev. Gen., Doc. 23 : 199.] 

The Council of Ottoman Ministers met on August 28, 1916, and 
decided to declare war on Roumania. This decision was imme- 
diately sanctioned by an irade of the Sultan. 

UNITED STATES. 

BREAKING DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS AND WAR DECLA- 
RATIONS. 

Note breaking diplomatic relations with Germany, February 3, 

1917. 

The Secretary of State to the German Ambassador. 

No. 2307.] Depaetment of State, 

Washington, February 3, 1917. 

Excellency: In acknowledging the note with accompanying 
memoranda, which you delivered into my hands on the afternoon 
of January 31, and which announced the purpose of your Govern- 
ment as to the future conduct of submarine warfare, I would 
direct your attention to the following statements appearing in the 
correspondence which has passed between the Government of the 
United States and the Imperial German Government in regard to 
submarine warfare. 

This Government on April 18, 1916, in presenting the case of 
the Sussex,- declared — 

If it is still the purpose of the Imperial Government to prosecute 
relentless and indiscriminate warfare against vessels of commerce by the 
use of submarines without regard to_ what the Government of the United 
States must consider the sacred and indisputable rules of international 
law and the universally recognized dictates of humanity, the Government 
of the United States is at last forced to the conclusion that there is but. 
one course it can pursue. Unless the Imperial Government should now 
immediately declare and effect an abandonment of its present methods of 
submarine warfare against passenger and freight-carrying vessels, the 
Government of the United States can have no choice but to sever diplo- 
matic relations with the German Empire altogether. 

1 The declaration was delivered to the Roumanian minister at Constanti- 
nople, 8 p. m., Aug. 31, 1016. (Am. .Tourn. Int. Law, 11, 168.) 



Note to Germany, Feb. 8, 1917. 223 

In reply to the note from which the above declaration is quoted 
your excellency's Government stated in a note dated May 4, 
1916-^ 

The German Government, guided by this idea, notifies the Government 
of the United States that the German naval forces have received the 
following orders : In accordance with the general principles of visit and 
search and destruction of merchant vessels recognized by international 
law, such vessels, both within and without the area declared as naval 
war zone, shall not be sunk without warning and without saving human 
lives, unless these ships attempt to escape or offer resistance. 

But neutrals can not expect that Germany, forced to fight for her 
existence, shall, for the sake of neutral interests, restrict the use of an 
effective weapon if her enemy is permitted to continue to apply at will 
methods of warfare violating the rules of international law. Such a 
demand would be incompatible with the character of neutrality, and the 
German Government is convinced that the Government of the United 
States does not think of making such a demand, knowing that the Gov- 
ernment of the United States has repeatedly declared that it is deter- 
mined to restore the principle of the freedom of the seas, from whatever 
quarter it has been violated. 

To this reply this Government made answer on May 8, 1916, in 
the following language : 

The Government of the United States feels it necessary to state that 
it takes it for granted that the Imperial German Government does not 
intend to imply that the maintenance of its newly announced policy is in 
any way contingent upon the course or result of diplomatic negotiations 
between the Government of the United States and any other belligerent 
Government, notwithstanding the fact that certain passages in the Impe- 
rial Government's note of the 4th instant might appear to be susceptible 
of that construction. In order, however, to avoid any possible misunder- 
standing, the Government of the United States notifies the Imperial 
Government that it can not for a moment entertain, much less discuss, 
a suggestion that respect by German naval authorities for the rights of 
citizens of the United States upon the high seas should in any way or 
in the slightest degree be made contingent upon the conduct of any other 
Government affecting the rights of neutrals and noncombatants. Re- 
sponsibility in such matters is single, not joint ; absolute, not relative. 

To this Government's note of May 8 no reply was made by the 
Imperial Government. 

In one of the memoranda accompanying the note under acknowl- 
edgment, after reciting certain alleged illegal measures adopted 
by Germany's enemies, this statement appears : 

The Imperial Government, therefore, does not doubt that the Govern- 
ment of the United States will understand the situation thus forced upon 
Germany by the entente-allies' brutal methods of war and by their deter- 
mination to destroy the central powers, and that the Government of the 
United States will further realize that the now openly disclosed inten,- 
tions of the entente-allies give back to Germany the freedom of action 
which she reserved in her note addressed to the Government of the 
United States on May 4, 1916. 

Under these circumstances Germany will meet the illegal measures of 
her onemies by forcibly preventing, after February 1, 1917, in a zone 
around Great Britain, France, Italy, and in the eastern Mediterranean 
all navigation, that of neutrals included, from and to England and from 
and to France, etc. All ships met within the zone will be sunk. 



224 American Notification as to Diplomatic Relations. 

In view of this declaration, which withdraws suddenly and with- 
out prior intimation the solemn assurance given in the Imperial 
Government's note of May 4, 1916, this Government has no alter- 
native consistent with the dignity and honor of the United States 
but to take the course which it explicitly announced in its note 
of April 18, 1916, it would take in the event that the Imperial 
Government did not declare and effect an abandonment of the 
methods of submarine warfare then employed and to which the 
Imperial Government now purposes again to resort. 

The President has, therefore, directed me to announce to your 
excellency that all diplomatic relations between the United States 
and the German Empire are severed, and that the American 
ambassador at Berlin will be immediately withdrawn, and in ac- 
cordance with such announcement to deliver to your excellency 
your passports. 

I have, etc., 

Robert Lansing. 

Notification of breaking diplomatic relations with Germany 

February 4, 1917. 

The State Department to American Diplomatic Representatives in Neutral 

Countries. 

Washington, February 4> 

You will immediately notify the Government to which you are 
accredited that the United States, because of the German Govern- 
ment's recent announcement of its intention to renew unrestricted 
submarine warfare, has no choice but to follow the course laid 
down in its note of April 18, 1916 (the Sussex note). 

It has, therefore, recalled the American ambassador to Berlin 
and has delivered passports to the German ambassador to the 
United States. 

Say also that the President is reluctant to believe Germany 
actually will carry out her threat against neutral commerce, but 
if it be done the President will ask Congress to authorize use of 
the national power to protect American citizens engaged in their 
peaceful and lawful errands on the seas. 

The course taken is, in the President's view, entirely in con- 
formity with the principles he enunciated in his address to the 
Senate January 22 (the address proposing a world league for 
peace). 

He believes it will make for the peace of the world if other 
neutral powers can find it possible to take similar action. 

Report fully and immediately on the reception of this announce- 
ment and upon the suggestion as to similar action. 



Declaration of War against Germany. 225 

Notification of arming of merchant vessels, March 12, 1917. 

Statement Given to the Press March 12, 1917. 

Depaktment of State, 
Washington, March 12, 1917. 

The Department of State has to-day sent the following state- 
ment to all foreign missions in Washington for their information : 

In view of the announcement of the Imperial German Govern- 
ment on, January 31, 1917, that all ships, those of neutrals in- 
cluded, met within certain zones of the high seas, would be sunk 
without any precautions being taken for the safety of the persons 
on board, and without the exercise of visit and search, the Gov- 
ernment of the United States has determined to place upon all 
American merchant vessels sailing through the barred areas, an 
armed guard for the protection of the vessels and the lives of 
the persons on board. 

Declaration of tear against Germany, 1.18 p. m., April 6, 1917. 1 

[Public resolution No. 1 — 65th Cong.] 

[S. J. Res. 1.] 

Sixty-fifth Congress of the United States of America. At the first session 
begun and held at the city of Washington on Monday the 2d day of 
April, 1917. 

Joint resolution declaring that a state of war exists between the Imperial 
German Government and the Government and the people of the United 
States and making provision to prosecute the same. 

Whereas the Imperial German Government has committed re- 
peated acts of war against the Government and the people of the 
United States of America : Therefore, be it 

1 The resolution was signed by President Wilson at 1.18 p. m., Apr. 6, 
1917. (New York Times, Apr. 7, 1917, p. 1, h.) 

The Judge Advocate General of the Army has delivered the following 
opinion : 

Upon the question raised as to the " date of commencement of the 
presont war," with references to the action which should be taken on 
claims of officers and enlisted men of property destroyed in the military 
service under the act of Congress approved March 3, 1885, providing that 
the act " shall not apply to losses sustained in time of war or hostilities 
with Indians." 

Held, that the date of the commencement of the present war should be 
regarded as the date of approval of the joint resolution of Congress of 
April 6, 1917 (Pub. No. 1, 65th Cong.), formally declaring a state of wai- 
ns existing between the United States and the Imperial German Govern- 
ment. 

(18 461, J. A. G., June 30,' 1917. U. S. Official Bulletin, No. 120, p. 6.) 

" The words ' the beginning of the war,' as used herein, shall be 
deemed to mean midnight ending the day on which Congress has declared 
or shall declare war or the existence of a state of war." Act Oct. 6, 1917 
(Trading with the enemy act), sec. 2. " 

43760°— 18 15 



22-6 Proclamation cf War against Germany. 

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled, That the state of 
war between the United States and the Imperial German Govern- 
ment which has thus been thrust upon the United States is hereby 
formally declared ; and that the President be, and he is hereby, 
authorized and directed to employ the entire naval and military 
forces of the United States and the resources of the Government 
to carry on war against the Imperial German Government ; and to 
bring the conflict to a successful termination all the resources of 
the country are hereby pledged by the Congress of the United 
States. • 

Champ Clark, 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
Thos. R. Marshall, 
Vice President of the United. States and 

President of the Senate. 
Approved, April 6, 1917. 

Woodrow Wilson, 

Proclamation of war with Germany, April 6, 1917. 

By the President of the United States oe America. 
A PROCLAMATION. 

Whereas the Congress of the United in the exercise of the con- 
stitutional authority vested in them have resolved, by joint resolu- 
tion of the Senate and House of Representatives bearing date this 
day " That the state of war between the United States and the 
Imperial German Government which has been thrust upon the 
United States is hereby formally declared " ; 

Whereas it is provided by section 4067 of the Revised Statutes, 
as follows: 

Whenever there is declared a war between the United States and any 
foreign nation or government, or any invasion or predatory incursion is 
perpetrated, attempted or threatened against the territory of the United 
States, by any foreign nation or government, and the President makes 
public proclamation of the event, all natives, citizens, denizens, or subjects 
of the hostile nation or government, being males of the age of fourteen 
years and upwards, who shall be within the United States, and not 
actually naturalized, shall be liable to be apprehended, restrained, secured, 
and removed, as alien enemies. The President is authorized, in any such 
event, by his proclamation thereof, or other public act, to direct the 
conduct to be observed, on the part of the United States, toward tbe 
aliens who become so liable ; the manner and degree of the restraint to 
which they shall be subject, and in what cases, and upon what security 
their residence shall be permitted, and to provide for the removal of those 
who, not being permitted to reside within the United States, refuse or 
neglect to depart therefrom ; and to establish any such regulations which 
are found necessary in the premises and for the public safety ; 

W T hereas, by sections 4068, 4069, and 4070 of the Revised Stat- 
utes, further provision is made relative to alien enemies ; 



Treatment of Alien Enemies. 227 

Now, therefore, I, Woodrow Wilson, President of the United 
States of America, do hereby proclaim to all whom it may concern 
that a state of war exists between the United States and the Im- 
perial German Government ; and I do specially direct all officers, 
civil or military, of the United States that they exercise vigilance 
and zeal in the discharge of the duties incident to such a state of 
war; and I do, moreover, earnestly appeal to all American citizens 
that they, in loyal devotion to their country, dedicated from its 
foundation to the principles of liberty and justice, uphold the laws 
oi the land, and give undivided and willing support to those meas- 
ures which may be adopted by the constitutional authorities in 
prosecuting the war to a successful issue and in obtaining a secure 
-and just peace ; 

And, acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in me 
by the Constitution of the United States and the said sections of 
the Revised Statutes, I do hereby further proclaim and direct that 
the conduct to be observed on the part of the United States toward 
all natives, citizens, denizens, or subjects of Germany, being male 
of the age of 14 years and upwards, who shall be within the 
United States and not actually naturalized, who for the purpose 
of this proclamation and under such sections of the Revised Stat- 
utes are termed alien enemies, shall be as follows : 

All alien enemies are enjoined to preserve the peace toward the 
United States and to refrain from crime against the public safety, 
and from viola ting the laws of the United States and of the States 
and Territories thereof, and to refrain from actual hostility or 
giving information, aid or comfort to the enemies of the United 
States, and to comply strictly with the regulations which are 
hereby or which may be from time to time promulgated by the 
President ; and so long as they shall conduct themselves in ac- 
cordance with law, they shall be undisturbed in the peaceful pur- 
suit of their lives and occupations and be accorded the considera- 
tion due to all peaceful and law-abiding persons, except so far as 
restrictions may be necessary for their own protection and for 
the safety of the United States ; and towards such alien enemies 
as conduct themselves in accordance with law, all citizens of the 
United States are enjoined to preserve the peace and to treat 
them with all such friendliness as may be compatible with loyalty 
and allegiance to the United States. 

And all alien enemies who fail to conduct themselves as so en- 
joined, in addition to all other penalties prescribed by law, shall 
be liable to restraint or to give security, or to remove and depart 
from the United States in the manner prescribed by sections 4069 
and 4070 of the Revised Statutes, and as prescribed in the regula- 
tions duly promulgated by the President; 

And pursuant to the authority vested in me, I hereby declare 
and establish the following regulations, which I find necessary in 
the premises and for the public safety : 



228 Proclamation of War against Germany. 

(1) An alien enemy shall not have in his possession, at any 
time or place, any firearm, weapon, or implement of war, or com- 
ponent part thereof, ammunition, maxim or other silencer, bomb 
or explosive or material used in the manufacture" of explosives ; 

(2) An alien enemy shall not have in his possession at any time 
or place, or use or operate any aircraft or wireless apparatus, 
or any form of signalling device, or any form of cipher code, or 
finy paper, document or book written or printed in cipher in 
which there may be invisible writing; 

(3) All property found in the possession of an alien enemy in 
violation of the foregoing regulations shall be subject to seizure 
b} the United States ; 

(4) An alien enemy shall not approach or be found within one- 
half of a mile of any Federal or State fort, camp, arsenal, air- 
craft station, Government or naval vessel, navy yard, factory, 
or workshop for the manufacture of munitions of war or of any 
products for the use of the army or navy, 

(5) An alien enemy shall not write, print, or publish any attack 
or threat against the Government or Congress of the United States, 
or either branch thereof, or against the measures or policy of the 
United States, or against the person or property of any person 
in the military, naval, or civil service of the United States, or of 
the States or Territories, or of the District of Columbia, or of 
the municipal governments therein ; 

(6) An alien enemy shall not commit or abet any hostile act 
against the United States, or give information, aid o 1 ' comfort to 
its enemies ; 

(7) An alien enemy shall not reside in or continue to reside in, 
tc remain in, or enter any locality which the President may from 
time to time designate by Executive order as a prohibited area 
in which residence by an alien enemy shall be found by him to 
constitute a danger to the public peace and safety of the United 
States, except by permit from the President and except under 
such limitations or restrictions as the President may prescribe ; 

(8) An alien enemy whom the President shall have reasonable 
cause to believe to be aiding or about to aid the enemy, or to be 
at large to the danger of the public peace or safety of the United 
States or to have violated or to be about to violate any of these 
regulations, shall remove to any location designated by the Presi- 
dent by Executive order, and shall not remove therefrom without 
permit, or shall depart from the United States if so required by 
the President; 

(9) No alien enemy shall depart from the United States until 
he shall have received such permit as the President shall pre- 
scribe, or except under order of a court, judge, or justice, under 
sections 4069 and 4070 of the Revised Statutes ; 



Breaking Diplomatic Relations with Turkey. 229 

(10) No alien enemy shall land in or enter the United States, 
except under such restrictions and at such places as the Presi- 
dent may prescribe ; 

(11) If necessary to prevent violation of these regulations, all 
alien enemies will be obliged to register ; 

(12) An alien enemy whom there may be reasonable cause to 
believe to be aiding or about to aid the enemy, or who may be 
at large to the danger of the public peace or safety, or who vio- 
lates or who attempts to violate, or of whom there is reasonable 
ground to believe that he is about to violate any regulation duly 
promulgated by the President, or any criminal law of the United 
States, or of the States or Territories thereof, will be subject to 
summary arrest by the United States marshal, or his deputy, 
or such other officer as the President shall designate, and to con- 
finement in such penitentiary, prison, jail, military camp, or other 
place of detention as may be directed by the President. 

This proclamation and the regulations herein contained shall 
extend and apply to all land and water, continental or insular, in 
anjr way within the jurisdiction of the United States. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused 
the seal of the United States to be affixed. 

Done at the city of Washington, this 6th day of April, in the 
year of our Lord 1917, and of the independence of the United 
States the one hundred and forty-first. 

[seal.] Woodeow Wilson. 

By the President : 
Robeet Lansing, 

Secretary of State. 

Notification of breaking diplomatic relations ivitli Turkey, April 

2J h 1917. 

The Department of State is advised by a telegram from the 
American embassy in Constantinople, dated April 20, forwarded 
through the legation in Berne, that the Imperial Turkish Govern- 
ment on April 20 informed the embassy that, as the Government 
of the United States had declared itself to be in a state of war 
with Germany, the Ottoman Government's ally, it found it neces- 
sary to sever its diplomatic relations with the United States as 
from that date. 

American interests in Turkey have been confided to the Swedish 
minister. 



230 American Declaration against Austria. 

Declaration of tear against Austria-Hungary, 5.03 p. m., Decem- 
ber 7, 1917. 1 

[Public Resolution No. 17, 65th Cong.] 

Sixty-fifth Congress of the United States of America, at the s.econd ses- 
sion, begun and held at the city of Washington on Monday, the 3d day 
of December, 1917. 

Joint resolution declaring that a state of war exists between the Im- 
perial and Royal Austro-Hungarian Government and the Government 
and people of the United States and making provision to presecute the 
same. 

Whereas the Imperial and Royal Austro-Hungarian Govern- 
ment has committed repeated acts of war against the Government 
and the people of the United States of America : Therefore be it 

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United Slates of America in Congress assembled, That a state of 
war is hereby declared to exist between the United States of 
America and the Imperial and Royal Austro-Hungarian Govern- 
ment ; and that the President be, and he is hereby, authorized and 
directed to employ the entire naval and. military forces of the 
United States and the resources of the Government to carry on 
war against the Imperial and Royal Austro-Hungarian Govern- 
ment ; and to bring the conflict to a successful termination all the 
resources of the country are hereby pledged by the Congress of 
the United States 

Champ Clark, 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

Thomas R. Maeshall, 

Vice President of the United States 

and President of the Senate. 

Approved, 7th of December, 1917. 

Woodrow Wilson. 

Proclamation of war against Austria-Hungary, December 11, 1917. 

[U. S. Official Bulletin, No. 183, p. 1.] 

By the President of the United States of America. 

A PROCLAMATION. 

Whereas the Congress of the United States, in the" exercise of 
the constitutional authority vested in them, have resolved, by 
joint resolution of the Senate and House of Representatives bear- 
ing date of December 7, 1917, as follows : 

Whereas the Imperial and Royal Austro-Hungarian Government has 
committed repeated acts of war against the Government and the people of 
the United States of America : Therefore be it 

1 The resolution was signed by President Wilson at 5.03 p. m., Dec. 7, 
1917. (New York Times, Dec. 8, 1917, p. 1, a.) 



Proclamation of War. 231 

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled, That a state of war is hereby 
declared to exist between the United States of America and the Imperial 
and Royal Austro-Hungarian Government ; and tbat the President be, 
and he is hereby, authorized and directed to employ the entire naval and 
military forces of the United States and the resources of the Government 
to carry on war against the Imperial and Royal Austro-Hungarian Gov- 
ernment ; and to bring the conflict to a successful termination all the re- 
sources of the country are hereby pledged by the Congress of the United 
States. 

Whereas, by sections 4067, 4068, 4069, and 4070 of the United 
Statutes, provision is made relative to natives, citizens, denizens, 
or subjects of a hostile nation or government, being males of the 
age of 14 years and upwards, who shall be in the United States 
and not actually naturalized ; 

Now, therefore, I, Woodrow Wilson, President of the United 
States of America, do hereby proclaim to all whom it may con- 
cern that a state of war exists between the United States and the 
Imperial and Royal Austro-Hungarian Government ; and I do 
specially direct all officers, civil or military, of the United States 
that they exercise vigilance and zeal in the discharge of the duties 
incident to such a state of war ; and I do, moreover, earnestly 
appeal to all American citizens that they, in loyal devotion to their 
country, dedicated from its foundation to the principles of liberty 
and* justice, uphold the laws of the land and give undivided and 
willing support to those measures which may be adopted by the 
constitutional authorities in prosecuting the war to a successful 
issue and in obtaining a secure and just peace; 

And, acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in 
me by the Constitution of the United States and the aforesaid 
sections of the Revised Statutes, I do hereby further proclaim and 
direct that the conduct to be observed on the part of the United 
States toward all natives, citizens, denizens, or subjects of Austria- 
Hungary, being males of the age of 14 years and upward who shall 
be within the United States and not actually naturalized, shall 
be as follows : 

All natives, citizens, denizens, or subjects of Austria-Hungary, 
being males of 14 years and upwards, who shall be within the 
United States and not actually naturalized, are .enjoined to pre- 
serve the peace toward the United States and to refrain from 
crime against the public safety, and from violating the laws of 
the United States and of the States and Territories thereof, and 
to refrain from actual hostility or giving information, aid, or 
comfort to the enemies of the United States, and to comply strictly 
with the regulations which are hereby or which may be from time 
to time promulgated by the President ; and so long as they shall 
conduct themselves in accordance with law they shall be undis- 
turbed in the peaceful pursuit of their lives and occupations, and 
be accorded the consideration due to all peaceful and law-abiding 
persons, except so far as restrictions may be necessary for their 



232 Treatment of, Austrians in United States. 

own protection and for the safety of the United States ; and 
toward such of said persons as conduct themselves in accordance 
with law all citizens of the United States are enjoined to preserve 
the peace and to treat them with all such friendliness as may be 
compatible with loyalty and allegiance to the United States. 

And all natives, citizens, denizens, or subjects of Austria-Hun- 
gary, being males of the age of 14 years and upward, who shall be 
within the United States and not actually naturalized, who fail 
to conduct themselves as so enjoined, in addition to all other 
penalties prescribed by law, shall be liable to restraint, or to give 
security, or to remove and depart from the United States in the 
manner prescribed by sections 4069 and 4070 of the Revised 
Statutes, and as prescribed in regulations duly promulgated by 
the President ; 

And pursuant to the authority vested in me, I hereby declare 
and establish the following regulations, which I find necessary 
in the premises and for the public safety : 

(1) No native, citizen, denizen, or subject of Austria-Hungary, 
being a male of the age of 14 years and upward and not actually 
naturalized, shall depart from the United States until he shall 
have received such permit as the President shall prescribe, or ex- 
cept under order of a court, judge, or justice, under sections 
4069 and 4070 of the Revised Statutes ; 

(2) No such person shall land in or enter the United States, 
except under such restrictions and at such places as the President 
may prescribe ; 

(3) Every such person of whom there may be reasonable cause 
to believe that he is aiding or about to aid the enemy, or who may 
be at large to the danger of the public peace or safety, or who 
violates or attempts to violate, or of whom there is reasonable 
ground to believe that he is about to violate any regulation duly 
promulgated by the President, or any criminal law of the United 
States, or of the States or Territories thereof, will be subject to 
summary arrest by the United States marshal, or his deputy, or 
such other officers as the President shall designate, and to con- 
finement in such penitentiary, prison, jail, military camp, or other 
place of detention as may be directed by the President. 

This proclamation and the regulations herein contained shall 
extend and apply to all land and water, continental or insular, in 
any way within the jurisdiction of the United States. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused 
the seal of the United States to be affixed. 

Done in the District of Columbia this 11th of December, A. D. 
1917, and of the independence of the United States the 142d. 

Woodrow Wilson. 
By the President: 
Robert Lansing, 

Secretary of State. 



American Defensive Sea Areas. 233 

Melnorandum in reference to the neutrality of Switzerland, De- 
cember 3, 1917. 1 

[U. S. Official Bulletin, No. 181, p. 1.] 

Under instructions from the Department of State, the charge^ 
d'affaires at Berne has presented to the Swiss Government the 
following memorandum : 

In view of the presence of American forces in Europe engaged 
in the prosecution of the war against the Imperial German Gov- 
ernment, the Government of the United States deems "it appro- 
priate to announce for the assurance of the Swiss Confederation 
and in harmony with the attitude of the cobelligerents of the 
United States in Europe, that the United States will not fail to 
observe the principle of neutrality applicable to Switzerland and 
the inviolability of its territory, so long as the neutrality of 
Switzerland is maintained by the Confederation and respected by 
the enemy. 

DEFENSIVE SEA AREAS. 

Executive order establishing defensive sea areas, April 5, 1917. 
[U. S. Official Bulletin, No. 3, p. 6.] 

In accordance with the authority vested in me by section 44 of 
the act entitled "An act to codify, revise, and amend the penal 
laws of the United States," approved March 4, 1909, as amended 
by the act " making appropriations for the naval service for the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1918, and for other purposes," ap- 
proved March 4, 1917, I, Woodrow Wilson, President of the United 
States of America, do order that defensive sea areas are hereby 
established, to be maintained until further notification, at the 
places and within the limits prescribed as follows, that is to say: 

MOUTH OF KENNEBEC RIVER. 

Outer limit: Arc of circle with Pond Island Light as center, 
radius 2 nautical miles. 

Inner limit : A line east and west (true) through Perkins Island 
Light. 

PORTLAND. 

Outer limit: Arc of circle center Portland Head Light, radius 
2 nautical miles. 

Inner limit: Line Portland Breakwater Light to west bastion 
Fort Gorges. 

PORTSMOUTH. 

Outer limit : Arc of circle with Whaleback Reef Light as center, 
radius 2\ nautical miles. 

Inner limit: A line south (true) from southwest point of Clarks 
Island. 



1 For Swiss reply, see supra p. 216. 



234 American Defensive Sea Areas. 

BOSTON. 

Outer limit : Line from Strawberry Point to Spouting Horn. 

Inner limit : Line west tangent Sheep Island to wharf on east 
side of Long Island. Line from wharf west side Long Island to 
large wharf west side of Deer Island. 

NEW BEDFORD. 

Outer limit: Arc of circle, center the east point of reef off 
Clark Point, radius distance to Dumping Rocks Lighthouse. 

Inner limit : Line between Butler Flats Light and Egg Island 
beacon. 

NEWPORT. 

Outer limit : Arc of circle with Beaver Tail Light as center and 
radius of 2 nautical miles. 

Inner limit: Fort Adams fog bell to north tangent of North 
Dumpling. East and west line through Plum Beach light. 

LONG ISLAND EAST. 

Outer limit : Line joining Watch Hill and Montauk Point lights. 
Inner limit : Line joining Plum Island Light and Mumford 
Point. 

NEW YORK EAST. 

Outer limit : Line joining Execution Rocks Light and east tan- 
gent of Huckleberry Island. 

Inner limit: A line north (true) through Whitestone Point 
Light. 

NEW YORK MAIN ENTRANCE. 

Outer limit : Arc of circle center Romer Shoal Light, radius 
six (6) nautical miles. 

Inner limit: Line west (true) from flagpole on wharf at Fort 
Hamilton. 

DELAWARE RIVER. 

Outer limit: East and west line through north end of Reedy 
Island. 

Inner limit : East and west line through Finns Neck Rear Range 
Light. 

CHESAPEAKE ENTRANCE. 

Outer limit: Line parallel to that joining Cape Henry Light 
and Cape Charles Light and four (4) nautical miles to eastward 



Atlantic Coast. 235 

thereof, and the lines from Cape Charles Light and from Cape 
Henry Light perpendicular to this line. 

Inner limit : Line parallel to line joining Cape Henry Light 
and Cape Charles Light and three (3) nautical miles to west- 
ward thereof. 

BALTIMORE. 

Outer limit : Line from Persimmon Point to Love Point. 
Inner limit: Line joining Leading Point Range Light (Rear) 
and Sollers Point. 

POTOMAC. 

Outer limit : Line from Marshall Hall wharf to south extremity 
of Ferry Point. 

Inner limit: Line from River View wharf drawn west (true). 

HAMPTON EOADS. 

Outer limit: Line from Black River Light to point one (1) 
nautical mile east (true) of Thimble Shoal Light; then south 
(true) to shore. 

Inner limit : Line tangent to end of wharf on west side of Old 
Point Comfort and Fort Wool. 

WILMINGTON — CAPE FEAR. 

Outer limit : Oak Island Life-Saving Station as center of arc, 
radius five (5) nautical miles. 

Inner limit : Line joining south end of Fort Caswell and Smith 
Island Range Beacon (Rear). 

CHARLESTON. 

Outer limit: Arc of circle with Fort Sumter Light as center, 

radius six (6) nautical miles. 

Inner limit: Line joining Charleston Light and Fort Sumter 
Light. 

SAVANNAH. 

Outer limit: Arc of circle with Tybee Island Light as center, 
radius ten (10) nautical miles. 

Inner limit: Line across channel through southeast end of 
Cockspur Island. 

KEY WEST. 

Outer limit: Arc of circle with Key West Light as center, 
radius seven (7) nautical miles. 

Inner limit ; Line joining south tangent East Crawfish Key and 
south tangent of Fort Taylor. 



236 American Defensive Sea Areas. 

TAMPA. 

Outer limit : Arc of circle with Egmont Key Light as center, 
radius six (6) nautical miles. 

Inner limit : Line tangent to southwest point of Mullet Key 
and east tangent of Passage Key. 

pensacola. 

Outer limit: Arc of circle, center Cut (Front) Range Light, 
radius six (6) nautical miles. 

Inner limit: South (true) from east corner of dock at navy 
yard, old dry-dock slip. 

MOBILE. 

Outer limit : Arc of circle with Fort Morgan Light as center, 
radius (six) 6 nautical miles. 

Inner limit : Fort Gaines to Fort Morgan. 



MISSISSIPPI. 



Outer limit: Lucas Canal. 
Inner limit: Bolivar Point. 



GALVESTON. 



Outer limit : Arc of circle with Fort Point Light as center, 
radius five (5) nautical miles. 
' Inner limit : Line joining Bolivar Point and Fort Point Lights. 

SAN DIEGO. 

Outer limit : Arc of circle with Point Loma Light as center, 
radius two (2) nautical miles. 

Inner limit : Line joining Beacons Nos. 3 and 4. 

SAN FRANCISCO. . 

Outer limit: Arc of circle with center at middle point of line 
joining Point Bonita Light and Rock at Cliff House, radius four 
(4) nautical miles. 

Inner limit : Line from Bluff Point to Point Campbell on Angel 
Island and line from Quarry Point on Angel Island to extreme 
western point on Goat Island ; also line from extreme western 
point on Goat Island to North Point, San Francisco. 

COLUMBIA RIVER. 

Outer limit: Arc of circle with center three (3) nautical miles 
south (true) from North Head Light, radius three (3) nautical 
miles.- 

Inner limit: Line from wharf at Flavel Tansy Point at right 
angles to axis of channel. 



Pacific Coasts. 237 

PORT ORCHARD. 

Outer limit : Arc of circle, center Orchard Rock Spindle, radius 
two (2) nautical miles. 

Inner limit : Line from Point White at right angles to axis of 
channel to opposite hank. 

HONOLULU. 

Outer limit: Arcs of circles centers Diamond Head Light and 
Honolulu Harbor Light, radii nine (9) nautical miles. 
Inner limit : Line across channel at No. 7 fixed light. 

MANILA. 

Outer limit : Line through Luzon Point' and Fuego Point. 

Inner limit : Line through San Nicolas Shoal Light and Mt. Sun- 
gay. 

The responsibility of the United States of American for any 
damage inflicted by force of arms with the object of detaining 
any person or vessel proceeding in contravention to regulations 
duly promulgated in accordance with this Executive order shall 
cease from this date. 

Woodrow Wilson. 

The White House, 

April 5, 1917. 

Rcfjulaticns for carrying into effect the Executive order of the President 
establishing defensive sea areas, April 5, 1917. 

.[U. S. Official Bulletin, No. 3, p. 7.] 

Whereas in accordance with section forty-four of the act entitled "An 
act to codify, revise, and amend the penal laws of the United States," 
approved March fourth, nineteen hundred and nine, as amended by "An 
act making appropriations for the naval service for the fiscal year end- 
ing June thirtieth, nineteen hundred and eighteen, and for other pur- 
poses," approved March fourth, nineteen hundred and seventeen, de- 
fensive sea areas have heen established by my order of April 5, 1917. 

Now, therefore, I, Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States of 
America, do hereby authorize and promulgate the following orders and 
regulations for the government of persons and vessels within the limits 
of defensive sea areas, which orders and regulations are necessary for 
purposes of national defense : 

I. In the neighborhood of each defensive sea area entrances have been 
designated for incoming and outgoing vessels, including, in the case of 
areas across which more than one channel exists, an entrance for each 
channel. These entrances are described in Article X of these regulations 
in conjunction with the areas to which they respectively pertain. 

II. A vessel desiring to cross a defensive sea area shall proceed to the 
vicinity of the entrance to the proper channel, flying her national colors, 
together with international code number and pilot signal and there 
await communication with the harbor-entrance patrol. It is expressly 
prohibited lor any vessel to enter the limits of a defensive sea area 
otherwise than at a designated entrance and after authorization -by the 
harbor-entrance patrol. 

III. Beats and other craft employed in the harbor-entrance patrol will 
be distinguished by the union jack, which will be shown from a position 
forward ; they will also fly the usual naval pennant. At night they 



238 



American Defensive Sea Areas. 



may show a vertical hoist of three lights- — white, red, and white, in the 
order named. 

IV. On receiving permission from the harbor-entrance patrol to enter 
a defensive sea area, a vessel must comply with all instructions as to 
pilotage and other matters that she may receive from proper authority, 
either before or during her passage across the area. It is understood that 
only upon condition of such compliance is the said permission granted. 

V. No permission will he granted to other than a public vessel of the 
United States to cross a defensive sea area between sunset and sunrise, 
nor during the prevalence of weather conditions that render navigation 
difficult or dangerous. A vessel arriving off a defensive sea area after 
sunset shall anchor or lie-to at a distance of at least a mile outside its 
limits until the following sunrise ; vessels discovered near the limits of 
the areas at night may be fired upon. 

VI. No vessel shall be permitted to proceed within the limits of a de- 
fensive sea area at a greater speed than five (5) knots per hour. 

VII. All matters pertaining to fishery and the passage of small crafts 
within a defensive sea area shall be regulated by the senior officer of the 
harbor-entrance patrol. 

VIII. These regulations are subject to modification by the senior 
officer of the harbor-entrance patrol when the public interest may re- 
quire, and such notification as circumstances may permit will be issued 
regarding modifications thus made. 

IX. Any master of a vessel or other person within the vicinity of a 
defensive sea area who shall violate these regulations, or shall fail to 
obey an order to stop or heave-to, or shall perform any act threatening 
the efficiency of mine or other defenses or the safety of navigation, or 
shall take any action inimical to the interests of the United States in its 
prosecution of war, may be detained therein by force of arms and renders 
himself liable to prosecution as provided for in the act to codify, revise, 
and amend the penal laws of the United States, approved March 4, 1909, 
as amended by " the act making appropriations for the naval service for 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1918, and for other purposes," approved 
March 4, 1917. 

X. The designated entrances to defensive sea areas referred to in 
article 1 of these regulations shall be as follows : 

DEFENSIVE SEA AREA. 



Designated entrances for incoming vesse's. 



Kennebec River, Me.: 

Seguin Isiand Light bearing west (true) 
distant l nautical mile. 
Portland, Me.: 

Portland Heaa Light bearing iiorthwast 
(true) distant 2h nauti.al miles. 
Portsmouth, N. H.: 

At a point one-half nautical mile south 
(true') of Gunboat Shoal Buoy. 
Boston, Mass.: 

Boston Light Vessel 



Now Bedfcrd, Mass.: 

Dumpling Rocks Light bearing northwest 
(true) distant l-l nautical miles. 
Newport, R. I.: 

Beaver Tail Light bearing north (true) 
distant 2\ nautical miles. 



Designated entrances for outgoing 
vessels.. 



In the channel between Perkins Island 
and Bald Head. 

In harbor north of Portland Break- 
water Lit'ht. 

In the channel to the westward of 
Clark Island. 

In President Roads west of a line 
drawn north and south (true), one- 
half nautical mile west of Deer 
Island Light. 

In the channel west of Ega: Island 
Beacon. 

In the channel west of Goat Isiand. 
In the channel northeast (true- of 
Plum Peach Light. 



Executive Regulations. 

DEFENSIVE SEA AREA — Continued. 



239 



Designated entrances for incoming vessels. 



Long Island Sound, eastern entrance: 

Watch Hill Light bearing northwest (true) 
distant 5 nautical miles. 
Long Island Sound, west end: 

Execution Rocks Light bearing southwest 
(true) distant 1 nautical mile. 
New York, southern entrance: 

Sandy Hook Light bearing west (true) 
distant 10 nautical miles. 

Delaware River: 

In the channel beiow Reedy Island 

Chesapeake Bay entrance: 

Chesapeake Bay Main Ship Channel En- 
trance Buoy. 
Baltimore. Md.: 

At Buoy N 2 C, entrance *o Craighill Chan- 
nel. 
Potomac River: 

In channel off Dague Creek............... 

Hampton Roads: 

In channel 2 nautical miles to eastward 
and southward of Thimble Shoal Light. 

Cape Fear, N. C: 

At a point 4 nautical miles south-south- 
west (true) from bell buoy at entrance 
channel. 
Charleston, S. C: 

Charleston Light Ship 

Tybee Roads, Savannah, Ga.: 

4 nautical miles east of Whistling Buoy . . 
Kev West, Fla.: 

Sand Key Light bearing west-northwest 
(true), distant 5 nauti. al miles. 
Tampa, Fla.: 

Whistling Buoy, at entrance to dredged 
channel. 
Pensaoola, Fla.: 

Pensacoa Light bearing north-northwest 
(true), distant 8 nautical mLes. 

Mobile, Ala.: 

Whist ing Buoy at entrance bearing north 
(true), distant 2 nautical miles. 
Mississippi River: 

South Pass Gas and Whistling Buoy 

Galveston, Tex.: 

Lighted Buoy No. 1 off South Jetty, bear- 
ing west (true), distant 2 nauti. at mi.es. 
San Diego, C al.: 

Entrance Whistling Buoy 

San Fran.isco, Cal.: 

San Francisco Lightship 

Columbia River: 

North Bead light bearing northeast 
(true), distant t> nautical miles. 
Port Orchard, Wasn.: 

In Sound to eastward of line joining Res- 
toration Point and east end of Blake 
Island and 1 nautical mile south (true) 
of Restoration Point. 
Honolulu, Hawaii: 

Honolulu Harbor Light bearing north- 
northeast (true), distant 10 nautical 
miles. 
Manila, P. I.: 

Peak of Corregidor Island bearing north- 
northeast (true), distant 12 nautical 
miles. 



Designated entrances for outgoing 
vessels. 



Bartlett Reef Light Vessel. 



In channel west of a Uno drawn north 
(true) from Whitestone Light. 

In Narrows north of a line drawn west 
(true) from flagpole on Fort 
Hamilton Wharf. 

In the Channel off New Castle, Pa. 

In the channel between buoys N T 2 and 
No. '6 Ga? Buoy. 

In channel on line between Leading 
Point and Soilers Point. 

In channel' off. River View .. 

In channel to northwestward of en- 
trance buoy of dredged channel, 
Elizabeth River. 

In channel near Beacon No. 2A, off 
Battery Island. 



Lower anchorage to westward Of north 
and south line (true) through Fort 
Sumter Light. 

Quarantine anchorage. 

In channel of fixed red beacon to north- 
northwestward of Fort Taylor. 

Off quarantine station. 



East corner of dock at navy yard bear- 
ing northwest (true), distant one-half 
nauti ?al mile. 

Near Buoy C 5 . 



Buras Church. 

United States Quarantine Station. 

Between Beacons 5 and 6. 

Off Quarry Point, Angel Island, and 
off light,' Goat Island. 

In channel to eastward of Tansy Point. 
To westward of Point White. 



In harbor north of Honolulu Harbor 
Lighthouse. 



San Nicolas Shoal Light bearing south 
(true), distant 1 nautical mile. 



240 American Defensive /Sea Areas. 

The Secretary of the Navy will be charged with the publication 
and enforcement of these regulations. 

Woodeow Wilson. 

The White House, 

April 5, 1917. 

Executive order establishing clef ensive sea areas, April 14, 1917. 
[U. S. Official Bulletin No. 2, p. 3.] 

In accordance with the authority vested in me by section forty- 
four of the act entitled "An act to codify, revise, and amend the 
penal laws of the United States," approved March fourth, nine- 
teen hundred and nine, as amended by the act " Making appro- 
priations for the naval service for the fiscal year ending June 
thirtieth, nineteen hundred and eighteen, and for other pur- 
poses," approved March fourth, nineteen hundred and seventeen, 
I, Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States, do order that 
in addition to those defensive sea areas established by Executive 
order under date of April fifth, nineteen hundred and seventeen, 
and subject to the same disclaimer of responsibility for damage 
inflicted as therein proclaimed, a defensive sea area is hereby 
established, to be maintained until further notification, at the 
place and within the limits described as follows ; that is to say — 
York River: 

Outer limit. — Arc of circle with center at The Marshes Light, 
radius 2| nautical miles, to line from north tangent Tue 
Point to Buoy S " 11-H," thence line to Tue Point. 
Inner limit. — A line from Sandy Point to end of wharf on 
Carmines Island. 
And I do further order that the " Regulations for Carrying into 
Effect the Executive Order of the President Establishing Defen- 
sive Sea Areas," approved by me April fifth, nineteen hundred and 
seventeen, duly promulgated and published, are and shall be con- 
sidered as of full effect and binding on all persons and vessels 
within the limits of the defensive sea area hereby established. 

The designated entrances to the defensive sea area herein es- 
tablished shall be as follows : 

Entrance for incoming vessels, at Buoy N " 2A." 
Entrance for outgoing vessels, at Buoy N 6, 

Woodeow Wilson. 
The White House, 

April 14, 1917. 



Panama Canal Ports. 241 

Executive order establishing defensive sea areas for Panama 
Canal Terminal Ports, August 27, 1911, 

[U. S. Official Bulletin, No. 99, p. 8.] 

By virtue of the authority vested in nie by law the following 
described defensive sea areas for the terminal ports of the Panama 
Canal are hereby established, to be maintained until further 
notification, at the places and within the limits prescribed as 
follows, that is to say: 

Atlantic entrance. — Outer limit : From the northern end of 
Naranjos Cays to a point 2 miles due north of the breakwater 
entrance, thence tangent to the arc of a circle with 1-mile radius, 
having the mouth of the Chagres River as a center, thence along 
the arc of this circle to the beach. Inner limit : Line joining east 
end of west breakwater and west end of east breakwater. 

Pacific entrance. — Outer limit : Line joining Venado Island with 
north end of Taboguilla Island; thence north 53° east, true, for 
5 miles ; thence north 39° west to a point with San Jose Rock 
bearing north 1 53° west, true, distant 2 nautical miles; thence 
to Tres Hermanos Beacon ; thence to Punta Mala. Inner limit : 
Line joining Guinea Point with inner end of causeway. 

The following orders and regulations for the government of 
persons and vessels within the limits of said defensive sea areas, 
which orders and regulations are necessary for the purposes of 
defense of the Canal Zone, are hereby promulgated : 

1. In the neighborhood of each defensive sea area the following 
entrances are designated for incoming and outgoing vessels : 

Atlantic. — Designated entrance for incoming vessels : A patrol 
boat stationed with end of west breakwater bearing south, true, 
distant 1 nautical mile. Designated entrance for outgoing ves- 
sels : The main entrance to the Panama Canal, between the break- 
waters. 

1 (U. S. Official Bulletin, No. 148, p. 5) In order to correct typo- 
graphical error in the Executive order dated Aug. 27, 1917, entitled 
" Establishing defensive sea areas for terminal ports of the Panama Canal, 
and providing regulations for the government of persons and vessels 
within said areas," it is hereby directed that the word " south " be sub- 
stituted for the word "north " following the words " thence north 39° 
west to a point with San Jose Rock bearing " in the description of the 
outer limit of the Pacific entrance of the defensive sea areas of the ter- 
minal ports of the Panama Canal. As corrected, the description will 
read as follows : 

" Pacific entrance. — Outer limit : Line joining Venado Island with north 
end of Taboguilla Island ; thence north 53° east, true, for 5 miles ; thence 
north 39° west to a point with San Jose Rock bearing south 53° west, 
true, distant 2 nautical miles ; thence to Tres Hermanos Beacon ; thence 
to Punta Mala." 

Woodrow Wilson. 

TrrE White' House, 

October U, 1917. 

43760°— 18 16 



242 Use of Panama Canal. 

Pacific— Designated entrance for incoming vessels : Patrol boat 
stationed with north end of Taboguilla Island bearing due west, 
distant 1 nautrical mile. Designated entrance for outgoing ves- 
sels : Canal prism. 

2". A vessel desiring to cross a defensive sea area shall proceed 
to the vicinity of the entrance, flying her national colors, together 
with international code number and pilot signal, and there await 
communication with the harbor entrance patrol. It is expressly 
prohibited for any vessel to enter the limits of a defensive sea 
area otherwise than at a designated entrance and after authoriza- 
tion by the harbor entrance patrol. 

3. Boats and other craft employed in the harbor entrance. patrol 
will be distinguished by the union jack, which will be shown from 
a position forward. At night they may show a vertical hoist of 
three lights — white, red, and white, in the order named. 

4. On receiving permission from the harbor entrance patrol to 
enter a defensive area, a vessel must comply with all instruc- 
tions as to pilotage and other matters that she may receive from 
proper authority, either before or during her passage across the 
area ; it is understood that only upon condition of such compliance 
is the said permission granted. 

5. No permission will be granted to other than a public vessel 
of the United States or a canal craft to cross a defensive sea 
area between sunset and sunrise, nor during the prevalence of 
weather conditions that render navigation difficult or dangerous. 
A vessel arriving off of a defensive sea area after sunset shall 
anchor or lie-to at a distance of at least a mile outside its limits 
until the following sunrise ; vessels discovered near the limits of 
the areas at night may be fired upon. 

6. No vessel shall be permitted to proceed within the limits of a 
defensive sea area at a greater speed than 6 knots per hour. 

7. All matters pertaining to fishery and the passage of small 
crafts within a defensive sea area shall be regulated by the senior 
officer of the harbor entrance patrol. 

8. These regulations are subject to modification by the senior 
officer of the harbor entrance patrol when the public interest may 
require; and such notification as circumstances may permit will 
be issued regarding modifications thus made. 

9. Any master of a vessel or other persons within the vicinity of 
a defensive sea area who shall violate these regulations, or shall 
fail to obey an order to stop and heave to, or shall perform any act 
threatening the efficiency of mine or other defenses or the safety 
of navigation, or shall take any action inimical to the interests of 
the United States in its prosecution of war may be detained 
therein by force of arms and renders himself liable to prosecution. 

10. The responsibility of the United States of America for any 
damage inflicted by force of arms with the object of detaining 



Protection of Panama Canal. 243 

any person or vessel proceeding in contravention to regulations 
duly promulgated in accordance with this Executive order shall 
cease from this date. 

11. This order shall take effect from and after this date. 

Woodkow Wilson. 
The White House, 

August 27, 1917. 

PROTECTION OF PANAMA CANAL. 

Rules and regulations for regulation, management, and protection 
of Panama Canal and maintenance of its neutrality May 23, 
1917. 

[U. S. Official Bulletin, No. 18, p. 5.] 

By the President of the United States of America. 

A PROCLAMATION. 

Whereas the United States exercises sovereignty in the land 
and waters of the Canal Zone and is responsible for the construc- 
tion, operation, maintenance, and protection of the Panama Canal : 

Now, therefore, I, Woodrow Wilson, President of the United 
Srates of America, do hereby declare and proclaim the following 
rules and regulations for the regulation, management, and protec- 
tion of the Panama Canal and the maintenance of its neutrality, 
which are in addition to the general " Rules and regulations for 
the operation and navigation of the Panama Canal and approaches 
thereto, including all waters under its jurisdiction,'' put into force 
by Executive order of July 9, 1914. 

Rule 1. A vessel of war, for the purposes of these rules, is de- 
fined as a public armed vessel, under the command of an officer 
duly commissioned by the Government, whose name appears on 
the list of officers of the military fleet, and the crew of which are 
under regular naval discipline, which vessel is qualified by its 
armament and the character of its personnel to take offensive 
action against the public or private ships of the enemy. 

Rule 2. An auxiliary vessel, for the purposes of these rules, is 
defined as any vessel, belligerent or neutral, armed or unarmed, 
which does not fall under the definition of rule 1, which is em- 
ployed as a transport or fleet auxiliary or in any other way for 
the direct purpose of prosecuting or aiding hostilities, whether by 
hnid or sea; but a vessel fitted up and used exclusively as a hos- 
pital ship is excepted. 

Rule 3. A vessel of war or an auxiliary vessel of a belligerent, 
other than the United States, shall only be permitted to pass 
through the canal after her commanding officer has given written 
assurance to the authorities of the Panama Canal that the rules 
and regulations will be faithfully observed. 



244 Protection of Panama Canal. 

The authorities of the Panamal Canal shall take such steps as 
may be requisite to insure the observance of the rules and regu- 
lations by auxiliary vessels which are not commanded by an officer 
of the military fleet. 

Rule 4. Vessels of war or auxiliary vessels of a belligerent, 
other than the United States, shall not revictual nor take any 
stores in the canal except so far as may be strictly necessary ; 
and the transit of such vessels through the canal shall be effected 
with the least possible delay in accordance with the canal regu- 
lations in force, and with only sucli intermission as may result 
fiom the necessities of the service. 

Prizes shall be in all respects subject to the same rules as ves- 
sels of war of a belligerent. 

Rule 5. No vessel of war or auxiliary vessel of a belligerent, 
other than the United States, shall receive fuel or lubficants while 
within the territorial waters of the Canal Zone, except on the 
written authorization of the canal authorities, specifying the 
amount of fuel and lubricants which may be received. 

Rule 6. Before issuing any authorization for the receipt of fuel 
and lubricants by any vessel of war or auxiliary vessel of a bel- 
ligerent, other than the United States, the canal authorities shall 
obtain a written declaration, duly signed by the officer command- 
ing such vessel, stating the amount of fuel and lubricants already 
on board. 

Rule 7. Fuel and lubricants may be taken on board vessels of 
war or auxiliary vessels of a belligerent, other than the United 
States, only upon permission of the canal authorities, and then 
only in such amounts as will enable them, with the fuel and 
lubricants already on board, to reach the nearest accessible' port, 
not an enemy port, at which they can obtain supplies necessary 
for the continuation of the voyage. Provisions furnished by con- 
tractors may be supplied only upon permission of the canal au- 
thorities, and then only in amount sufficient to bring up their sup- 
plies to the peace standard. 

Rule 8. No belligerent, other than the United States, shall em- 
bark or disembark troops, munitions of war, or warlike materials 
in the canal, except in case of necessity due to accidental hind- 
rance of the transit. In such cases the canal authorities shall be 
the judge of the necessity, and the transit shall be resumed with 
all possible dispatch. 

Rule 9. Vessels of war or auxiliary vessels of a belligerent, 
other than the United States, shall not remain in the territorial 
waters of the Canal Zone under the jurisdiction of the United 
States longer than 24 hours at any one time, except in case of 
distress ; and in such case shall depart as soon as possible. 

Rule 10. In the exercise of the exclusive right of the United 
States to provide for the regulation and management of the canal, 



Regulations for Canal and Zone. 245 

and in order to insure that the canal shall be kept free and 
open on terms of entire equality to vessels of commerce and of 
war, there shall not be, except by special arrangement, at any one 
time a greater number of vessels of war of* any one nation, other 
than the United States, including those of the allies of such 
nation, than three in either terminal port and its adjacent termi- 
nal waters, or than three in transit through the canal, nor shall 
the total number of such vessels, art any one time, exceed six in 
all the territorial waters of the Canal Zone under the jurisdic- 
tion of the United States. 

Rule 11. The repair facilities and docks belonging to the United 
States and administered by the canal authorities shall not be 
used by a vessel of war or an auxiliary vessel of a belligerent, 
other than the United States, except when necessary in case of 
actual distress, and then only upon the order of the canal author- 
ities, and only to the degree necessary to render the vessel sea- 
worthy. Any work authorized shall be done with the least possi- 
ble .delay. 

"Rule 12. The radio installation of any public or private vessel 
or of any auxiliary vessel of a belligerent, other than the United 
States, shall be used only in connection with canal business to the 
exclusion of all other business while within the waters of the 
Canal Zone, including the waters of Colon and Panama Harbors. 

Rule 13. Aircraft, public or private, of a belligerent, other than 
the United States, are forbidden to descend or arise within the 
jurisdiction of the United States at the Canal Zone, or to pass 
through the air spaces above the lands and waters within said 
jurisdiction. 

Rule 14. For the purpose of these rules the Canal Zone includes 
the cities of Panama and Colon and the harbors adjacent to the 
said cities. 

Rule 15. In the interest of the protection of the canal while 
the United States is a belligerent no vessel of war, auxiliary 
vessel, or private vessel of an enemy of the United States or an 
ally of such enemy shall be allowed to use the Panama Canal 
nor the territorial waters of the Canal Zone for any purpose, 
save with the consent of the canal authorities and subject to such 
rules and regulations as they may prescribe. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused 
the seal of the United States to be affixed. 

Done at the city of Washington this 23d day of May in the year 
of our Lord 1917, and of the independence of the United States 
of America the one hundred and forty-first. 

Woodbow Wilson. 

By the President: 
Robert Lansing, 

Secretary of State. 



£46 Ameriean Requisition Orders, 

REQUISITION OF ENEMY VESSELS. 

Executive orders requisitioning enemy vessels, May 22, 19171 

[U. S. Official Bulletin, No. 18, p. 4.] 

In accordance with a request of the Secretary of the Navy, con- 
curred in by the United States Shipping Board, the Secretary of 
the Treasury is hereby directed to transfer the following German 
vessels to the Navy for use as colliers and cargo carriers : Hohen- 
felde, Frieda Leonhardt, Nicaria, Kiel, Rudolf Blumoerg, Vogesen, 
Breslau, Saxonia. 

Woodkow Wilson. 
The White House, 

May 22, 1917. 

It is hereby authorized that through the Secretary of the Navy 
there shall be taken over to the United States the immediate pos- 
session and title to the German vessels Kronprinz Wilhelm and 
Prinz Eitel Friedrich, now at the navy yard, Philadelphia, the 
Liebenfels, now at the navy yard, Charleston, and the Geir and 
Locksen now at the naval station, Hawaii, and until further direc- 
tions, the Secretary of the Navy is ordered to operate and equip 
such vessels in the service of the Navy of the United States. 

This order shall take effect from date. 

Woodeow Wilson. 

The White House, 

May 22, 1917. 

Executive order requisitioning enemy vessels, June 30, 1917. 

[U. S. Official Bulletin, No. 51, p. 1.] 

Whereas the following joint resolution adopted by Congress 
was approved by the President May 12, 1917 : 

Joint resolution authorizing the President to take over for the United 
States the possession and title of any vessel within its jurisdiction 
which at the time of coming therein was owned in Whole or in part 
by any corporation, citizen, or subject of any nation with which the 
United States may be at war, or was under register of any such na- 
tion, and for other purposes. 

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representativecs of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled, That the President be, and he is 
hereby, authorized to take over to the United States the immediate pos- 
session and title of any vessel within the jurisdiction thereof, including 
the Canal Zone and all territories and insular possessions of the United 
States except the American Virgin Islands, which at the time of coming 
into such jurisdiction was owned in whole or in part by any corporation, 
citizen, or subject of any nation with which the United- States may be at 
war when such vessel shall be taken, or was flying the flag or was under 

1 For documents relating to treatment of enemy vessels at outbreak of 
war by other countries, see International Law Topics, 1915, pp. 19 et seq. 



Requisition of Enemy Vessels. 247 

register of any such nation or any political subdivision or municipality 
thereof: and, through the United Stales Shipping Board, or any depart- 
ment or agency of the Government, to operate, lease, charter, and equip 
such vessel in any service of the United States, or in any commerce, 
foreign or coastwise. 

Sec. 2. That the Secretary of the Navy be, and he is hereby, authorized 
and directed to appoint, subject to the approval of the President, a board 
of survey, whose duty it shall be to ascertain the actual value of the 
vessel, its equipment, appurtenances, and all property contained therein, 
at the time of its taking, and to make a written report of their findings 
to the Secretary of the Navy, who shall preserve such report with the 
records of his department. These findings shall be considered as com- 
petent evidence in all proceedings on any claim for compensation. 

And whereas the following vessels were, at the time of coming 
into the jurisdiction of the United States, owned in whole or in 
part by a corporation, citizen, or subject of the Empire of Ger- 
many, a nation with which the United States is now at war, or 
were flying the flag of or under the register of the Empire of Ger- 
many, or of a political subdivision or municipality thereof : 

Vaterland, Amerika, Kaiser Wilhelm II, President Grant, Penn- 
sylvania, Bulgaria, Prinzess Irene, Hamburg, Neckar, Bohemia, 
Rhaetia, Wittekind, Armenia, Adamsturm, Willehad, Serapis, 
Allemannia, Nassovia, Maia, Neptun, O. J. I). AMers, Prinz Walde- 
mar, Loongmoon, Govemeur Jaeschke, Darvel, Princess Alice., 
Wiegand, Bochum, Carl Diederichsen, Coblenz, Esslingen, Lyee- 
moon, Pongtong, Sachsen, Suevia, Steinbeck, Elsass, Indra, Ar- 
noldus Vinnen, Ottdwa, Grunewald, Sachs ewwald, Staatssekretar 
Solf, Aroa (lighter), George Washington, Kronprinzessin Cecile, 
President Lincoln, Cincinnati, Grosser Kurfurst, Barbarossa, 
Friedrich der Grosse, Rhein, Konig Wilhelm II, Koln, Prinz Oskar, 
Ockenfels, Arcadia, Pisa, Prinz Joachim, Harburg, Portonia, Clara 
Mennig, Pom mem, Setos, Holsatia, Staatssekretar Kraetke, Bor- 
neo, Marudu, Tsintau, Andalusia, Camilla Rickmers, Clara Jeb- 
sen, Elmshom, Johanne, Mark, Rajah, Sambia, Tubingen, Dalbek, 
Magdeburg, Matador, Kurt, Andromeda, Prinz Sigismund, Savoia, 
Ami (lighter), Argus (lighter). 

It is therefore ordered that through the United States Shipping- 
Board there be taken over to the United States the possession and 
title of the aforementioned vessels. The United States Shipping 
Board is further hereby authorized to repair, equip, and man the 
said vessels ; to operate, lease, or charter the same in any service 
of the United States, or in any commerce, foreign or coastwise; 
and to do and perform any and all things that may be necessary 
to accomplish the purposes of the joint resolution above set forth. 

Woodkow Wilson. 

The White House, 

June SO, 1911. 



248 American Requisition Orders. 

Executive order requisitioning enemy vessels, July 8, 1911. 
[U. S. Official Bulletin, No. 47, p. 5.] 

Whereas the following joint resolution adopted by Congress was 
approved by the President May 12, 1917 : 

Joint resolution authorizing the President to take over for the United 
States the possession and title of any vessel within its jurisdiction, 
which at the time of coming therein was owned in whole or in part by 
any corporation, citizen, or subject of any nation with which the 
United States may be at war, or was under register of any such nation, 
and for other purposes. 

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled, That the President be, and he is 
hereby, authorized to take over to the United States the immediate pos- 
session and title of any vessel within the jurisdiction thereof, including 
the Canal Zone and all territories and insular possessions of the United 
States except the American Virgin Islands, which at the time of coming 
into such jurisdiction was owned in whole or in part of any corporation, 
citizen, or subject of any nation with which the United States may be 
at war when such vessel shall be taken, or was flying the flag of or was 
under register of any such nation or any political subdivision or munici- 
pality thereof ; and, through the United States Shipping Board, or any 
department or agency of the Government, to operate, lease, charter, and 
equip such vessel in any service of the United States, or in any com- 
merce, foreign or coastwise, 

Sec. 2. That the Secretary of the Navy be, and he is hereby, authorized 
and directed to appoint, subject to the approval of the President, a board 
of survey, whose duty it shall be to ascertain the actual value of the 
vessel, its equipment, appurtenances, and all property contained therein, 
at the time of its taking, and to make a written report of their findings 
to the Secretary of the Navy, who shall preserve such report with the 
records of his department. These findings shall be considered as compe- 
tent evidence in all proceedings on any claim for compensation. 

And whereas the following vessel was, at the time of coming 
into the jurisdiction of the United States, owned in whole or in 
part by a corporation, citizen, or subject of the Empire of Ger- 
many, a nation with which the United States is now at war, or 
was flying the flag of or under the register of the Empire of 
Germany, or of a political subdivision or municipality thereof : 
Cargo steamship Prinz Eitel Friedrich, now lying at Hoboken, 
N. J. 

It is therefore ordered that through the United States Shipping 
Board there be taken over to the United States the possession and 
title of the aforementioned vessel. The United States Shipping 
Board is further hereby authorized to repair, equip, and man said 
vessel ; to operate, lease, or charter the same in any service of 
the United States, or in any commerce, foreign or coastwise; and 
to do and perform any and all things that may be necessary to 
accomplish the purposes of the joint resolution above set forth. 

Woodbow Wilson. 

The White House, 

July 3, 1917. 



Neutrality Decree, Uruguay. '2.M) 

URUGUAY. 

Dtcree modifying neutrality regulations in case of war by Ameri- 
can countries, June 18, 1917. 

[U. S. Official Bulletin No. 35, p. 2.] 

Considering that in various communications the Government ot 
Uruguay has proclaimed the principle of American solidarity as 
the criterion of its international policy, understanding that the 
grievance against the rights of one country of the continent 
should be considered as a grievance by all and provoke them to 
uniform and common reaction ; 

Second, that in the hope of seeing an agreement in this respect 
realized between the nations of America which may make the 
practical and efficient application of such ideals possible, the 
Government has adopted a watchful attitude with reference to its 
action, although it has signified in each case its sympathy with 
the continental nations which have been seen themselves obliged 
to abandon their neutrality ; 

Considering that, as long as such an agreement is not made, 
Uruguay, without acting contrary to its sentiments and convic- 
tions, could not treat the American nations which in defense of 
their own rights find themselves compromised in an interconti- 
nental war, as belligerents; and 

Considering that this criterion is shared by the Honorable 
Senate, 

The President of the Republic 

At a general cabinet meeting 

Decrees : 

First. To order that no American country which in defense of 
its own rights should find itself in a state of war with nations of 
other continents will be treated as belligerents. 

Second. That it is ordered that existing decrees which may be 
in opposition to this resolution are to remain without fulfillment. 

Third. Let it be communicated, published, etc. 

VlEEA. 

Baltasae Betjm. 
Aettjeo Gayo. 
Pablo Vaesi (Hijo). 
Feedeeico Vidiella. 
rodolfo mexxeea. 
Jtjslino Jimenez De Aeechaga. 
Santiago Rivas. 



250 Statement of neutrality, Venezuela. 

Decree breaking diplomatic relations with Germany, October 

7, 1917. 1 

[U. S. Official Bulletin No. 128, p. 1.] 

Montevideo, October 7, 1917. 

In view of the authority granted the executive power by law 
of the nation of this elate, authorizing said power to declare 
diplomatic and commercial- relations broken between Uruguay 
and the Imperial Government and the reasons which have caused 
the legislative decision which are absolutely shared by the 
executive power, the President of the Republic at a general cabi- 
net meeting decrees : 

Article 1. From the date of the present decree diplomatic and 
commercial relations between .Uruguay and the German Imperial 
Government remain broken. 

Aet. 2. That the respective passports be handed over to the 
diplomatic representative of that Government, all the guarantees 
for his personal safetly being granted to him at the same time 
until his removal from the country. 

Aet. 3» That telegraphic instructions be transmitted to the 
functionaries of the Republic in office in Germany to the effect 
that they immediately abandon the German territory, requesting 
the same guarantees which are granted to the German representa- 
tive by the Government of Uruguay. 

Vieea. 

VENEZUELA. 

Official statement of neutrality, May 27, 1917. 

Our diplomatic relations with the nations have not suffered 
interruption, and we find ourselves at peace with all. We have 
known how to adjust our conduct to the rules of international law, 
preserving the strictest neutrality in the gigantic struggle in which 
for three years the great European powers have been involved, 
and no one is able to reproach us with a single infraction of our 
duty as a neutral. Conforming to this rule of conduct, when on 
February 24 of the present year the German legation, on orders 
of its Government, communicated to our chancellery the unprece- 
dented extension it had resolved to give to the submarine war, 
manifestly departing from the practices accepted up to now, Vene- 
zuela responded that it would adjust its procedure to the principles 
of international law which govern the rights and duties of neu- 
trals. Up to the present time nothing has occurred in which we 



1 By decree of October 15, 1917, the neutrality decrees so far as relating 
to France, England, Belgium, Italy, Portugal, Russia, Japan, Serbia, 
Roumania, and Montenegro were revoked, TJ. S. Off. Bull., No. 136, p. 3. 



Attitude of Venezuela. -i'->\ 

have been directly injured as a result of the operations of the 
German submarines. Therefore we do not consider ourselves 
involved in the complications which have brought the United 
States to war with the German Empire. 

Venezuela, through her attitude of respect for law, stands for 
the defense of the life and property of her nationals ; sbe follows 
the development of events with the natural interest which arises 
from the principle in defense of which the United States has 
entered the war, because of the traditional friendship she has for 
that nation (the United States), and because of those general 
interests which are common to the republics of the continent. 



INDEX. 



Accession to convention, 143, 148. 
Acquiescence (see Neutral States, acquiescence). 
Acquisition of territory (see Annexation, Territory). 
Act of war (see Hostile act, Territory). 
Adhesion to declaration, 89. 
Adriatic Sea : 

blockade of, 174. 

Italian demands in respect to, 166. 

mined area, 97. 
vEgean Sea : 

blockade of, 93, 136. 

mined area, 69. 
Aerial domain, in Panama Canal Zone, 245. 

See also Aircraft. 
Aeroplane (see Aircraft). 
Africa, war zone on west coast of, 115. 

See also Cameroons, Central Africa, Congo, Cyrenaica, Egypt, Lybia, 
Morocco, Tripoli, Ubangi. 
Aircraft : 

alien enemy not to possess, 228. 

attacks by, without warning, 154. 

forbidden to approach merchant vessel, 154. 

forbidden in Panama Canal Zone, 245. 

require permit in neutral territory, 192. 
Aland Islands, 2.10. 
Albania : 

blockade of, 173, 174. 

blockade of protested, 173. 

Italian demands in reference to, 166. 

neutrality of recognized, 173. 

use of as base of operations, 173. 
Alexander, King of Greece, 161. 
Alien enemies : 

detention of, 229, 232. 

internment of, 212. 

liability of, violating regulations, 229, 232. 

not to approach military area, 228. 

not to commit hostile act, 228. 

not to depart without permit, 228, 232. 

not to enter United States, 229, 232. 

not to have air craft,* 228. 

not to have firearms, 228. 

not to have radio or signaling apparatus, 228. 

not to publish seditious article, 228. 

not to reside in prohibited area, 228. 

permitted to reside, 226, 227, 231. 

removal of, authorized, 226, 228, 232. 

required to register, 229. 

subject to summary arrest, 229. 

to preserve peace, 227, 231. 

United States, act in reference to, 226, 231. 

253 



254 Index. 

Aliens : 

Denmark, law relating to supervision of, 80. 

property and rights to be protected, 61. 

violation of rights of, 170. 

See also Alien enemies, persons. 
Alliance : 

Arabia-Entente powers, 21. 

Greece-Serbia, obligations of, 159. 

Italy-Austria, 163. 

Japan-Great Britain, 175, 176, 177. 

Portugal-England, 200. 

United States-Panama, 196. 

See also Declarations of war, Entente, Triple alliance. 
Allied vessel (see Vessel, allied). 
Allies (see Entente). 

American continent, solidarity of, 60, 65, 198, 249. 
American nations : 

cooperation of recommended, 59, 198. 

duty to support United States, 77. 

relations of, 197. 

not to be treated as belligerents, 249. 

common interests of, 251. 
' Amphion, British vessel sunk by mine, 120. 
Anchorage, permits necessary, 188. 
Annexation of territory, 113, 119. 
Appraisal of vessel (see Requisition, Sale). 
Approach, right of (see Submarine vessels, Aircraft). 
Arabia : 

attitude toward Turkey, JL7. 

attitude toward Moslem community, 18. 

proclamations of independence, 17, 20. 

relations with Great Britain, 21, 220. 

See also Asir, Bagdad, Hedjaz, Keweyt, Mesca, Nejd. 
Arbitration, proposed by Serbia, 49. 

See also Pacific Settlement, Hague, International Tribunal of. 
Arctic Ocean, war zone in, 115. 
Areas, prohibited, 190, 228. 

See also Blockade, Defensive sea areas, Military areas, Mined areas, 
Territorial waters, Territory, War ports, War zones. 
Argentine Republic : 

attitude toward war, 37. 

coaling of vessels, 25, 36. 

dismissal of German minister, 37, -38. 

internment, 30, 31. 

neutrality declaration, 32. 

radio telegraphy, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 33, 34, 36. 

sojourn, 22, 23, 29. 

telegraphy, 24. „ 

transfer of flag, 30. 
Armament, definition of, 154. 

See also Armed merchant vessel. 
Armed fleet (see Fleet, military; Vessels). 
Armed forces : 

employment of authorized, 77, 178. 

not to be landed in Panama Canal Zone, 244. 

recourse to, 49, 50. 

supply of by Germany to Austria, 172. 



Index. 25/5 

Aimed merchant vessels : 

assistance by, 154. 

defensive character, 23, 153, 155. 

evidences of character, 24. 

German interpretation of instructions on, 155. 

Great Britain, instructions for conduct of, 153. 

Great Britain, policy in reference to, 155. 

not to change status at sea, 154. 

not to obstruct passage of other vessels, 153. 

not to use arms in neutral waters, 23. 

suspected, precautions in reference to, 23, 24. 

to attack hostile submarines, 154, 155. 

United States, notification of use of, 225. 

use of disguises by, forbidden, 154, 155. 
Arming vessels in neutral territory (see Base of operations, Territorial 

waters). 
Arms and munitions : 

alien enemy not to possess, 22S. 

illicit traffic in, 40. 

supply of by Germany to Austria, 171. 
■Asia; Eastern (see Far East). 
Asia Minor, blockade of, 92, 136. 
Asir, Arabia, 21. 
Aspri Ruga, 174. 
Asylum in neutral waters : 

to belligerent war vessels — 

in Panama Canal Zone, 245. 

" lack of fuel and provisions," 62, 186, 218. 

" necessary repairs," 185, 217, 218, 245. 

" stress of weather," 62, 185, 186, 194, 195, 215, 217, 218. 

" unseaworthiness," 62, 70, 186, 218. 

to belligerent merchant vessels — 
discharge of merchandise, 62. 

to prizes, 62, 186, 218. 

to submarine vessels, 194, 215. 

See also Base of Operations,' Prizes, Sojourn. 
Atrocities, in Arabia, 18, 19. 

»S*ee also Submarine warfare. 
Austria-Hungary : 

attitude toward submarine warfare, 72, 75. 

blockade of coast, 172, 173. 

blockade declaration by, 53. 

concessions to Italy, 166. 

cooperation with Germany, 87. 

declares China's declaration of war unconstitutional, 74. 

declaration of war, 15, 49, 50, 51, 104, 183. 

destruction of, alleged Entente war aim, 111. 

diplomatic relations, breaking of, 16, 49, 51, 52. 

hostilities authorized by, 51. 

mining of Adriatic Sea by, 97. 

policy of, in Balkans, 165, 204. 

policy of, with respect to Italy, 167, 168. 

protest against blockade, 172, 173. 

rejection of Italian demands, 167. 

responsible for war, 117, 164. 

threat to attack Italy in 1911, 168. 

to respect Hague conventions and Declaration of London, 50. 



256 Index. 

Austria-Hungary — Continued. 

treaties with China abrogated, 75. 
ultimatum to Serbia, 38. 
reply to, 42, 210. 

declared in violation of treaty, 164. 
violation of Triple Alliance, 163. 

See also Declarations of war ; Diplomatic relations, breaking of ; 
Triple Alliance. 
Automatic mines (see Mines). ' ■ 

Auxiliary vessels (see Base of operations, Vessels). 
Aviators, hostile acts by, 103. 

See also Aerial domain, Aircraft. 
Azores, war zone around, 115. 
Bagdad, proclamation of, 20. 
Balance of power : 

in Balkans, 68, 69, 165, 204. 
Enropean, 206. 

balance of power in, 68, 69, 165. 
Italian interests in, 165. 
Roumanian policy in, 204. 
Triple alliance treaty on, 165. 
Balkan Wars (1912-13), 67, 204, 220. 
Balloons (see Aircraft). 
Base of Operations : 

arming belligerent vessels in neutral territory forbidden, 22, 79, 185, 

186. 
augmenting crew of belligerent war vessel in neutral territory, for- 
bidden, 185. 
departure of vessel intended to cruise, from neutral territory, for- 
bidden, 186. 
establishment of coaling station in neutral territory forbidden, 30, 

186, 218. 
for intrigue, 76. 
for submarine vessels, 99. 
in Albania, 173. 
in Greece, 161. 
in Portuguese territory, 104. 
relation of, to coaling, 26. 
repair of belligerent war vessel in neutral territory, forbidden without 

authorization, 79, 185. 
use of neutral territory as, forbidden, 79, 186, 218. 
See, also, Asylum ; Coaling ; Hague conventions, 1907, XIII ; Provi- 
sioning ; Radiotelegraphy ; Sojourn ; Territory ; Transmission of 
intelligence. 
Battleships (see Fleet, military; Vessels, war). 
Beirut, closed port, 217. 
Belgian Congo (see Congo). 
Belgium : 

annexation of, by Germany, not intended, 113. 
appeal to Great Britain for intervention, 116. 
departure of minister from Luxemburg, 57. 
diplomatic relations, breaking of, 54, 59. 
international obligations of, 53, 58. 
national honor of, 54. 
neutrality of — 

guarantee by powers, 54. 
protests against violation, 53, 54, 55, 
resolution to resist violation, 54, 55. 
violation by France, alleged, 53, 101, 103. 
violation by Germany, 53, 116. 
violation, grounds for war, 159. 



Index. 257 

Belgium — Continued. 

neutrality of — Continued. 

passage of territory demanded by Germany, 102. 
reply to Austrian declaration of war, 58. 
ultimatum to, by Germany, SG, 102. 
See, also, neutrality proclamations, neutralization. 
Belligerent nationality, persons of {see Armed forces, Internment, Per- 
sons). 
Belligerent state : 

American nation not to be treated as, 249. 
business house of, not to trade in neutral territory, 180. 
incitement against, in neutral territory, forbidden, 84. 
interests of, in enemy country {see Diplomatic officer, neutral), 
trade with, by neutrals, forbidden {see Commercial restrictions). 
See, also, Declarations of war ; Neutrality proclamations. 
Belligerent vessels in neutral waters {see Asylum, Base of Operations, 

Coaling, Provisioning, Sojourn, Territorial Waters). 
Belligerent warship {See Vessels, war.) 
Belligerents, rights of. {See Blockade, Capture, Contraband, Unneutral 

Service, Visit and Search, War.) 
Benevolent neutrality {see also Neutrality), 198. 
Berlin, General act of (1885) {see also Treaties), 56. 

Treaty of (1878) {see also Treaties), 38, 204. 
Bill of lading, ship's paper, 152. 
Blacklist : 

Great Britain, act relating to, 158. 
trading with firms on, forbidden, 158. 
Black Sea : 

mined area in, 69. 
Turkish navy forbidden in, 207. 
Blockade : 

days of grace, 91, 92, 93, 135, 136, 137, 173, 174, 177. 
effective, 53, 92, 93, 173. 
extension of, 92, 136. 
hunger, 115. 

liability for violation of, 151, 175. 
neutral coasts subject to, 168, 173. 
notification of, 91, 92, 93, 94, 135, 136, 173. 
permit to enter, 174. 
raising of, 92, 136, 177. 
restriction of, 91, 135, 173. 
regulations relating to, 175. 
war zone described as, 115. 
Blockade declarations : 

Austria-Hungary, of Montenegro (1914), 53. 
France, of Cameroons (1915), 91. 
Asia Minor (1915), 92. 
Bulgaria (1915), 92. 
Cavalla (1916), 93. 
Greece (1916), 93. 

Germany (Retaliatory measures, 1915), 94. 
Macedonia (1916), 93. 
Germany. {See War zones.) 
Great Britain, of ^Egean Sea (1916), 136. 
Asia Minor (1915), 136. 
Bulgaria (1915), 136. 
Cameroons (1915), 135. 
German East Africa (1915), 135. 

Germany (Retaliatory measures, 1915), 137, 138, 141, 142. 
43760—18 17 



258 Index. 



Blockade declarations — Continued. 

Italy, of Adriatic Sea (1915), 174. 
Albania (1915), 173. 
Austria-Hungary (1915), 172. 

Japan, of Kiao Chou (1914), 177. 

See also Commercial restrictions, War zones. 
Bolivia : 

diplomatic relations, breaking of, 17, 60, 198. 

German subjects and property to be protected in, 61. 

neutrality, presidential message relating to, 59. 

policy of American cooperation proposed, 60. 
Bombardment of undefended towns, 181, 207. 
Bombs : 

alien enemy not to possess, 228. 

use of by aviators, 103. 
Bosnia, 38, 41, 42. 

Boundaries, strategical, Italian demands of, 166. 
Brazil : 

declaration of war, 15, 65. 

diplomatic relations, breaking of, 17, 64, 198. 

discharge of merchandise, 62. . > 

neutrality, decree of, 61. 

neutrality, regulations of, 62. 

neutrality, revocation of, 64. 

taking over of national vessels, 63. 
Breaking diplomatic relations (see Diplomatic relations, breaking of). 
Breslau, Turkish vessel, 119. 
Brooerg, Danish vessel destroyed by mine, 121. 
Bucharest, peace of (1913), 67, 69. 
Bulgaria : 

blockade of, 92, 136. 

declarations of war, 15, 66, 67. 

hereditary enemy of Greece, 160. 

hostilities commenced by, 66. 

mining of coast, 69. 

neutrality declaration, 66. 

perfidy of, 159, 208. 

policy of, 209. 

subservient to Germany, 208. 

Bee also Declarations of war ; Diplomatic relations, breaking of. 
Bullets {see Arms and munitions ; Warfare, means of). 
Bunkers, coal (see Coaling). 

Business, carrying on, in enemy territory (see Blacklist, Commercial re- 
strictions) . 
Caoo Corrientes, Argentine vessel, suspected of unneutral service, 27. 
Cables, interruption of, by Portugal, 105. 

See also Telegraphy ; Transmission on intelligence. 
Canal (see Panama Canal ; Suez Canal). 
Cameroons : 

blockade of, 91, 92, 135, 136. 

defense against, 56. 
Cape Verde Islands, war zone around, 115. 
Captor, responsibility of, 137. 
Capture : 

forbidden in neutral waters, 218. 

liability of vessel to, 140, 143, 175. 

procedure after, 150. 

report of, to be made, 151. 

use of ruse to escape, 154. 

See also Captor ; Destruction ; Joint captor ; Persons ; Prize ; Terri- 
torial waters ; Vessels ; Visit and search. 



Index. 259 

Cargo : 

evidences of character, 152. 
jurisdiction of, on national vessels, 146. 
liability of, on blockade runners, 175. 

gee also Contraband; Enemy goods; Neutral goods; Requisition. 
Cavalla : 

blockade of, 93. 

German guaranty in reference to, 161. 
Censorship (see Opinion; Transmission of intelligence). 
Central Africa, elimination of from area of war, 56. 
Central Powers (see Triple Alliance). 
Cession of territory (see Annexation; Territory). 
Charter Party, ships' papers, 152. 
Chief of State, vessel carrying exempt, 188. 
Chile : Sojourn of vessels, 69. 
China : 

attitude toward peace, 72. 

constitutionality of declaration of war, 74, 76. 
declarations of war, 71, 73, 74, 75, 76. 
diplomatic relations, breaking of, 17, 70, 71. 
disorder in, 73, 76. 
Kiau Chau, to be restored to, 176. 
protest against German war zone, 71. 

to respect Hague Conventions and international law, 71, 72. 
treaties with enemy powers abrogated, 74, 75. 
Cipher- (see Alien Enemy, Transmission of intelligence). 
Citizens (see Persons). 
Civilization, 54, 56, 167. 

Clearance of Vessels (see Base of Operations, Vessels). 
Coal, scarcity of, due to war, 36. 
Coaling vessels in neutral port : 

Argentine Republic, general orders relating to, 25, 36. 
Merchant vessels — 

forbidden if intended for belligerent war vessel, 30. 
" first stopping place," 37. 
Merchant vessels of belligerent nationality — 

" full bunkers," 26, 
Prizes, 218. 
War vessels of belligerent nationality — 

declaration to be made of amount on board, 244. 
forbidden without authorization, 79, 104, 217. 
" full bunkers," 185. 
in Panama Canal Zone, 244. 
neutral obligations in reference to, 26. 
three months' rule, 185. 
relation to base of operations, 26. 
See also Base of Operations, Provisioning. 
Coaling station in neutral territory forbidden, 30, 186, 218 (see also Base 

of Operations). 
Codes (see Transmission of intelligence). 
Colon, Panama, 245. 

Colonies, defense of, justifies war, 170. 
Colors (see Flag, False flag). 

Combatants (see Armed forces, Persons, Prisoners of war). 
Commander of belligerent war vessel, obligations of (see Asylum, Capture, 

Coaling, Prizes, Provisioning, Sojourn, Vessels, Visit, and Search). 
Commercial courts, to act as prize courts, 201. 
Commercial relations, breaking of, 250. 
Commerce, liberty of, 78. 

See also Freedom of the seas. 



260 Index. 

Commercial restrictions : 
by belligerent — 

France, decree relating to trade with enemy territory, 94. 
Great Britain, orders in council relating to trade with enemy 

territory, 138, 141, 142. 
international law violated by, 108, 112, 114, 223. 
joint declaration of policy, France and Great Britain, 137. 

See also Blacklist, Blockade, Contraband, Freedom of the 
Seas, Mines areas, Navigation, Retaliatory measures, 
Trading with the enemy, War zones. 
by neutrals — 

Denmark, law relating to declaration of commercial trans- 
actions, 82. 
law relating to impartiality in commercial regulations, 84. 
Dominican Republic, decree relating to declaration of commercial 

voyages, 85, 86. 
Liberia, proclamation prohibiting trade with belligerents, 179. 
See also Mines areas, Navigation, Sojourn, Territory, Trans- 
mission of intelligence. 
Communication, means of {see Radiotelegraphy, Signals, Telegraphy, Tele- 
phone, Transmission of intelligence). 
Compensation, measure of, in case of requisition, 157, 201. 

See also Damages, Indemnity. 
Condemnation : 

consequences of, 147. 
liability of vessel to, 140, 143. 
requisition of vessel prior to, -157. 
See also Prize courts. 
Confiscation : 

of goods, 138, 180. 
of vessel, 175, 219. 

See also Condemnation, Destruction, Requisition. 
Congo : 

Belgian, neutrality of, 56. 
conventional basin of, 56, 118. 
hostilities in, 118. 
Conquest, spirit of, 204. 
Consuls : 

archives of, seized, 105. 
departure of, 52, 104, 207, 208, 209. 
display of flag by, in neutral territory, permitted, 83. 
exequaturs revoked, 90, 162, 181. 
France, decree relating to, 90. 
neutral in charge of foreign interests, 171. 
passports to, 71, 75. 

to declare voyage of national vessel, 85, 86. 
Continuous voyage : 

application to blockade, 95, 142. 
application to contraband, 108, 202. 

application to destination of goods, 95, 108, 139, 143, 202. 
application to origin of goods, 95, 140, 143. 
Contraband : 

definition of, 202. 

destination of, 145, 202. 

distinction of absolute and conditional abandoned, 108. 

extension of lists illegal, 108. 

liability of, vessel carrying, 151, 178, 203. 

liability of vessel on return voyage, 203. 

not effected by retaliatory decree, 96, 139. 



Index. 261 

Contraband — Continued. 

Portugal, decree relating to, 202. 

vessels permitted in war zone, not to carry, 111. 

See also Arms and munitions, Continuous Voyage. 
Conversations, Italy and Austria, 165. 
Conversion : 

of armed merchant vessels not permitted at sea, 154. 

of merchant vessels, 22. 

vessels capable of, 203. 

See also Hague conventions, 1907, VII. 
Convoy, 188. 
Cooperation : 

in defense of law, suggested by United States, 224. 

in retaliatory measures by Entente powers, 139. 

of Americas, suggested, 77, 198, 249. 

of Panama with United States in war, 196, 197. 

to prevent war, suggested by Germany, 113. 
Copenhagen, compulsory pilotage in vicinity of, 80. 
Costa Rica : 

declaration of war, 77. 

diplomatic relations, breaking of, 17. 

friendship for the United States, 77. 
Crew of vessels (see Internment, Prizes, Officers, Persons). 
Creeks, blockaded, 173. 
Criminal law (see Penal Code). 
Criminal proceedings, national jurisdiction in, 47. 
Cruisers (see Vessels, war). 
Cuba : 

declaration of war, 15, 77. 

diplomatic relations, breaking of, 198. 
Customs regulations, 82, 186, 189, 218. 

Curzalari Archipelago, Italian demands in reference to, 166. 
Cypress, annexation of, by Great Britain, 119. 
Cyrenaica, Italian demands in reference to, 169. 
Dakar, war zone around, 115. 
Dalmatian coast, mining of, 97. 
Damages, claims for, 102, 158, 201, 219. 

See also Compensation, Indemnity. 
Damages to vessel, repair of (see Asylum). 
Danish language, telegrams in, permitted, 191, 192. 
Dardanelles : 

blockade of, 92. 

closing of, 219. 

expedition, Greek cooperation in proposed, 160. 
Days of . grace : 

blockade (see Blockade). 

enemy vessels in port, 103. 

reciprocity required, 103. 

war zone (see War zone). 
Declaration of blockade (see Blockade declarations). 
Declaration of London (1909) : 

Austria-Hungary to act in accordance with, 50. 

declaratory of international law, 108. 

German attitude toward, 109. 

Great Britain, repudiation of, 108. 

provisions of, on blockade, 173. 
Declaration of neutrality (see Neutrality proclamations). 
Declaration of Paris (1856), violated by Great Britain, 108. 



262 Index. 

Declaration of war : 

acts by party declared against, stated as justification for — . 

acts of aggression, 103. 

acts of war, 226, 230. 

alliance with enemy, 119, 171, 172. 

coauthor of aggression by enemy, 88. 

cooperation with the enemy, 91. 

economic assistance to enemy, 171, 172. 

effort to humiliate national honor, 161. 

hostile acts, 66, 86, 87, 90, 105, 119, 170, 171, 212. 

hostile acts against ally, 50, 118, 161, 171. 

inhuman treatment of nationals, 51. 

insulting action, 105. 

invasion of territory, 161. 

jeopardizing of safety and existence, 101. 

military assistance to enemy, 88, 116, 171, 172. 

military assistance to enemy of ally, 161. 

military cooperation with enemy, 51. 

mobilization of forces, 100. 

policy of hostility, 220. 

provocative action, 65. 

rejection of ultimatum, 117, 177. 

subversive intrigues, 50. 

threat to territorial integrity, 50. 

threatening attitude, 51. 

unfriendy acts and hostilities, 68. 

unneutral behaviour, 105. 

violation of guarantees, 117, 161. 

violation of neutral rights, 161. 
„ violation of promise in reply to ultimatum, 170, 171. 

violation of treaties, 86, 105, 106, 117, 170, 171. 

war declaration against ally, 106, 118, 119. 
constitutional procedure, China, 74, 76. 
effect of, on alien enemies, 226, 231. 
effect of, on treaties, 72, 74, 75, 220. 
list of in European war, 15. 
principles stated as reason for — 

common cause with democratic nations, 197. 

defense of colonies, 170, 171. 

defense of ideals of law, right, justice, and democracy, 77. 

defense of justice, 78. 

defense of welfare of Islam, 220. 

defense of liberty of commerce, 78. 

defense of navigation of the seas, 78. 

defense of rights of neutrals, 178. 

fulfillment of national aspirations, 163. 

fulfillment of obligations under alliance, 177. 

maintenance of international law, 74, 77. 

prevent predominance of the world by Teutonic Powers, 197. 

protection of national lives and property, 74, 77. 

protection of national rights and interests, 49, 50, 78, 163. 

protection of Panama Canal, 196. 

providing for national security, 78. 

realization of national unity, 206. 

safeguard' high interests of the state, 170, 171. 

safeguard national territory, 78, 196. 

safeguard racial interests, 206. 

uphold sanctity of international rights, 212. 
replies to, 58, 208. 
See also Hague Conventions, 1907, III ; Hostilities ; War. 



Index. 203 

Declarations of War : 

Austria-Hungary, against — 

Belgium (1914), 15, 51. 

J.apan, hostilities authorized (1914), 15, 51. 

Montenegro, hostilities authorized (1914), 15, 188. 

Portugal (reported 1916), 104. 

Russia (1914), 15, 50. 

Serbia (1914), 15, 49. 
Brazil against Germany (1917), 15, 65. 
Bulgaria against — 

Roumania (1916), 67. 

Serbia (1915), 15, 66. 
China against — 

Austria-Hungary (1917), 15, 74. 

Germany (1917), 15, 73. 
Costa Rica against Germany (1918), 77. 
Cuba against Germany (1917), 15, 77. 
France, against — 
, Austria-Hungary (1914), 15, 88, 118, 

Bulgaria (1915), 15, 91. 

Germany (1914), 15, 86. 

Turkey (1914), 15, 90. 
Germany, against — 

Belgium (hostilities authorized, 1914), 15, 102. 

France (1914), 15, 103. 

Portugal (1916), 15, 104. 

Roumania (1916), 15, 106. 

Russia (1914), 15, 100. 
Great Britain, against — 

Austria-Hungary (1914), 15, 117. 

Bulgaria (1915), 15, 119. 

Germany (1914), 15, 115. 

Turkey (1914), 15, 119. 
Greece, against — 

Bulgaria (1916), 15, 159, 161. 

Germany (1916), 16, 159, 161. 
Guatemala, against Germany (1918), 162. 
Italy, against — 

Austria-Hungary (1915), 16, 163. 

Bulgaria (1915), 16, 171. 

Germany (1916), 16, 171. 

Turkey (1915), 16, 169. 
Japan, against Germany (1914), 16, 176. 
Liberia, against Germany (1917), 16, 180. 
Montenegro, against — - 

Austria-Hungary (1914), 16, 182. 

Germany (1914), 16, 183. 
Nicaragua, against Germany (1918), 77. 
Panama, against — 

Austria-Hungary (1917), 16, 196. 

Germany (1917), 16, 196.. 
Portugal, against Germany (intervention authorized, 1914), 16, 199. 
Roumania, against Austria-Hungary (1916), 16, 203. 
Russia, against — 

Bulgaria (1915), 16, 209. 

Turkey (1914), 16, 208. 
Sanmarine, against Austria-Hungary (1915), 16, 163. 



264 Index. 

Declarations of War — Continued. 
Serbia, against — 

Bulgaria (1915), 16, 212. 
Germany (1914), 16, 211. 
Turkey (1914), 16, 221. 
Siam, against — 

Austria-Hungary (1917), 16, 212. 
Germany (1917), 16, 212. 
Turkey, against — 

Allies (1914), 16, 219. 
Roumania (1916), 16, 222. 
United States, against — 

Austria-Hungary (1917), 16, 230. 
Germany (1917), 16, 225. 
De facto power in Greece, 161. 
De facto situation, 172, 204, 205. 
Defense (see Self-defense). 

merchant vessels armed for (see Armed merchant vessels). 
Defense of the realm, 189, 192. 

Defense secrets, Norway, resolution relating to, 192. 
Defensive sea areas : 

entrances of, 238, 241, 242. 

fisheries in, 238, 242. 

navigation in, 237. 

Panama Canal Zone, 241. 

penalty for violation of regulations, 238, 242. 

pilotage in, 238, 242. 

responsibility for damage in, 238, 242. 

United States — - 

Executive orders establishing, 233, 240, 241. 
Regulations for, 237. 
vessels to fly national flag in, 237, 242. 

See also Blockade, Commercial restrictions, Military ar<as, Mined 
areas, War zones. 
De Jure situation, 172, 204. 
Dell Armi, Cape, 174. 

Democracy, defense of, by United States, 77. 
Democratic nations, 197. 
Denmark : 

aliens, supervision of, 80. 
flag, use of false, 83. 
neutrality proclamation, 78. 
neutrality, penalties for violation of, 82. 
pilotage, compulsory, 80. 
territory, protection of, 79, 80. 
vessels, false declaration of destination, 82, 85. 
vessels, regulation of, 83. 
vessels, sale of, 84. 
vessels, service on belligerent, 82. 
waters excluded from mined area, 133, 134. 
Departure of vessels (see Territorial waters). 
Deportation, for offenses against neutrality, 80. 
Destination : 

enemy (see Enemy destination). 

false (see False destination). 

port of, to be declared, 29, 85, 86. 

ultimate (see Continuous voyage,. Contraband). 



Index. 265 

Destruction : 

of merchant vessels — 

by mines, 126. 

by submarine vessels, 61, fc'4, 70, 73, 161, 223. 

in war zone, 72, 107, 112, 223. 

without warning, 64, 181. 
of prizes, 137. 
of religious edifices, 19. 

See also Persons, noncombatant ; Submarine warfare; Warfaro, 
means of ; War zones. 
Detention : 

of vessels trading with enemy territory, 95, 139, 143. 
of officers and crew of vessels (see Internment). 
Diplomatic correspondence, abuse of, 38. 
Diplomatic dispatches, may be sent in cipher, 29. 

See also Transmission of intelligence. 
Diplomatic officer : 

departure of requested, 57. 

See also Diplomatic relations, breaking of ; Passports, 
dismissal of, 37, 38. 

display of flag in neutral territory permitted, 83. 
guarantees -of safety, 212, 250. 
neutral, in charge of belligerent interests, 51, 52, 59, 88, 101, 119. 

171, 207, 209, 211, 229. 
See also Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Sweden, United States. 
persona non grata, 38. 
Status of after declaration of war, 74. 
Diplomatic relations, breaking of : 
Austria and — 

Japan (1914), 16, 51. 

Portugal (1916), 16. 

Serbia (1914), 16, 49. 

United States (1917), 16, 52. 
Belgium and — 

Germany (1914), 54, 59. 

Turkey (1914), 59. 
Bolivia and Germany (1917), 17, 60, 198. 
Brazil and Germany (1917), 17, 64, 198. 
China and Germany (1917), 17, 71. 
Costa Rica and Germany (1917), 17. 
Cuba and Germany (1917), 198. 
Ecuador and Germany (1917), 17. 
Egypt and Germany (1914), 17. 
France and Austria-Hungary (1914), 17, 87. 
Germany and Japan (1914), 104. 
Great Britain and Bulgaria (1915), 119. 
Greece and — 

Austria-Hungary (1917), 17, 161. 

Turkey (1917), 17. 
Guatemala and Germany (1917), 17, 162. 
Haiti and Germany (1917), 17. 
Honduras and Germany (1917), 17. 
Liberia and Germany (1917), 180. 
Montenegro and Germany (1914), 183. 
Nicaragua and Germany (1917), 17. 
Panama and Germany (1917), 198. 
Peru and Germany (1917), 17, 198. 



266 Index. 

Diplomatic relations, break of — Continued 
Russia and — 

Bulgaria (1915), 209. 
Turkey (1914), 207. 
Serbia and — 

Bulgaria (1915), 211. 
Germany (1914), 211. 
Turkey and United States (1917), 17. 
United States and — 

Germany (1917), 17, 222. 
Turkey (1917), 229. 
Uruguay and Germany (1917), 17, 198, 250. 
Diplomatic Relations : 

acts stated as justification for breaking 
alliance with the enemy, 211. 
hostile acts against ally, 52, 162, 211, 229. 
inadequate reply to demands, 49. 
military assistance to enemy, 87. 
violation of specific pledges, 224. 
breaking of, does not imply Avar, 59. 
breaking of, list during European war, 16. 
principles, states, as reasons for breaking — 
further the cause of peace, 71. 
maintenance of international law, 70, 71. 
protest against submarine warfare, 64, 181, 199. 
protect lives and property of nations, 70, 181. 
See also Diplomatic officers, Passports. 
Disguise, use of, to escape capture, 154. 

Dismissal of minister (see Diplomatic officer, dismissal of). 
Dispatches : 

diplomatic (see Diplomatic dispatches), 
military, liability of vessel for carriage of, 151. 
See also Transmission of intelligence, Unneutral servitc. 
Distress, assistance to vessel in, 154. 

See also Asylum. 
Dobrudsha, 69. 

Dodekonese, Italian demands in respect to, 166. 
Domain (see Aerial domain, Territorial waters, Territory) 
Domicile, determines enemy character, 141, 142. 

See also Enemy character, Residence. 
Dominican Republic, clearance of merchant vessels, 85, 80. 
Drama, Greece, German guarantee in reference to, 161. 
Economic conference of Paris (see Paris Economic Conference). 
Economic forces, use of authorized, 78. 
Economic hostility, justifies war, 172. 
Economic interests, 59, 63, 181. 
Economic war (see Commercial restrictions). 
Ecuador, breaking of diplomatic relations, 17. 
Effective blockade (see Blockade). 
Egypt : 

declared a protectorate of Great Britain, 119. 
diplomatic relations, breaking of, 17. 
hostilities in, 220, 222. 
Elizabeth, Austrian war vessel, instructed to engage in hostilities, 51 
Embargo (see Requisition). 

Emigration of alien enemies restricted, 228, 232. 
Enemy : 

assistance to, 203. 

See also Unneutral service. 



Index. 267 

Enemy — Continued. 

definition of, 141. 

trading with (see Trading with the enemy). 
Enemy association, firm of, 158. 

See also Blacklist, Enemy character. 
Enemy character : 

of goods — 

enemy association, 158. 

enemy brand or manufacture, 95. 

presumed when on enemy vessel, 201. 

products of enemy soil, 95. 

See also Enemy destination, Enemy origin, Enemy property. 

of persons — 

domicile, 142. 
nationality. 158. 

See also Blacklist. 

of vessel — 

ownership, 236, 248. 
flag, 154, 246, 248. 
register, 246, 248. 
Enemy destination : 

application of continuous voyage to, 95, 139, 202. 

evidence of, 95, 139, 141, 145, 202. 

goods of, to be detained, 95, 139, 143. 

of vessel, 145. 
Enemy goods, liability of, on neutral vessel, 95, 138, 198, 203. 
Enemy nationality (see Alien enemies, Blacklist, Enemy character). 
Enemy origin : 

application of continuous voyage to, 140. 

evidence of, 95, 140, 141. 

goods of, to be detained, 138, 139, 143. 

neutral property of, to be released, 140. 
Enemy ownership (see Enemy property). 
Enemy persons (see Alien enemy, Enemy character). 
Enemy property, treatment of, 95, 141, 142, 246, 248. 

See also Enemy goods, Enemy character. 
Enemy territory (see Territory, enemy). 
England (see Great Britain). 
English Channel, navigation in, 128. 

English language, use of, in telegrams permitted, 24, 26, 191. 
Enlistment in belligerent public vessels by neutral forbidden, 82. 

See also Territory, neutral. 
Entente, Triple : 

Arabia, ally of, 21. 

declaration relating to peace negotiations, 89. 

Greece an ally of, 161. 

memorandum on submarines, 98. 

policy of, 223. 

war aims of, 111, 114. 

warning to Bulgaria, 208. 
Entente powers, legislation of, applicable in prize case?, 203. 
Equality of rights of nations, 112, 113. 
Equilibrium, political, 204, 206. 

See also Balance of power. 
Equipping vessels (see Base of operations, Territory). 
Escape, attempt to, 223. 
Espionage, 190. 

See also Military information. 



268 Index. 

Ethnic aspirations, 167. 

See also Nationality. 
European crisis, danger of, foreseen, 164. 
European equilibrium, 206. 

European Avar (see Declarations of War; War of 1914). 
Evidence in prize case, 156. 
Exequatur, revocation of, 90, 162, 181. 
Existence, right of, 101. 114, 2O0. 
Expanding bullets (see Warfare, means of). 
Explosive bullets (see Warfare, means of). 
Explosives : 

entrance of vessels with, forbidden by neutral, 24. 

alien enemies not to have, 228. 
See also Arms and munitions. 
Expulsion : 

of alien enemies authorized, 226, 228, 232. 

of Italians from Austria, 168. 
Fait accompli, 38, 68. 
False declarations, 190. 

False destination, penalty for declaring, 42, 82, 85, 86, 180. 
False flag, use of, 154. 
Family of nations, 73. 
Far East, peace of, 175, 176. 
Fisheries in defensive sea areas, 238. 

Fitting vessels for warlike use (see Base of operations ; Territorial waters). 
Flag : 

Denmark, notification relating to use of foreign, 83. 

display of foreign, in neutral territory forbidden, 83. 

evidence of character of vessel, 154, 246, 248. 

misuse of neutral, authorized, 107, 109. 

to be displayed on offering resistance, 154. 

to be displayed in defensive sea area, 237. 

to be displayed by submarine in neutral waters, 194, 195, 214, 216. 

to be displayed by vessel in neutral waters, 193. 

unlawfully displayed in neutral territory to be confiscated, 83. 

use of false, to escape capture, 154. 

use of false, to approach undetected, 154. 

use of neutral, in mine laying, 126. 

See also Transfer of flag. 
Force majeure, 24. 
Force, use of, authorized, 226, 230. 
Forces, armed (see Armed forces). 
Fortifications : 

access to forbidden, 189, 192. 

alien enemies not to approach, 228. 

sketching of, forbidden, 190. 
Forte Apuria, 174. 

Frans Ferdinand, Archduke, murder of, 41. 
France : 

agreed to respect Belgian neutrality, 53, 116. 

appealed to as as guarantor of Belgian neutrality, 55. 

blockade declarations, 91, 92, 93, 94. 

declarations of war, 15, 86, 88, 90, 91. 

diplomatic relations, breaking of, 17, 87, 118. 

hostile acts by, in German territory, reported, 103. 

jurisdiction of prizes, convention relating to, 143. 

mined areas, notification of, 97. 

peace negotiations, joint declaration with reference to, 89. 

protest against violation of treaty by Germany, 87. 



Index. 269 

France — Continued. 

retaliatory measures, declaration of, 94, 137. 

revocation of exequaturs, 90. 

sojourn of submarines, note relating to, 98. 

treatment of prizes, 149. 

violation of Belgian territory reported, 103. 

Sec also Declaration of Avar ; Diplomatic relations, breaking of ; 
Entente. 
Free ships, free goods, not observed, 108. 
Freedom of the seas, 78, 114, 223. 

approved by Germany, 113. 

British responsibility for, 127. 

British violation of, 109. 

United States defense of, 162. 

See also Commercial restrictions, Navigation. 
French Congo (See Congo). 

French language, use of, in telegrams permitted, 24, 26, 191. 
Friendly neutrality, 102, 210. 
Frontier, rectification of, 204. 
Fuel (see Coal, Coaling). 
Fuel depot (see Coaling station). 
Full bunkers (see Coaling). 
Gallipoli, 175. 

Geir, German war vessel, requisitioned, 246. 
German East Africa': 

blockade of, 135. 

defense of, 56. 
German language, use of, in telegrams permitted, 24, 26, 191. 
German prize regulations, on resistance, 153. 
German radio operators on neutral vessel, 27. 
Germany : , 

activity in Arabia, 21. 

ally of Turkey, 229. 

days of grace offered to French vessels, 103. 

declarations of war, 15, 100, 102, 103, 104, 106, 206. 

departure of Belgian minister from Luxemburg, demanded, 57. 

deprival of territory, entente war aim, 111. 

diplomatic relations, breaking of, 104. 

enemy of Greek race, 160. 

hostile acts against Italy, 171, 172. 

interpretation of British armed merchant vessel instructions, 155. 

intrigues in China, 76. 

methods of warfare, denounced, 61, 70, 72, 73, 74, 94, 137, 142, 
198, 222. 

See also Submarine warfare, War zone. 

military assistance to Austria Hungary, 171, 172. 

military control in Turkey, 90, 119. 

military measures in neutralized territory, 53, 54, 101, 102, 182. 

mined areas, 106, 107. 

minister charged with Austrian interests in Serbia, 211. 

minister dismissed by Argentine Republic, 37. 

navigation regulations, 106. 

passage of troops through Belgium demanded, 53, 102. 

pledges to Belgium, 102. 

political principles of, 113. 

propaganda in Greece, 160. 

refusal to agree to respect Belgian neutrality, 116. 

sale of war vessels to Turkey, 219. 

submarine warfare, conduct of, 112, 223. 

supported Italian demands against Austria, 166. 



270 Index. 

German j'— Continued. 

treaties with China abrogated, 74. 

ultimata by, 100, 101, 103, 117. 

vessels of, requisitioned, 200, 201, 246, 248. 

violation of Belgian neutrality, 54, 102. 

violation of guaranties to Greece, 161. 

violation of international law admitted, 58. 

violation of Luxemburg, neutrality, 182. 

violation of treaty, protested against, 53, 55, 117, 182. 

war zones declared, 70, 107, 108, 110, 111, 112, 115. 

Bee also Declarations of war; Diplomatic relations, breaking of; 
Triple alliance. 
Goeoen, Turkish war vessel purchased from Germany, 119. 
Goods (see Enemy goods, Nentral goods). 
Governmental service dispatches, definition of, 29. 
Great Britain : 

ally of Portugal, 200. 

appealed to as guarantor of Belgian neutrality, 55. 

armed merchantmen instructions, 153. 

blacklisting act, 158. 

blockade declarations, 135, 136. 

customs (war powers) act, 1915, referred to, 158. 

declarations of war, 15, 117, 118, 119. 

diplomatic relations, breaking of, 119. 

instructions in reference to prizes, 149. 

jurisdiction of prizes, convention relating to, 143. 

methods of warfare, denounced, 108, 111, 114, 223. 

mined areas, 120, 121, 122, 126, 127, 130, 133, 134. 

naval prize act (1864), referred to, 155. 

neutrality of Congo, notes on, 118. 

notices to mariners, 123, 124. 

peace negotiations, entente declaration, 89. 

policy of hostility to Turkey, 220. 

ports subject to regulations, 124, 125. 

protest against violation of Belgian neutrality, 117. 

prize courts act (1894), referred to, 155. 

requisition of prizes, 155. 

retaliatory measures, authorized, 137, 138, 141, 142. 

trading-with-the-enemy acts (1914, 1915), 158, 159. 

treatment of prizes, 149. 

ultimatum, 116. 

*xee also Declarations of war ; Diplomatic relations, breaking of ; 
Entente. 
Greece : 

aid to Bulgaria, 160. 

ally of Serbia, 159 ; blockade of, 93, 173. 

declarations of war, 16, 159, 161. 

diplomatic relations, breaking of, 17, 161. 

internal politics of, 159. 

neutrality of, 159, 173. 

See also Declarations of war ; Diplomatic relations, breaking of. 
Guarantee : 

of Belgium, offered by Germany, 102. 

of Greece by Germany, 161. 

of Seres, Drama, and Kavalla by Germany, 161. 

treaties of (see Treaties, neutralization). 
Guarantors, appealed to, 55. 
Guatemala : 

cooperation with United States, 162. 

declaration of war, 162. 



Index. 271 

Guatemala — Continued. 

diplomatic relations, breaking of, 17, 1G1. 

use of territorial waters offered to United States, 102. 
Gun practice, forbidden in neutral waters, 188. 
Hague conventions : 

neutrality determined by, 60. 

to be observed by belligerents, 50, 72, 74, 75, 77, 87, 188. 

violated, 61. 
Hague Conventions, 1907 : 

III. Convention relative to the opening of hostilities, 50. 
state of war to be notified to neutrals (art. 2), 87, 88. 

IV. Convention respecting the laws and customs of war on land, 
arms calculated to cause unnecessary suffering (annex, art. 

23, e.), 154. 

V. Convention respecting the rights and duties of powers and per- 

sons in case of war on land, 
neutral territory inviolable (art. 1), 86, 87. 
transit of neutral territory forbidden (art. 2), 86, 87. 
right to repel by force, violations of neutrality (art. 10), 55, 58. 

VII. Convention relative to the conversion of merchant ships into 

ships of war, 23. 

VIII. Convention relative to the laying of automatic contact subma- 

rine mines, 
notification of danger zones (art. 3), 97. 
mines to become harmless in limited time (art. 3), 121. 
' XIII. Convention concerning the rights and duties of neutral powers 
in maritime war, 212, 213, 214. 
right of neutral to change rules (preamble, par. 5), 213. 
base of operations (art. 5), 25. 
arming vessels in neutral territory (art. 8), 22. 
exclusion of delinquent belligerent vessels from port (art. 9), 70. 
repairs in neutral port (art. 17), 70. 
internment (art. 24), 70, 194. 
Hague International Tribunal, 49. 
Haiti : 

diplomatic relations, breaking of, 17. 
neutrality regulations, 162. 
Harbor regulations, 82. 
Harbors : 

blockaded, 173. 

neutral, access to forbidden, 192. 
Hedjaz : 

Kingdom, ally of entente powers, 21. 
political principles of, 20. 
proclamation of independence, 17. 
Hegemony, of Germany, 206. 
Hellenism, aspirations of, 160. 
Helsingor, pilotage station, Denmark, 81. 
Herzogovina, 41, 42. 
High seas, conversion of armed merchant vessels on, forbidden, 154. 

See also Freedom of the seas. 
Holger, German auxiliary vessel, interned, 32. 
Holland (see Netherlands). 
Holy war, proclamation of, by Turkey, 170. 
Honduras, breaking of diplomatic relations, 17. 
Honor, national, 54, 161, 224. 
Hospital ships, (see Sojourn, Vessel, hospital). 
Hostile act : 

anticipation of, 102. 

alien enemy not to commit, 228. 



272 Index. 

Hostile act — Continued. 

in neutral territory (see Territory, neutral), 
repelling attack on neutrality not so considered, 55. 
war justified by (see Declaration of war, acts justifying). 
Hostilities : 

aiding or abetting, forbidden to neutrals, 178. 
after signature of peace treaty, 169. 
authorized — 

Austria-Hungary against Japan (1914), 51. 
Austria-Hungary against Montenegro (1914), 15, 183. 
Portugal against Germany (1914), 16, 199. 
Germany in Belgium (1914), 102. 
Germany in Luxemburg (1914), 101. 
See also Declarations of war. 
Before declaration of war, alleged : 
Bulgaria in Roumania, 68, 69. 
Bulgaria in Serbia, 212. 
France against Germany, 103. 
Germany against France, 86. 
Germany against Italy, 171. 
German courts opinion, 172. 
Serbia against Bulgaria, 66. 
Turkey against France, 90. 
Turkey against Russia, 207. 
Between Sweden and Norway rendered impossible, 189. 
conduct of (see Warfare, means of), 
in neutral territory (see Territory, neutral), 
limitation of area of, 56. 
military measures do not constitute, 101. 
opening of, 183. 

See also Hague Conventions, 1907, III : Declarations of war. 
Humanitarian purpose, vessel engaged in (see Sojourn, Vessels). 
Humanity : 

duties of, 137. 
laws, violated, 73, 114. 

principles of, to be observed, 56, 72, 74, 75, 94, 138, 162, 197, 212, 222. 
violation of principles of, 58. 
Immigration of alien enemies restricted, 229, 232. 
Impartiality to be observed by neutrals, 84. 178. 
India, independence of, 113. 
Indemnity : 

for confiscations, 219. 

for damages, 102. 

for goods requisitioned, 201. 

See also Compensation ; Damages. 
Independence : 

Arabia proclaimed, 20. 

attack upon, a violation of international law, 54. 

Bagdad, proclaimed, 20. 

Belgium to be guaranteed, 102. 

Hedjaz, proclaimed, 17. 

Ireland, suggested, 113. 

India, suggested, 113. 

Serbia, Italian interest in, 165. 

Serbia, Russian interest in, 200. 

See also Neutralization ; Guaranty. 
Information (see Military Information; Transmission of intelligence). 
Innocent passage through neutral waters, 185. 
See also Territorial waters. 



Index. 273 

Integrity of Territory (see Independence ; Neutrality ; Neutralization ; Ter- 
ritory). 
Intention, evidence of hostile, 154. 
International judicial order, 65. 
International justice, defense of, 78, 162. 
International law : 

adherence to. 72, 77, 87, 176, 197, 198, 250. 
applied to blockade, 173. 
applied to neutrality, 219. 
applied in prize cases, 156, 203. 
applied to submarine vessels, 98, 99. 
offenses against, 178. 
protest against violations of, 55. 
responsibility for preservation of, 70, 73, 74, 77. 
sanctity of, 71. 
violations of, by Germany — 
Belgium, 54, 55. 

submarine warfare, 61, 72, 73, 94, 137, 142, 198, 222. 
violations of, by Entente, 108, 111, 223. 
International signal to be displayed by submarine, 194, 195, 216. 
International society, foundations of, 197. 
Interned vessels (see Vessels, Internment). 
Internment : 

Argentine Republic, General orders relating to, 30, 31. 
of persons — 

alien enemies, 212, 229, 232. 
officers and crew of interned vessel, 194. 
officers may be released on parole, 194. 
prize crew of restored prize, 62. 
of vessels — < 

belligerent auxiliary vessel, 31, 32. 
belligerent merchant vessel, 31, 212. 
belligerent war vessel, 70, 194, 217. 
belligerent submarine vessel, 99, 214. 

See also Hague Conventions, 1907, XIII ; Prizes. 
Intervention : 

authorized by Portugal, 199. 
reasons for — 

alliance with belligerent, 200. 
national interests and duties, 199. 
Roumania in Balkan war, 204. 
United States in European war, 197. 
Invoices, ship's papers, 152. 
Ireland, independence of suggested, 113. 
Islam (see also Moslem), 220, 221. 
Islam, Sheiky of, 18. ' * 

Islands, blockaded, 173. 
Isonza, Italian demands in respect to, 166. 
Italian language : 

permitted in telegrams, 24. 
preservation of, 167. 
Italian nationality, hostility of Austria to, 167. 
Italy : 

accession to convention relating to prizes, 143. 

adhesion to declaration of Entente, peace negotiations, 89, 90. 

ambassador, in charge of Russian interests in Turkey, 207. 

blockades, 172, 173, 174. 

conciliatory proposals, 164. 

declarations of war, 16, 163, 164, 169, 171, 204. 

43760—18 18 



274 Index. 

Italy — Continued. 

demands of Turkey, 170. 

navigation restrictions. 174. 

policy of peace, 164. 

right to compensation in the Balkans, 165. 

ultimatum, 170. 

withdrawal from Triple Alliance, 168. 

See also, Declarations of war.; Diplomatic relations, breaking of, 
Turco-Italian war. 
Japan : 

adhesion to Entente declaration, peace negotiations, 89. 

blockade, 177. . - 

declaration of war, 176. 

demands return of Kiao Chau to China, 176. 

ultimatum, 175. 

See also Declarations of war; Diplomatic relations, breaking of; 
Neutrality proclamations. 
Joint captures : 

Franco-British convention relating to, 141. 

instructions in regard to, 149. 

jurisdiction of, 146. 

procedure after, 150. 

See also Capture, Prizes. 
Jurisdiction : 

in Panama Canal Zone, 245. 

of Criminal proceedings, 47. 

of joint captures, 146. 

of prizes, 145. 

of the United States, 246, 248. 
See also Prizes, Territory. 
Jurisdictional waters (see also Territorial waters), 214. 
Justice : 

defense of, by United States, 77. 

lack of, in German policy, 199. 

principles of, 197. 
Justification for war (sec Declarations of war, acts stated as justification 

for). 
Ka valla (see Ca valla). 
Kiau Chau : 

blockade of, 177. 

German withdrawal from demanded, 176. 

restoration to China, 176. 
Kiephali, Cape, 173. 

Koweyt, Arabia, ally of entente powers, 21. 
Kron Prinz Wilhelm, German cruiser requisioned, 32, 246. 
Lack of fuel and provisions (see Asylum). 

Languages, permitted in telegrams (see Transmission of intelligence). 
Lausanne, treaty of (1912) (see also Treaties), 169. 
Law : ' 

decrees contrary to, 37, 156. 

defense of, by United States, 77. 
Law of nations (see also International law), 72, 77, 87, 108, 176. 
Leased territory, 176. 
Liberia : 

Diplomatic relations, breaking of, 180. 

neutrality proclamation, 177. 

threatened by Germany, 181. 

trade regulation, 179. 
Liberty, cause of, 197. 



Index. 275 

Liebenfels, German war vessel, requisitioned, 246. 

Lighthouse regulations, 218. 

Lighthouses, extinguished on Bulgarian coast, <;:>. 

Loans (sec Territory, neutral). 

Local regulations, 82, 128, 129, 186, 189, 218. 

See Customs, Harbor, Lighthouse, Pilotage, Police, Sanitary regula- 
tions ; Sojourn ; Territory. 
Locksen, German war vessel, requisitioned, 246. 
London, Declaration of (1909) (see Declaration of London). 

Declaration of Entente (1914), on separate peace, 89. 

Convention of (1867), Luxemburg neutralization, 86, 182. 

Conference of ambassadors at (1913), Balkans, 173. 
See also Treaties. 
Lorton, Peruvian vessel, sunk by submarine, 199. 

Luxburg, Karl, German minister, dismissed from Argentine Republic, 37, 38. 
Luxemburg : 

departure of Belgian minister from, 57. 

neutrality violated, 86, 182. 

protest by, 182. 
Lybia, Italian interest in, 169. 
Macedonia, blockade of, 93, 209. 
Madeira islands, war zone around, 115. 
Mahrousseh, French prize case, 90. 
Malvinas Islands, radio communication with, 26, 29. 
Mariners, notice to (see Mines, Ports). 

Maritime jurisdiction (see Freedom of the Seas, Territorial waters). 
Maryland, Danish vessel, destroyed by mine, 121. 
Means at disposal, 216. 

Means of warfare (see Hague conventions, 1907, IV; Warfare, means of). 
Mecca, proclamation of sheriff of, 17. 
Mediation, attempted by Germany and England, 100. 
Mediterranean, war zone in, 110. 
Merchandise, Brazilian decree relating to discharge of, 62. 

See also Cargo, Enemy goods. 
Merchant marine : 

auxiliary to navy, 64. 

national value of, 63. 

taking over by neutral state, 64. 
Merchant vessels (see Armed merchant vessels, Coaling, Internment, 

Vessels). 
Messina, Straits of, navigation in, 174. 
Mexico, neutrality declaration, 182. 
Military area : 

access to forbidden, 192. 

alien enemy not to approach, 228. 

sketches of forbidden, 190. 

See also Fortifications, War zone. 
Military defenses : 

aliens not to be near, 188. 

publication of plans of forbidden, 82. 
Military exercises, access to forbidden, 190, 192. 
Military fleet, 243, 244. 

Military force (see armed forces, Base of Operations). 
Military hospital ship (see Sojourn, Vessels). 
Military information : 

not to be sent in telegrams, 192. 

penalty for publishing, 191. 

recording of forbidden, 188, 190. 

transmission of from neutral territory forbidden, 218. 
See also Transmission of intelligence. 



276 Index. 

Military inventions, effect on law, 213. 
Military zone {see Military area, War zone). 
Mined areas : 

Adriatic sea, 97. 
Baltic sea, 210. 
British coast, 128, 131. 

caution when approaching, 123. 
Bulgarian coast, 69. 

North sea, 106,. 120, 122, 123, 126, 133, 134. 
See also Defensive sea areas, Navigation. 
Mines : 

Austro-Hungarian policy denounced, 97. 
Bulgarian announcement of laying, 69. 
France, notification of areas, 97. 
Germany — 

policy of, denounced, 122, 126. 
notification of areas, 106, 107. 
scattering in North sea, 120. 
Great Britain — 

memorandum reserving right to lay, 120. 
memorandum relating to enemy, 120, 121. 
notification of areas, 122, 126, 133, 134. 
notices to mariners, 123, 124. 
directions for navigation in, 127. 
laid by trawlers, 121. 
neutral waters closed by, 184, 215. 
notices to mariners in reference to, 123, 124. 
ports closed by, 217. 
Russia, notification of areas, 210. 
Sweden, decree relating to areas, 215. 

See also Hague conventions, 1907, VIII; Mined areas; Navi- 
gation. 
Ministers (see Diplomatic officers). 
Mobilization of forces : 

Austria-Hungary, 206. 
reason for ultimatum, 100. 
Russia, 103, 206. 
Serbia, 211. 
Monroe doctrine, new interpretation of, 65. 
Montenegro : 

declaration of war, 16, 182. 
diplomatic relations, breaking of, 183. 
excepted from blockade of Adriatic, 174. 
isolation of, 165. 
Moral duty, under alliance, 167. 
Morocco, 220. 
Moslem community, 18, 221. 

See also Islam. 
Mozambique, passage of British troops in, 104. 
Narodna Odbrana, Serbian society, 45, 
Nations, rights of, 162. 
National aspirations, 163. 
National dignity, 224. 
National honor, 54, 161, 224. 
National interests, 161, 163, 199. 
National rights, 19, 78, 163. 
National security, 78. 
National unity, 206. 



Index, 277 

Nationality : 

declaration of, by vessels, 83, 190. 

enemy (see Alien enemies, Enemy character). 

methods of destroying, 167, 168. 

principle of, 69, 114, 163, 167, 205. 
Naval conference, 1909 (see Declaration of London). 
Naval prize act, British (1864), referred to, 155. 
Naval stations (see also War ports), 184, 187. 
Navigation, coastwise, confined to national vessels, 63. 
Navigation regulations : 

approaches to British ports, 124. 

defensive sea areas, 237, 241, 242. 

English channel, 128. 

German coast, 106. 

mined areas, 123, 127, 215. 

neutral waters (see Asylum, Base of operations, Sojourn, Territorial 
waters). 

North Sea, 128, 130. 

notices to mariners, 123, 124. 

Straits of Messina, 174. 

war zone, 109. 

See also Commercial restrictions, Freedom of the Seas, Local 
regulations, Mines areas, War zones. 
Navy, merchant marine auxiliary to, 64. 
Nearest home port (see Coaling). 
Necessity : 

physical, 244. 

political, 167. 

public, 63, 64. 
Negotiation, peace through, 114. 
Neighborly relations, 38, 42, 47. '.' 

Nejd, Arabia, ally of Entente powers, 21. 
Netherlands : 

minister charged with Russian interests in Bulgaria, 209. 

neutrality declaration, 183. 

transmission of Chinese war declaration to Germany, 74. 

waters excluded from mined area, 133, 134. 
Neutral character of goods, evidence of, 201. 

See also Enemy character. 
Neutral commerce, arbitrarily limited by Entente, 114. 

See also Commercial restrictions. 
Neutral diplomatic officers (see Diplomatic officers, neutral). 
Neutral goods : 

release of, 139, 201. 

requisition of, 95. 

sale of, 95. 
Neutral jurisdiction (see Territory, neutral). 
Neutral persons (see Persons, neutral) . 

Neutral property on the high seas (see Blockade, Capture, Contraband, 
Free ships, free goods ; Neutral "goods, Unneutral service, Visit and 
search). 
Neutral rights : 

not effectively maintained, 60, 109. 

use of force to protect, 37, 78, 198, 216, 224, 249. 
Neutral states : 

asquiescene in belligerent violations of law, 60, 109. 

attitude toward war upon entrance of United States — 
Bolivia, 59, 60. 
Brazil, 64, 65. 



278 Index, 

Neutral states — Continued. 

attitude toward war upon entrance of United States — Continued. 

China, 70. 

Costa Rica, 77. 

Guatemala, 162. 

Liberia, 180, 181. 

Mexico, 182. 

Netherlands, 183. 

Peru, 197. 

Salvador, 210. 

Switzerland, 216. 

Uruguay, 249. 

Venezuela, 250. 

See also Declarations of war ; Diplomatic relations, breaking 
of ; Neutrality proclamations, 
economic interest, 59. 
rupture with Germany suggested, 224. 
Neutral territory (see Territory, neutral; Neutralization). 
Neutrality : 

benevolent, 198. 

friendly, 102, 210. 

impartial, 78. 

interest of American nations in, 60. 

Japan's attitude toward, 176. 

maintenance of, 78, 198, 216, 233. 

of opinion, 78, 84, 162. 

offenses against, 79, 80. 

penalty for violation of — 

persons, 29, 35, 78, 79, 80, 82, 178, 180. 

vessels, 70. 

See also Internment ; Neutral rights. 
permanent (see Neutralization), 
qualified, 64, 77, 102, 162, 198, 210, 249. 
recognition of Albanian, 173. 
recognition of Swiss, 233. 
respect, 216, 233. 
revocation of, 64. 
strict, 178, 180, 183, 250. 

See also Hague Conventions, 1907, V, XIII ; Neutral States. 
Neutrality declarations (see Neturality proclamations). 
Neutrality Proclamations : 

Argentine Republic (1915), 32. 
Bolivia (1915), 59. 
Brazil (1914), 61. 
Bulgaria (1914), 66. 
Denmark (1914), 78. 
Liberia (1914), 177. 
Mexico (1917), 182. 
Netherlands (1917), 183. 
Norway (1914), 189. 
Sweden (1914), 189. 
Switzerland (1917), 216. 
Turkey (1914), 217. 
Venezuela (1917), 250. 
Neutrality regulations : 

right to modify, 62, 213. 
joint, 183, 189. 
Neutralization : 

guarantors of, appealed to, 116, 217. 
duties of states subject to, 58. 



Index. 279 

Neutralization — Continued. 

violation of, denounced, 53, 54, 55, 58, 86, 88, 116, 182. 

violations of, justified by — 
self-defense, 102, 103. 
anticipation of hostile attack, 53, 102. 

See also Albania, Belgium, Guaranty ; Luxemburg ; Panama 
Canal Zone ; Suez Canal ; Switzerland ; Treaties. 
Neutralized territory (see Neutralization). 
Nicaragua : 

declaration of war, 77. 

diplomatic relations, breaking of, 17. 
Noncombatant (see Persons, noncombatant). 
North Sea : 

military area, 127. 

mined areas, 106, 120, 122, 123, 126, 133, 134. 

regulations for navigation in, 128, 130. 

war zone, 109, 110. 
Notice to mariners (see Mines; Navigation; Ports). 
Notification of blockade (see Blockade). 
Norway : 

criminal law. 190. 

defense secrets, 189, 192. 

hostilities with Sweden rendered impossible, 189. 

interned war vessels, 194. 

neutrality declaration, 183, 184, 1S9. 

neutrality, joint declaration, 183, 189. 

postal communication, 193. 

sojourn of war vessels, 187. 

sojourn of submarine vessels, 194, 195. 

telegraphic communication, 191, 193. < 

vessels, surveillance of, 193. 

waters excluded from war zone, 115. 
Norwegian language, telegrams in, permitted, 191, 192. 
Occupation, territory under (see Territory, occupied). 
Offense, vessel equipped for (see also Armed merchant vessel), 243. 
Offenses against neutrality (see Neutrality). 
Officers : 

interned, released on parole, 194. 

See also Internment, Prizes, Vessels. 

of foreign warship, may wear arms in neutral territory, 188. 

discipline of crew, 243. 
Official dispatches (see Transmission of intelligence). 
Officials (see Armed forces, Consuls, Diplomatic officers, Officers^ 1 , 
Open-door policy, Germany favors, 113. 
Opinion, neutrality of, 78, 84, 162. . 

See also Transmission of intelligence. 
Origin of goods (see Continuous voyage, Enemy origin). 
Otrante, cape of, 173, 174. 
Ottoman Empire (see Turkey). 
Ownership (see Enemy Property). 
Pacific settlement, proposed by Serbia, 48. 
Panama : 

declaration of war, 196. 

diplomatic relations, breaking of, 198. 

neutrality instructions, 195, 196. 
Panama City, Panama, 245. 

Pan-Americanism (see also American continents), 210. 
Panama Canal Zone : 

aircraft forbidden in, 244, 245. 

defensive sea area in, 241. 



280 Index. 

Panama Canal Zone — Continued. 

enemy vessels forbidden in, 245. 

equality of treatment in, 245. 

jurisdiction of United States in, 244, 246, 248. 

landing of troops in, forbidden, 245. 

radio apparatus, use of, in, 245. 

regulations for operation of, referred to, 243. 

repair of vessels in, 245. 

responsibility of United States for, 243. 

sojourn of belligerent war vessels in, 196, 245. 

United States, executive orders relating to, 241, 243. 

written assurances to be given by vessels using, 243. 
Parana, Brazilian merchant vessel destroyed, 64. 
Paris, Declaration of (see Declaration of Paris). 
Paris Economic Conference, 163. 
Paris, treaty of (1815), neutralization of Switzerland (see also Treaties), 

216. 
Parole, officers released on, 194. 

Partiality, Danish law to prevent, in commercial matters, 84. 
Partiality, in European war (see Qualified neutrality). 
Passports : 

delivery of, to consuls, 71, 75. 

delivery of, to- diplomatic officers, 37, 38, 54, 60, 71, 75, 117, 119, 162, 
183, 199, 208, 211, 224, 250. 

request for, by diplomatic officer, 51, 52, 88, 101, 104, 118, 163. 

ship's papers, 152. 
Patagonia, German vessel interned, 30, 31. 
Peace ": 

basis of, 113. 

breaking diplomatic relations to further cause of, 71. 

China, desire for, 72. 

Entente agreement with reference to separate, 89. 

German efforts toward, 100. 

hostilities after treaty of, 169. 

ideal of, 164, 197. 

Japan's interest in, of far east, 175. 

Mexican efforts for, 182. 

restoration of, object of war, 73. 

Russian attitude toward, 206. 

Triple Alliance to secure, 164. 
Peace Standard, for supplying vessels in neutral port (see Provisioning). 
Penal Code : 

applicable to violations of neutrality, 79. 

Norway, 190. 
Penalty : 

for violation of defense act, 190. 

for violation of neutrality (see Neutrality). 
Perfidy : 

of Bulgaria, 209. 

of Turkey, 208. 
Permanent Neutrality (see Neutralization). 
Perpetual Neutrality (see Neutralization). 
Persia, British interest in, 21, 220. 
Persons : 

aliens — 

access to military areas, forbidden, 188, 192. 
not to wear arms on landing from war vessel, 188. 
not to prepare maps of fortified harbors, 188. 
submission to war measures required, 196. 
See also Alien enemies. 



Index. 281 

Persons- — Continued. 

belligerent nationals — 

seizure from neutral vessels, 108. 
appearance in enemy prize court, 202. 
See also Alien enemies, Interment, 
combatant — 

subject to naval discipline on' war vessels, 24.;. 

See also Armed forces, Officers, Prisoners of war. 
neutral nationals — 

endangered by submarine warfare, 181. 
may pilot belligerent public vessels, 82. 
not to act as commercial agent of belligerent, 179. 
not to assist belligerent public vessels, 82. 
not to commit hostile acts, 178. 
not to enlist in belligerent public vessel, 82. 
not to trade with belligerents, 180. 
noncombatant — 

beyond service age, so regarded, 32. 

endangered in war zone, 107, 108, 110. 

on interned vessel set at liberty, 32. 

murder of, in submarine warfare, 161. 

not to assist in armed resistance by merchant vessel, 154. 

safety of, disregarded, 112, 133, 173, 161, 223. 

safety of, on merchant vessels, assured, 111, 138, 223, 225. 

safety of, on prize, must be assured, 137. 

See also Destruction, Submarine warfare, 
resident in neutral territory — 

may not express unneutral opinion, 162. 
See also Territory, neutral. 
Persona non grata, 37, 38. , 

Peru : 

attitude toward war, 197. 
diplomatic relations, breaking of, 17, 198. 
Petrograd, international telegraphic convention of (see also Treaties), 

24, 191. 
Philanthropic mission, vessels engaged in (see Sojourn, Vessels). 
Pilotage : 

in British channel, 123. 
in defensive sea area, 238. 
in mined area, 215. 
in neutral waters, 80, 81. 

of belligerent public vessels, by neutrals, forbidden, 82. 
on German coast, 1C6. 
regulations, 82, 129, 186, 189, 218. 
See also Sojourn. 
Pilots, use of national, required, 69. 
Police regulations, 82, 186. 
Port regulations, 186, 189, 218. 
Ports : 

belligerent — 

blockade of, 173. 
caution when approaching, 124. 
closed, 124. 

neutral vessels urged to stop at, 121. 
neutral- 
access to, forbidden. 1*9, 190, 217. 
entrance by vessels with explosives forbidden, 24. 
proclaimed as war ports, 187, 194. 
submarine vessels forbidden to enter, 214. 
use of, offered to belligerent, 162. 



282 Index. 

Porte, the (see Turkey). 
Portugal : 

ally of England, 200. 

contraband, 202. 

declaration of war, 16, 199. 

military intervention authorized, 16, 199. 

requisition of cargo of enemy vessels, 200. 

requisition of enemy vessels, 200. 

unneutral conduct of, 104. 

See also Declarations of war, Diplomatic relations, breaking of. 
Portuguese language, permitted in telegrams, 24. 
Postal communication, Norwegian law relating to censorship of, 193. 

See also Transmission of intelligence. 
Press, supervision of, 40, 43^ 44. 

President Quintana, Argentine vessel suspected of unneutral service, 27. 
Prinz Eitel Friedrich, German war vessel interned, 246. 
Prisoners of war : 

capture of escaped, 172. 

failure to release after war, 169. 

persons taken from neutral vessels made, 108. 
Private property at sea (see Blockade, Capture, Commercial restrictions, 
Contraband, Enemy character, Free ships, Free goods, Neutral goods, 
Neutral commerce, Unneutral service, Visit and search). 
Privateers, forbidden in neutral waters, 186. 
Prize act, British naval (1864), referred to, 155. 
Prize court : 

British, not bound by orders in council, 156. 

duties, 137, 139. 

enemy persons to appear by agent, 202. 

evidence in, 156. 

forbidden in neutral territory, 186, 218. 

jurisdiction over cargo of enemy vessels, 201. 

jurisdiction over requisition, 156, 157. 

Portuguese, 201. 

procedure of, 96, 140, 143, 155, 156. 

Russian ukase relating to, 145. 

ship's papers to be delivered to, 153. 

to administer retaliatory decree, 96. 
Prize court act, British (1894), referred to, 155. 
Prize crew (see Internment, Prizes). 
Prize master, 152. 
Prize money, distribution of, 147. 
Prize regulations. German, on resistance, 153. 
Prizes : 

appraisal of, 148. 

asylum to, 62, 186, 218. 

captured in violation of neutrality, restored, 185. 

cargo to be deposited in neutral state, 62. 

coaling of, 218. • 

condition of, to be reported, 151. 

Franco-British convention relating to jurisdiction over, 143. 

Great Britain, order in council, requisition of, 155. 

Illegally in neutral port — 

release of officers and crew, 62. 
notification to depart, 62. 
restoration of, 62. 
interment of prize crew, 62. 

jurisdiction of, 145. 

proceeds of (see Prize money). 



Index. 283 

Prizes — Continued. 

provisioning of, 218. 
- sale of, in neutral territory forbidden, 186. 
sending in of, 137, 148, 152. 
sojourn of, 218. 

treatment of, 148, 151, 152, 153. 
use of Panama Canal, 244. 
vessels liable as, 203. 
Proclamation of war {see Declarations of war). 
Proclamations of neutrality {see Neutrality proclamations). 
Products of enemy soil {see Enemy character). 

Property {see Enemy property, Neutral property, Private property). 
Propaganda, by Germany in Greece, 160. 
Protection of government withdrawn from persons guilty of unneutral 

acts, 178. 
Protectorate, Egypt, 119. 
Protest : 

against violation of international law, 55, 87. 
against violation of neutral rights, 71, 72, 181. 
against violation of guaranteed neutrality, 53, 182. 
against violation of treaties, 53, 55, 87, 117, 182. 
Provisional government, of Greece, 161. 
Provisioning : 

of belligerent war vessel in neutral ports — 
authorization necessary, 217. 
forbidden in Panama Canal Zone, 244. 
" nearest neutral port," 218. 
''peace standard," 185, 218, 244. 
refused on second return, 218. 
of prizes, 218. 
Provisions, lack of {see Asylum). 
Public vessels {see Vessels). 
Public officers {see Officers, Officials). 
Qualified neutrality, 64. 77. 102, 162, 198, 210, 249. 

See also Benevolent neutrality ; Friendly neutrality ; Neutrality ; 
Partiality ; Neutral States, attitude toward war. 
Radiotelegraph}' : 

alien enemy not to have apparatus, 228. 
Argentine Republic — 

circulars relating to, 24, 26, 29. 
decree relating to, 34. 
general orders relating to, 25, 27, 33, 36. 
belligerent operator on neutral vessel, 27. 
censorship of, 33. 
evidences of unneutral use of, 27. 
- merchant vessels to lower poles in neutral waters, 25, 27, 35. 
messages to belligerent vessels at sea forbidden, 36. 
messages to neutral vessels at sea permitted, 36. 
naval inspector to be on neutral vessel, 29. 
neutral duty in reference to, 28. 
official inspector of, 35. 

operators on neutral vessel to be of neutral nationality, 28, 34. 
operators to make report, 28, 35. 

station not to be established in neutral territory, 186, 219. 
use of, by merchant vessel in neutral waters forbidden, 25, 27, 28, 34. 
use of, in Panama Canal Zone, 244. 

See also Telegraphy ; Transmission of intelligence. 
Railways, neutral use of, offered to belligerent, 162. 
Recinrocitv. condition for effectiveness of international conventions, 50, 87. 



284 Index. 

Recognition : 

of Turkey, 17. 

of neutrality of Albania, 173. 
Rectification of frontiers, 204. 
Registers, ship's papers, 152. 
Registration of vessels, 83, 246, 248. 

See also Transfer of flag. 
Regulations : 

internal, of belligerent state, alien enemies to observe, 226, 231. 

internal, of neutral state (see Neutrality ; Radiotelegraphy ; Sojourn, 
etc.). 

local (see Local regulations; Navigation, etc.). 
Release of crew of prizes (see Prizes). , 

Religious edifices, destruction of, 19. 
Religion, vessels devoted to (see Sojourn, vessels). 
Reparation (see Compensation; Damages; Indemnity). 
Repairing vessels (see Base of operations). 
Reprisals, threat of, 87. 
Requisition : 

appraisal of vessel prior to, 157, 247, 248. 

compensation in case of, 157, 247, 248. 

detained vessel by belligerent, 157. 

enemy vessel by belligerent, 105, 200, 246, 248. 

goods of enemy origin; 95, 139. 

goods destined to enemy, 96, 139. 

Great Britain, orders in council, authorizing, 155. 

national vessels by neutral state, 64. 

neutral goods on enemy vessel, 201. 

Portugal, decree authorizing, 200. 

prizes, prior to condemnation, 157. 

procedure, 157, 158. 

right of to be determined by international law, 156. 

temporary, 157. 

United States, Executive orders authorizing, 246, 248. 

United States, joint resolution, relating to, 246, 248. 
Requisitions, cash payment for, in Belgium, 102. 
Residence in enemy territory, 158. 

Resistance to visit and search (see Visit and search). 
Responsibility : 

of belligerent — • 

for injury to neutral vessels, 99, 222. 
for observance of law, 223. 
in respect to submarines, 99. 

of Germany, for war, 206. 

of government — 

for hostile acts, 39, 43, 90. 

for maintenance of neutrality, 78. 

of. individuals, for maintenance of neutrality, 78. 

of neutral state (see Base of operations, Neutrality). 

of state — 

for preservation of international law, 73. 
under treaty of guarantee, 117. 
Restitution, claim for, 158. 
Restoration of prizes, 62, 140, 185. 

See also Prizes. 
Retaliation : 

against belligerent, may not injure neutral, 223. 

justified by threat to vital interests, 109. 
by illegal acts of enemy, 94, 138, 142. 

right of, 121. 



Index. 285 

Retaliatory measures : 

France, decree, authorizing commercial restrictions, 94. 

Germany, war-zone memorial, 108. 

Great Britain-France, joint declaration of commercial restrictions, 1 37. 

Great Britain, orders in council, commercial restrictions, 138,- 141, 142. 
See also Commercial restrictions, Mines, Navigation, War zones. 
Riga, Gulf of, mined, 210. 
Right : 

subordinate to might, 181. 

war in defense of, 77, 78, 249. 
Rights of nations (see Nations, rights of). 
Roadsteads, blockaded, 173. 

Roadsteads of war, proclaimed, by neutral, 154. 
Routing of vessels, in military area, 127, 129, 130, 132. 
Roumania : 

declaration of war, 16, 203. 

isolation of, 165. 

member of Triple Alliance, 204. 

neutrality of, 204. 

unfriendly attitude toward Bulgaria, 67. 

See also Declarations of war ; Diplomatic relations, breaking of. 
Rupture of diplomatic relations (see Diplomatic relations, breaking of). 
Ruse de Guerre, legitimate, 154. 
Russia : 

adhesion to convention relating to prizes, 145. 

appealed to as guarantor of Belgian neutrality, 155. 

declarations of war, 208, 209. . 

diplomatic relations, breaking of, 207, 209. 

Entente agreement, no separate peace, 89. ' 

jurisdiction of prize courts, 145. 

mined areas, 210. 

mobilization of forces, 100, 103. 

reply to declaration of war, 206. 

See also Declaration of war ; Diplomatic relations, breaking of ; 
Entente. 
Russian language, telegrams in, permitted, 191. 
Safe conduct, for blockade, 175. 

Safety of persons on vessels (see Persons, Submarine warfare). 
Sale : 

goods of enemy destination, 95, 139. 

goods of enemy origin, 95, 139. 

prizes in neutral territory, forbidden, 186. 

vessel to belligerent, 104, 219. 
Saloniki, Greek Government at, 131. 
Salvador, attitude toward war, 210. 
Sanitary regulations, 82, 186, 189, 218. 
Scandinavian countries, joint neutrality declaration, 183. 

See also Denmark, Norway, Sweden. 
Science, vessels devoted to (see Sojourn, Vessels). 
Sea territory (see also Territorial waters), 190. 
Search, right of (see Visit and Search). 
Security, defense of, justifies war, 78. 
Self defense : 

justifies violation of neutrality, 102. 

right of merchant vessel to fight in, 153. 

rules for exercise of right by merchant vessel, 154. 
Self government, approved by Germany, 113. 
Sequestration of enemy goods, 95. 
Serajevo, assasination at, 39, 41, 43. 



286 Index. 

Serbia : 

adequacy of reply to Austrian ultimatum, 164. 
Ally of Greece, 159 . 
anti-Austrian activity, 39. 
Austrian ultimatum to, 38. 

declaration in reference to Bosnia and Herzegovina, 38. 
declaration of war, 16, 212. 
diplomatic relations, breaking cf, 210, 211. 
Greek consideration for, 159. 
Italian interest in independence of, 165. 
reply to Austrian ultimatum, 42. 

See also Declarations of war ; Diplomatic relations, breaking of ; 
Neutrality proclamations. 
Seres, Greece, German guarantees in reference to, 161. 
Severance of diplomatic relations (see Diplomatic relations, breaking of). 
Seydlitz, German vessel, internment of, 31. 
Ships (see Vessels). 
Ship's papers to be inventoried, 152. 
Siam : . 

declaration of war, 16, 212. 
internment of enemy persons and vessels, 212. 
Signal station, neutral, access to, forbidden, 189, 192. 

See also Transmission of intelligence. 
Signaling device, alien enemy not to have, 228. 
Signals : 

exchange of, 174. 

international, to be displayed by submarine in neutral waters, 194, 

195, 216. 
port, 124. 

vessels in neutral waters to answer to, 193. 
Sinking at sight (see Destruction, Persons, Submarine warfare, War zone). 
Slav cause, treason of Bulgaria to, 209. 
Slav people, Russian interest in, 208, 209. 
Slavism, enemies of, 209. 
Small nations, rights of, 116, 181, 197, 212. 
Smyrna, closed port, 217. 
Society of Union and Progress, Turkey, 17. 
Soil, products of (see Enemy character). 
Solidarity of American Republics (see American continent). 
Sojourn : 

Argentine Republic, General orders relating to, 22, 23, 29. 
Brazil, decree relating to, 62. 
Chile, decree relating to, 69. 
of armed merchant vessels, 23. 
of belligerent war vessels — 

authorization for required, 187. 

decree requiring declaration, repealed, 62. 

duration of stay — 

twenty-four hour rule, 24, 31, 32, 185, 217, 244. 
to be declared, 187. 
forbidden, 217. 

forbidden in proclaimed ports, 184. 
in Panama Canal Zone, 196, 244. 
interval between departure of vessels of opposing belligerents — 

twenty-four hour interval rule, 24, 185, 218. 
licensed pilots to be employed during,, 80, 82, 186. 
local regulations to be observed during, 82, 186, 218. 
not to cast anchor, 24. 



Index. 287 



Sojourn — Con tinn ed. 

of belligerent war vessels — Continued. 

number of vessels in port ;it one time — 
three-vessel rule, 185, 187, 217. 
three-vessel rule applied to Panama Canal Zone, 245. 
partiality alleged, 104. 
to be reported, 196. 
to take designated anehorage, 188. 

See also Asylum, Base of Operations, Coaling, Prizes, Pro- 
visioning, 
of hospital ship, 185. 
• of merchant vessel, to declare nature of voyage and destination, 85, 80. 
of nonbelligerent war vessels — 

anchorage permit may be revoked, 188. 
duration of stay — 

fourteen days, 187. 
in war port, eight days, 187. 
local regulations to be observed, 189. 
may be required to leave at expiration of six hours, 188. 
special exemptions — ■ 

carrying chief of state, 188. 
immediate danger from sea, 188. 
inspecting, fisheries, 188. 
engaged in scientific work, 188. 
of privateers, forbidden, 186. 
of prizes, 218. 

of scientific, religious, and philanthropic vessels, 185. 
of submarines, forbidden, 98, 194, 195, 214, 215. 
of vessels violating neutrality, forbidden, 70, 184. 
Norway regulations relating to, 184, 187. 
Sovereignty, respect for, 184, 197, 217. 
Spain, decree, sojourn of submarines, 212, 214. 
Spanish language, permitted in telegrams, 24, 26, 35, 36. 
Starvation, war by, 108, 114. 
Strade Bianchi, line, 174. 
Straits of Messina, navigation in, 174. 
Straits, Turkish, treaties relating to, 219. 
Strategic area (see Commercial restrictions, Defensive sea areas ; Mined 

areas, War zones), 
gtragetical boundaries (see Boundaries). 

Strategical interests, justify violation of international law, 58. 
Stress of weather (see Asylum). 
Strict accountability, 181. 
Strict neutrality (see Neutrality, strict). 
Submarine mines (see Mines). 
Submarine vessels : 

France, memorandum relating to sojourn of, 98. 
Norway, resolution relating to, 194. 

Ordinance relating to, 195. 
of belligerent nationality — 

attacks by without warning, 154. 

deficiencies of in commercial warfare, 137. 

effect of on chrvelopment of international law, 213. 

evidence for distinguishing war and merchant, 99, 215. 

forbidden in neutral waters, 194, 195, 214, 215. 

forbidden to approach merchant vessel, 154. 

internment of, 99, 214. 

liability to attack in neutral waters, 194, 195, 215. 



288 Index. 

Submarine vessels — Continued. 

of belligerent nationality — Continued, 
merchant, sojourn of, 194. 
navigation in straits, 174. 
peculiarities of, 98. 
unrestricted use of, 112. 
use of false flag by, 154. 
when to be attacked in defense, 154. 
of nonbelligerent nationality — 

navigation in territorial waters, 214. 
sojourn of, 195. 
Spain, decree relating to, 212, 214. 
Sweden, decree relating to, 215. 
United States, note relating to sojourn of, 98. 
Submarine warfare : 

contrary to international law, 73, 76, 137, 198. 

contrary to principles of humanity, 73, 76. 

denounced, 61, 64, 70, 71, 72, 138, 161, 180, 199, 222. 

extension of, 250. 

in neutral waters, 161. 

protest against, 173. 213. 

See also Distruction, Ware Zone. 
Suez Canal : 

fortification of, 222. 
neutralization of, 222. 
Sultan Osman, Turkish vessel seized in England, 219. 
Supplying vessels (see Base of Operations, Provisioning). 
Sussex,, vessel sunk by- submarine, 222. 
Sussex^note, 222, 224. 
Surrender, evidences of, 154. 
Sweden : 

hostilities with Norway rendered impossible, 189. 
mined areas, 215. 

neutrality, joint declaration, 183, 189. 
sojourn of submarines, 215. 
Swedish language, telegrams in, permitted, 191, 192. 
Swedish minister : 

in charge of Bulgarian interests in England, 119. 
in charge of United States interests in Turkey, 229. 
Switzerland : 

neutrality declaration, 216. 
neutrality of, recognized, 233. 
Syria, blockade of, 92. 
Telegraphy : 

Argentine Republic, circular relatiug to, 24. 
censorship of, 193. 
Norway — 

law relating to, 193. 
resolution relating to, 191. 
use of cipher, forbidden, 24. 

See also Transmission of. intelligence ; Radiotelegraphy ; Treaties. 
Telephone, regulation of, 192. 
Territorial propinquity (see Neighborly relations ; Territory, neutral, near 

to enemy). 
Territorial waters : 
belligerent — 

jurisdiction of enemy vessels in, 146. 
liability of enemy vessels in, 145. 



Index. 289 



Territorial waters — Continued, 
neutral — 

belligerent merchant vessel to declare port of destination on 
leaving, 29. 

belligerent submarines forbidden in, 98, 99, 194, 195, 214, 215. 

debarkation and gun practice forbidden in, 188. 

defined, 215. 

entry to, forbidden, 217. 

escort of vessels from, 23. 

excluded from belligerent mined areas, 133, 134. 

excluded from belligerent war zones, 115. 

flag to be displayed by vessel in, 193. 

hostilities in forbidden, 23, 79, 184, 218. 

inner, belligerent vessels not to enter, 184, 217. 

innocent passage through, permitted, 185. 

licensed pilots to be used in, 80. 

local regulations to be observed in, 186. 

measures to prevent aggression in, 22. 

of Panama Canal Zone, 244, 245. 

prize court not to be established in, 186. 

proclaimed, entrance to forbidden, 184. 

sale of vessels to belligerent in, forbidden, 79. 

use of, by belligerent, authorized, 77, 162, 249. 

use of, by submarines, 161. 

visit by neutral, of vessels in, authorized, 193. 

visit and search by belligerent in, forbidden, 218. 

See also Asylum ; Base of Operations ; Coaling ; Port ; Prizes ; 
Provisioning ; Radiotelegraphy ; Sojourn ; Territory. 
Territory : 

acquisition of, 205. 

annexation of, 113, 119. 

cession of, by Austria, demanded, 166. 

concessions by Austria to Italy, 166. 

defense of, justified war, 78. 

enemy, defined, 95, 158, 173. 

neutral — 

acts favoring belligerent in, forbidden, 79, 162. 

aircraft require permit in, 192. 

coaling stations not to be established in, 30, 186, 218. 

Denmark, laws relating to protection of, 79, 80. 

duty to prevent hostile acts in, 22. 

-enlistment for belligerent service in, forbidden, 79, 178. 

foreign flag may be displayed by consuls and diplomatic officers 
in, 83. 

foreign flag may not be displayed in, 83. 

hostilities in, forbidden, 22, 33, 218. 

incitement against belligerent in, forbidden, 84. 

inviolability of, 216, 233. 

near to enemy, goods destined to, 95, 142, 202. 

Norway, resolutions for protection of, 192, 193, 194. 

operation of foreign military intelligence department in, forbid- 
den, 79. 

prize court, not to be established in, 186, 218. 

radio station not to be established in, 186, 219. 

recruiting in, forbidden, 79, 178. 

solicitation of belligerent loans in, forbidden, 79. 

transit of troops through, demanded, 87, 102, 104. 

violated- by passage of belligerent aviators, 103. 

437G0 — 18 19 



290 Index. 

Territory — Continued, 
neutral — Continued. 

violation of, 53, 86, 101, 103, 104, 116, 161, 182. 
use of, by belligerent authorized, 77, 162. 

See also Base of operations ; Neutrality ; Territorial waters ; 
Transmission of intelligence, 
neutralized (see Neutralization). 
occupied by the enemy, 95, 158, 173. 
Teutonic powers (see Triple Alliance). 
Three months' rule (see Coaling). 
Three-vessel rule (see Sojourn). 
Torpedo boats (see also Vessels), 174. 
Trade (see Commercial restrictions). 
Trading with the enemy, forbidden, 158. 

See also Commercial restrictions. 
Trading with the enemy act : 

Great Britain (1914, 1915), 158, 159. 
United States (1917), referred to, 225. 
Traditional aspirations (see also Nationality), 167. 
Traditions, national, safeguarding of, 167. 
Transfer of flag : 

Argentine Republic, general order relating to, 30. 
danger to neutral, 63. 
Denmark, notification relating to, 84. 
forbidden, 30, 84. 
permitted if in good faith, 30. 
war vessel, 219. 
See also False flag. 
Transportation of vessels (see Conversion). 
Transmission of intelligence : 

abuse of diplomatic privilege, 38. 
censorship, 33, 193. 

cipher messages forbidden, 24, 26, 191. 
cipher messages permitted for governmental service, 24. 
diplomatic dispatches may be sent in ciphers, 29. 
languages to be used in, 26, 35, 36, 191, 192. 
means of, not to be established in neutral territory, 186, 219. 
messages violating neutrality, forbidden, 191. 
meteorlogical messages, permitted, 191. 
methods of controlling by neutral, 33. 

military information not to be sent from neutral territory, 79, 191, 218. 
official dispatches, excepted from regulations, 35. 
State monopoly of, 190. 

See also Military information, Radiotelegraphy, Telegraphy, Unneu- 
tral service. 
Transport (see Vessel). 
Treaties : 

jurisdiction of prizes, France-Great Britain (1914), 143. 
military aid, Austria-Germany, 172. 
near eastern question, treaty of Berlin (1878), 38, 204. 
Neutralization — 

Belgium (1839), 53, 55, 58,' 87, 117. 
Belgium (1870), 53. 

Luxemburg, convention of London (1S67), 86, 182. 
Switzerland, Final act of Congress of Vienna (1815), 216. 
Switzerland, Treaty of Paris (1815), 216. 
Peace — 

Treaty of Bucharest, Balkans (1913), 67, 69. 
Treaty of Lausanne, Italy-Turkey (1912), 169. 



Index. 291 

Treaties — Continued. 

radiotelegraphy, Treaty of London (1912), 24. 

railway administration, Germany-Luxemburg, 101. 

regulation of Turkish straits, 219. 

Suez Canal (1888), 222. 

telegraphy, Convention of Petrograd (1875), 24, 191. 

Triple Alliance (see also Triple Alliance), 164. 

Triple Entente — 

Morocco and Egypt, Great Britain-France (1904), 220. 
Persia, Great Britain-Russia (1907), 220. 
separate peace repudiated (1914), 89. 
See also Entente. 

West Africa, General act of Berlin (1885), 56. 

See also Declaration of London, Declaration of Paris, Hague con- 
ventions. 
Treaties : 

abrogation of by war, 72, 74, 75, 220. 

accession to, 143, 148. 

adhesion to, 89. 

guarantee of, 54. 

penalty for violation of, 29, 35. 

ratification of, 148. 

to be applied to blockade, 173. 

violation of — 

by Germany, 54, 55, 86, 87, 142, 159. 
by Portugal, 105. 
by Turkey, 169. 
Trentino, Italian demands in respect to, 166. 
Trieste, Italian demands in respect to, 166. 
Triple Alliance : 

defensive character of, 164, 203. 

Italian withdrawal from, 163, 168. 

policy of, 164. 

Roumanian adhesion to, 204. 

termination of, 163, 204. 

violation of by Austria-Hungary, 163. 

See also Austria-Hungary, Germany, Italy. 
Triple Entente (see Entente, France, Great Britain, Russian). 
Tripoli, 169. 

Troops (see Armed forces. Unneutral service). 
Tsing Tail : 

hostilities at, 51. 

raising of blockade of, 177. 
Tubantia, Dutch vessel sunk by submarine, 61. 
Turco-Italian war (1911), referred to, 168. 
Turkey : 

acceptance of Italian ultimatum, 170. 

ally of Germany, 229. 

annihilation of, Entente war aim, 111. 

atrocities in Arabia, 18, 22. 

declarations of war, 219, 222. 

diplomatic relations, breaking of, 17. 

dismissal of German military authorities demanded, 208. 

German officers in warships, 220. 

Holy war proclaimed, 220. 

hostilities in Egypt, 221. 

neutrality declaration, 217. 

neutrality regulations, 217. 

purchase of war vessels from Germany, 219. 



292 Index. 

Turkey — Continued. 

recognition of, 17. 

rule of, in Arabia, 20, 22. 

threat of collective punishment of, 220. 

violation of promise to Italy, 171. 

violation of treaty, 169. 

See also Declarations of war ; Diplomatic relations, breaking of. 
Twenty-four hour rule (see Sojourn). 
Ubangi, hostilities in, 56. 
Ultimata : 

Austria-Hungary to Serbia (1914), 38, 165. 

reply of Serbia, 42. 
Germany — 

to Belgium (1914), 86, 101. 

to France (1914), 103. 

to Russia (1914), 100. 
Great Britain to Germany (1914), 116. 
Italy to Turkey (1915), 170. 
Japan to Germany (1914), 175. 
Russia to Bulgaria (1915), 208. 
Ultimate destination (see Continuous voyage, Destination). 
Ultimatum : 

justification for — 

mobilization of forces by adversary, 100. 

perpetual menace to tranquility, 39. 

self-defense, 102. 

subordination to enemy, 209. 
United States : 

alien enemy not to attack policy of, 228. 
alien enemies, treatment of, 226. 
arming merchant vessels authorized, 225. 
declarations of war, 16, 177, 196, 225, 226, 230. 
declaration of war approved, 37, 65, 162, 197, 251. 
defensive sea areas, 233, 237, 240, 241. 
desire for peace, 112. 
diplomatic officer in charge of — 

Austrian interests in Belgium, 51. 

Austrian interests in France, 88. 

Austrian interests in Japan, 52. 

Belgian interests in Turkey, 59. 

German interests in Russia, 101. 

Italian interests in Turkey, 171. 
diplomatic relations, breaking of, 17, 222, 224, 229. 
extent of jurisdiction. 229, 232. 
neutrality of Switzerland, recognized, 233. 
Panama Canal Zone, 241, 243. 

political principles of, 162, 197, 198, 224, 227, 231. 
requisition of enemy vessels, 246, 248. 
Shipping Board, 246, 247, 248. 
sojourn of submarines, note relating to, 98. 
Trading with the Enemy act, 225. 
vessels of, permitted in war zone on conditions. 111. 

See also Declarations of war ; Diplomatic relations, breaking of. 
Unneutral service : 

assistance to the enemy, 203. 
carriage of dispatches, 151. 
carriage of troops, 151. 
radio messages at sea, 27. 

See also Dispatches, Radiotelegraphy, Transmission of intelli- 
gence. 



Index. 293 

Unneutral utterances, Denmark, law relating to, 84. 
Unseaworthiness (see Asylum). 
Uruguay : 

diplomatic relations, breaking of, 17, 250. 

neutrality regulations, modification of in war by American country, 

249. 
offer of ports to United States war vessels, 198. 
political principles of, 249. 
Yalona, Italian demands in reference to, 166. 
Venezelos, premier of Greece, 161. 
Venezuela : 

attitude toward war, 251. 
neutrality of, 250. 
Vessels : 

allied, liability of, 151. 

armed (see Armed merchant vessels). 

auxiliary — 

defined, 243. 

evidence of, 30, 31, 32, 86. 

treated as war vessel, 23. 
belligerent public — 

assistance of, in neutral waters forbidden, 79. 

enlistment on, forbidden to neutrals, 82. 
belligerent merchant, to declare destination, 29. 
Brazil, decree authorizing taking over of national, 63. 
capable of conversion (see also Conversion), 203. 
captured (see Prize-). 
Denmark — 

notification relating to service on, 82. 

law, false declaration of destination, 82, 85. 

law, registration of, 83. 

notification, sale of, 84. 
disposal of (see Capture, Condemnation, Destruction, Detention, In- 
ternment, Requisition, Sale), 
enemy merchant — 

forbidden in Panama Canal, 245. 

neutral and national cargo on, 201. 

requisition of, 200, 246. 

to be destroyed in war zone, 107, 109. 
evidences of character, 137, 152. 
hospital, 185, 243. 

used in mine laying, 127. 
interned (see also Internment), 30, 194. 
merchant — 

Dominican Republic, decrees relating to clearance of, 85, 86. 

endangered in military area (see also War zone), 127. 

giving false destination punished, 82. 

in neutral waters, to furnish information on demand, 193. 

respect, for, in war zone, 225. 

right to resist visit and search (see Visit and search).^ 

taking over of, 63. 

to declare destination, 85, 86. 
See also Merchant marine, 
national, merchant — 

jurisdiction over, 146. 

requisition of, by neutral state, 64. 
neutral, merchant — 

endangered in war zone, 107, 109, 111, 115. 

detention of, with goods of enemy character, 95. 



294 Index. 

Vessels — Continued. 

neutral, merchant — Continued, 
in enemy service, 219. 

uability of (see Blockade, Contraband, Enemy character, Un- 
neutral service), 
liability of, on voyage subsequent to offense, 140. 

See also Continuous voyage, 
restrictions on use of radiotelegraphy, 28, 34. 
treatment of enemy goods on, 203. 
sale of, to belligerent, 104. 
urged to touch at belligerent port, 121. 
neutral war, access to, forbidden, 189, 192. 
Norway, notification, surveillance of, 193. 
privateers, 186. 

registration of, in neutral country, forbidden, 83. 
scientific, religious, and philanthropic, 185. 
submarine (see Submarine vessels). 
torpedo boats, navigation in straits, 174. 
transfer of (see Transfer of flag), 
transport, 243. 

violating neutrality, forbidden in neutral ports, 184. 
war — 

carrying chief of state, 188. 

defined, 243. 

hydrographic work, 188. 

inspecting fisheries, 188. 

navigation in straits, 174. 

scientific work, 188. 

statement in reference to, required by neutral, 187. 

See also Asylum, Base of operations, Coaling, Internment, 
Navy, Sojourn, Territorial waters. 
Vienna, final act of congress of (1815), (see also Treaties), 216. 
Viken, Danish pilotage station, 81. 
Violation : 

of international law (see International law), 
of neutrality (see Neutrality, Neutralization, Territorial waters), 
of treaties (see Treaties). 
Virgin Islands, American, enemy vessels in, not to be requisitioned, 246, 248. 
Visit and Search : 

authorized by neutral, in its territorial waters, 193. 
forbidden in neutral waters, 218. 
required in commercial warfare, 223, 225. 
resistance to — 

German prize regulations on, 153. 
right of, 153, 223. 

rules for offering by armed merchant vessel, 154. 
to cease of surrender of attacking vessel, 154. 
Vital interests, justify violation of international law, 109, 180. 
War : 

attitude of neutral states on (see Neutral States, Neutrality procla- 
mations), 
cooperation to prevent, 113. 
economic, after the war, 113. 
effect of on treaties, 72, 74, 75, 220. 
Holy (see Holy war), 
object of, to restore peace, 73. 
reluctance to declare, 73. 
threatening danger of, 103. 
time of commencement of, 225. 
See also, Armed force, Declarations of war ; Hostilities. 



Index. 295 



War aims : 

of Bulgaria, G9. 

of Germany, 113. 

of Entente, 111, 114. 
War material (see Arms and munitions). 
War of 1914 : 

Austria-Hungary responsible for, 164. 

concern of neutrals in, 181. 
War ports, 184, 187. 
War zone, Germany : 

Arctic Ocean (1917), 115. 

based on retaliation, 109. 

contrary to international law, 94, 142, 198, 199. 

contrary to treaties, 142. 

days of grace in, 110, 111, 115, 127. 

declarations of, 107, 110, 115. 

denounced, 137, 141. 

destruction of enemy merchant vessels in, authorized, 107. 

destruction of all merchant vessels in, authorized, 112, 223. 

destruction of neutral vessels in, 72. 

Eastern Mediterranean (1917), 110, 223. 

gives right of retaliation, 138. 

neutrals warned to avoid, 110. 

protection of vessels in, 225. 

referred to as blockade, 115. 

waters around — 

Africa, West coast (191S), 115. 
Azores Islands (1917), 115. 
British Isles (1915, 1917), 107, 110, 223. 
Cape Verde Islands (1918), 115. 
Dakar (1918), 115. 
France (1917), 110, 223. 
Italy (1917), 110, 223. 
Madeira Islands (1917), 115. 
War zone, Great Britain : 

announcement of military area, 126. 

denounced, 108. 

North sea (1914), 127. 

See also Blockade ; Commercial restrictions ; Defensive sea areas ; 
Mined areas. 
Warfare, means of : 

expanding bullets, forbidden, 154. 

explosive bullets, forbidden, 154. 

See also, Blockade ; Bombs ; Hague conventions, 1907, IV ; Mines ; 
Starvation ; Submarine vessels ; War zone. 
Warning, attacks without (see Submarine warfare, Aircraft). 
Wars (see Balkan war (1912-1913), Turco-Italian war (1911), War of 

1914). 
Waters, territorial (see Territorial waters). 
Wilson, Woodrow, President of the United States ; 

addresses of referred to, 197, 198, 224. 

Executive orders by, 233, 240, 241, 246, 248. 

proclamations by, 227, 231, 243. 

regulations by, 237. 
Wireless telegraphy (see Radiotelegraphy). 
Zamora British prize case, 156. 



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